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possessed the power of peremptorily return to France without having landed nominating her successor, James Fre- a single soldier in Scotland. Shortly derick would have ascended the throne afterwards, the Chevalier joined the on her demise.
French army in Flanders, and apIn 1706, he sent over an agent, named peared in arms against those whose Hooke, to confer with his adherenis in allegiance he claimed, at the battle of England and Scotland ; and they, in Oudenarde; where, according to the return, despatched a Captain Stratton French writers, he displayed prodigies as their representative, to his little of valour, while the Dutch accounts, court at St. Germaine. At this time, on the contrary, state, that he calmly although his friends, the Tories, “were witnessed the contest from the summit for keeping quiet during the queen's of a steeple. life,” the Scotch Jacobites, who appear Humbled by defeat, Louis the Fourto have been enthusiastically attached teenth at lengih offered to acknowledge to the descendant of their native kings, Queen Anne as rightful sovereign of evinced so strong an inclination to rise these kingdoms, and no longer to afford in his behalf, that an insurrection the Chevalier an asylum in France. No would probably have taken place, had pacification, however, was effected, and not Stratton failed in obtaining any James Frederick still continued to reside assurance of help from Louis the at St. Germaine. In Scotland, he had Fourteenth, whose powers were then lost none of his adherents: and they fully employed by the forces under continued to display their sentiments the Duke of Marlborough.
in his favour, with an audacity which In 1707, Jacobitism was openly pro- appears, at that time, to have been by fessed in all the chief cities in Scot- no means remarkable. In 1711, the land; and the rejoicings in Edinburgh Duchess of Gordon sent a medallion on James Frederick's birth-day were as portrait of him to the faculty of adopen and general, as though he had vocates at Edinburgh; and, on a disbeen seated on the throne. In 1708, cussion taking place as to the propriety the French king secretly fitted out an of receiving it, the meeting decided, expedition against Scotland, at Dun- by a large majority, (sixty-three against kirk, which it was determined the twelve,) that the duchess should be Pretender should accompany; and the thanked, in the warmest terms, “ for most sanguine hopes were entertained having presented them with a medal of its success; the Scotch being, at that of their sovereign lord the king." time, exasperated against government Soon after the peace of Utrecht, the by the act of union, which had re- French minister at the Hague declared, cently been passed. The day before that his sovereign would no longer James Frederick, who now assumed the countenance the Chevalier, or any of title of the Chevalier de St. George, bis adherents: and when, on the death departed from St. Germaine, Louis the of Queen Anne, James Frederick posted Fourteenth presented him with a dia- to Versailles, Louis the Fourteenth not mond-hilted sword, and wished him only refused to see him, but requested success in the approaching contest. that he would immediately quit the The Chevalier stated in answer, “ That French territories. “ I am surprised," if it should be his good fortune to get added he," at the Chevalier's return possession of the throne of his ances- to my dominions; knowing, as he does, tors, he would not content himself with
my engagements with the house of returning his thanks by letters and Hanover, and that I have aleady acambassadors, but would shew his gra- knowledged George the First.” titude by deeds; nay, he would come The Chevalier appears to have inin person to acknowledge the royal dulged in a hope that he should have protection and assistance which he had succeeded Queen Anne: but notwithexperienced.” “ The best I can wish standing several meetings were held, you, sir," replied the French king, "is, for the purpose of procuring a repeal that I may never see you again! of the act of settlement, and of con
After some delays, the Chevalier em- ferring on her majesty the right of apbarked with the French armament; pointing a successor, and although he which, however, was compelled to possessed a number of powerful friends
in this country, nothing decisive was in terms much more zealous than reseffected on his behalf; and his cause
pectful." was ruined, as much by the weak and At length, on the 22nd of December, vacillating conduct of the Tories, as by 1715, he arrived at Peterhead, in the the skilful and energetic measures of the north of Scotland, “when," says BoElector of Hanover's Whig supporters. lingbroke, "there remained no hope of
On the day before the arrival of a commotion in his favour among the George the First at Greenwich, a pro- | English, and many of the Scotch began clamation was issued, offering a reward to grow cool in his cause. No prospect of £100,000 for the apprehension of of success could engage him in this the Pretender, on the event of his expedition, but it was become neceslanding in this country; and soon after-sary for his reputation. The Scotch wards, James Frederick sent copies of reproached him for his delay, and the a spirited declaration of his rights, to French were extremely eager to have most of the English nobility. These him gone.' documents being dated at Plombières, From Peterhead he proceeded, apin the territories of the Duke of Lor- parently at his leisure, with a few adraine, the latter received a remon- herents, who, as well as himself, were strance from England, for harbouring disguised as naval officers, through the personal enemy of the king. The Newburg and Aberdeen, to Fetterosse, duke replied with civility, but still where he was met by about thirty permitted the Chevalier to reside in noblemen, including the Earl of Mar, Lorraine.
and a small party of horse. He now The zeal of the Scotch Jacobites, on appeared in public, and went through behalf of James Frederick was mate- the absurd mummery of forming a rially increased by their antipathy to court, appointing his officers of state, the reigning monarch ; and at length, conferring the honour of knighthood early in September, 1715, he was pro- on some of his adherents, and granting claimed king, at Castletown, and his peerages to others. He was proclaimed standard set up by the Earl of Mar. with a solemnity which his circumA large body of his adherents speedily stances rendered truly ridiculous, in assembled ; many parts of England, as front of his lodgings; and received vawell as a large portion of Scotland, were rious congratulatory addresses on his decidedly in his favour ; he was openly accession. proclaimed in Cornwall; and at Oxford Having re-issued the Commercy dehe was so popular, that a collegian there claration, he sent copies of it all over thus addressed one of his friends in Scotland, and many of the constituted London :-"We fear nothing, but drink authorities thought proper to publish King James's health daily." Had he it, in obedience to his orders. On the appeared among his friends at this 2nd of January he quitted Fetterosse, auspicious period, there would have and early on the morning of the 5th been some probability of their exertions made his public entry into Dundee, being crowned with success; but omit- where he remained a full hour on horseting to take the tide of his affairs at its back, in the market-place, permitting flood, he loitered abroad, until his ad- the people, indiscriminately, to kiss his herents had become so disheartened hand. On the 7th he arrived at the paby defeat, and diminished in numbers, lace of Scone, where the coronation of the as to be totally incapable of making Scottish kings had formerly been celeany important attempt on his behalf; brated. Two days afterwards he visited and amused himself by issuing a long Perth, but returned to Scone in the declaration from Commercy, when he evening, after having reviewed a small ought to have been at the head of his body of troops, in the highland costroops, fighting a battle on the borders. tume, which, it is said, he had never “ The Scots," says Bolingbroke, who before seen. He then issued several at that time was the Chevalier's secre- proclamations, by one of which he aptary of state, “ had long pressed him pointed his coronation to take place on to come amongst them, and had sent the 23d of January, and called a grand frequent messages to quicken his de- council of the rebel chiefs, to whom he parture, some of which were delivered delivered the following speech :
“I am now, on your repeated invi- It appears, that although without tation, come amongst you. No other money, food, or arms, the Chevalier argument need be used of the great wished to maintain Perth, or even to confidence I place in your loyalty and hazard a battle. “ The enemy,” says fidelity to me, which I entirely rely the Earl of Mar, “was more than eight on. I believe you are convinced of my thousand strong, and we had but two intentions to restore the ancient laws thousand five hundred that could be and liberties of this kingdom :-if not, relied on; we were in the midst of a I am still ready to confirm to you the severe winter; were without fuel; and assurance of doing all you can require the town was utterly indefensible. We therein. The great discouragements therefore retired to Montrose, where which presented were not sufficient to there is a good harbour. It was now deter me from placing myself at the represented to the Chevalier, that as he head of my faithful subjects, who were had no immediate hope of success, he in arms for me; and whatever may owed it to his people to provide for his ensue, I shall leave them no reason for safety, by retiring beyond sea.
It was complaint, that I have not done the hard to bring him to think of this, utmost they could expect from me. though the enemy was in full march Let those who forget their duty, and towards us, and our only chance was to are negligent of their own good, be retreat among the mountains : besides, answerable for the worst that may that while he was with us, the danger happen. For me, it will be no new to all parties was increased, owing to thing if I am unfortunate. My whole their eagerness to seize his person. At life, even from my cradle, has shewn a length he consented, though with great constant series of misfortunes; and I unwillingness, and í dare say no conam prepared (if so it please God) to sent he ever gave was so uneasy to suffer the threats of my enemies and him." yours. The preparations against us After having forwarded to the Duke will, I hope, quicken your resolutions, of Argyle, the king's general, a conand convince others, from whom I have siderable sum, for the relief of those promises, that it is now no time to dis- whose property had been destroyed in pute what they have to do. But if they the burnt villages near Perth, he die are unmindful of their own safety, it rected that nearly all the remainder of will be my greatest comfort, that I his money should be distributed among have done all that could be expected his adherents, reserving little or nothing from me.
I recommend to you what for himself. Fearing some obstruction is necessary to be done in the present to his departure, he ordered his horses conjuncture, and, next to God, rely on and guard to be drawn up in front of your counsel and resolution."
the house where he lodged, as though This address produced a flash of en- he intended to proceed on the march thusiasm in the council ; which, how- with his forces. He then slipped out ever, reflection speedily extinguished ; at the back door, and having reached and before the meeting broke up, it the water-side undiscovered, embarked was determined that the enterprise with those whom he had selected as should be abandoned, as being utierly the companions of his flight, on board a hopeless. But it was necessary, for small vessel, which had been destined the Chevalier's safety, that the people to carry a gentleman on an embassy to should not become acquainted with the some foreign court. After a voyage of result of their leaders' deliberations, five days, although nine men-of-war until the Chevalier had effected a retreat. were cruizing off the coast to prevent Preparations for the defence of Perth, his escape, he arrived, on the 8th of against the approaching royal army, February, in safety, at Gravelines. were therefore made; some villages “ The Chevalier,” says Bolingbroke, in the outskirts were even burnt, on << was not above six weeks in his exthe ostensible motive, that a besieging pedition. On his return to St. Gerforce might occupy thein, to the immi- maine, the French government wished nent danger of the town; and expresses him to repair to his old asylum with were sent out to hurry in all the ex- the Duke of Lorraine before he had pected reinforcements.
time to refuse it. But nothing was
meaned by this but to get him out of even to his own servants; and his France immediately. I found him in no best friends, as much in the hope that disposition to make such haste, for he matrimony would reform him, as for had a mind to stay in the neignbour- the purpose of continuing his race, earhood of Paris, and wished to have a nestly urged him to marry. He, accordprivate meeting with the regent. This ingly, made proposals, in 1718, to was refused; and the Chevalier, at espouse a daughter of the Emperor of length, declared that he would in Russia; but, principally through the stantly set out for Lorraine. His trunks intrigues of George the First, his offers were packed, his chaise was ordered to were rejected. Before this period, the be ready at five that afternoon, and I king of Sweden, in order to annoy sent word to Paris that he was gone. the English monarch, had professed a At our interview he affected much cor warm friendship towards him, without, diality towards me; and no Italian however, making any effort in his ever embraced the man he was going behalf; and the Chevalier began to to stab with a greater show of affection despair of obtaining assistance from and confidence. Instead of taking post foreign princes, when, in 1718-19, for Lorraine, he went to the little house Cardinal Alberoni, prime minister of in the Bois de Boulogne, where his Spain, sent him a pressing invitation female ministers resided ; and there to visit the court of Madrid. The he continued lurking for several days, emissaries of the English government pleasing himself with the air of mystery watched him so closely, that, in order and business, whilst the only real busi to effect a secret retreat from Italy, ness which he should have had at that he was compelled to have recourse to time lay neglected. The Thursday fol stratagem. Exchanging dresses with lowing, the Duke of Ormond brought his courier, whom he sent forward me a scrap of paper in the Chevalier's with-instructions, to declare, if he were handwriting, and dated on the Tues stopped, that the clothes he wore were day, to make me believe it was written his own, the Chevalier followed at some on the road, and sent back to his grace. distance, and safely reached Neturno, The kingly laconic style of the paper
where he embarked for Spain, and arwas, that he had no further occasion rived in Catalonia without accident. for my services, accompanied by an The Spanish court received him in a order to deliver up all the papers in my
most gratifying manner, and a poweroffice to Ormond, all which might have ful armament was prepared at Cadiz been contained in a moderate-sized for the invasion of England in his beletter-case. Had I literally complied half;, but the expedition was so dewith the order, the duke would have cidedly unsuccessful, that, on account seen, from his private letters, how of bad weather, the greater part of the meanly the Chevalier thought of his vessels were disabled, having only capacity; but I returned those papers approached within many leagues of privately."
their destination. Notwithstanding the failure of his Meanwhile, a treaty for his marriage recent attempt in Scotland, the Cheva- | had been concluded with Clementina lier still possessed a great number of Maria, a daughter of Prince Sobieski, well-wishers on both sides of the eldest son of John, King of Poland. Tweed. Oxford was still eminently The princess, to the deep dishonour of disloyal: white roses, the avowed sym all the parties concerned in the transacbol of Jacobitism, being openly worn tion, was seized while passing through there on James Frederick's birth-day. the Tyrol, in her journey towards Rome,
Having been compelled, at the in on the instigation, it is said, of the British stance of George the first, to retire minister at Vienna. After having been from Avignon, which he had for some kept a close prisoner for some time, at time made his place of residence, the Inspruck, early in May, 1719, she Chevalier crossed the Alps, and repaired escaped, in the disguise of a page, to to Rome, where he was received with Bologna, where she was married to great cordiality by the pope. His ha James Frederick by proxy. So eager bits had hitherto been so disgracefully did she feel to behold her husband, licentious as to render him contemptible who was still in Spain, that she was
with difficulty prevented from proceed- careful, my dear boy," replied the Cheing at once to Madrid. The Chevalier valier, " for I would not lose you for soon afterwards returned, and, in com- all the crowns in the world.” memoration of her escape, caused a The failure of his son's attempt to medal to be struck, bearing her por- procure his restoration does not appear trait, and the legend, “ Clementina, to have had any material influence on Queen of Great Britain, France, and his health, however it might have afIreland," on one side ; and, on the fected his spirits. During the remainder other, a female figure in a triumphal of his long life, he resided at Rome, car, drawn by horses at full speed, with under the protection of the pope, but the words, “ Fortunam causamque neither honoured nor beloved. He lived sequor;" and underneath, “ Deceptis to be pitied by the house of Hanover, custodibus, 1719."
and almost forgotten by the children of The Chevalier expected a vast fortune those of his party who would willingly with his wife ; but he only received a have died for his benefit. The followportion out of the Sobieski estate, ing is an abridgment of Keysler's notice which, on account of its previous en- of James Frederick, published in 1756: cumbrances, was of very little value. -" The figure made by the Pretender He had two children by the princess- is in every way mean and unbecoming: Charles Edward and Henry Benedict; The pope has issued an order that all but as matrimony had not the effect his subjects should style him King of of weaning him from his former illicit England; but the Italians make a jest courses, it added but little to his hap- of this, for they term him, “ The local piness.
king, or king here,' while the real In 1720, his avowed friend, the King possessor is styled . The king there,' of Sweden, entered into a solemn en- that is, in England. He has an annual gagement with George the First, to income of 12,000 scudi, or crowns, render the Chevalier no assistance ; from the pope, and though he may reand, in the following year, died Cle- ceive as much more from his adherents ment the Eleventh, whose favour and in England, it is far from enabling him protection he had for a long time en- to keep up the state of a sovereign joyed. The expiring pontiff, in the prince. He is very fond of seeing his presence of several cardinals, recom- image struck on medals; and if kingmended the exiled prince most strongly doms were to be obtained by tears, to whomsoever should succeed to the which he shed plentifully at the mispapal chair; entreating that he might carriage of his attempts in Scotland, he be permitted to reside, so long as he would have found the medallists work pleased, in the palace which he had for enough. Not to mention the former some time past occupied, that his pen- medals, the one at present in hand, sion might be continued until he re- shews that his life is not very thick set covered his crown, and that his legiti- with great actions, for it relates to the mate views might, on all occasions, be birth of his eldest son, and represents zealously forwarded.
the busts of the Pretender and his In 1722, the Chevalier sent to this lady, with this legend- Jacob. III. R. country a declaration of his rights, which Clementina R.' On the reverse is a was voted a scandalous libel by parlia- lady with a child on her left arm, ment, and ordered to be publicly burnt leaning on a pillar, as the emblem of at the exchange. For several years
constancy, and with her right hand afterwards, James Frederick and his pointing to a globe, on which is seen personal adherents amused themselves England, Scotland, and Ireland—the by forming visionary schemes for his legend Providentia obstetrix,' and berestoration ; but, at length, he became low, Carolo Princ. Valliæ, nat. die ulindolent, and apparently hopeless. He timâ A. 1720.' The Pretender genetook no part in the romantic expedition rally appears abroad with three coaches, of his son, in 1745. " By the aid of and his household consists of about God," said the young Pretender to his forty persons. He lately assumed some father, when preparing to depart for authority at the opera, by calling. EnScotland, “ I trust I shall soon be able core!' when a song that pleased him to lay three crowns at your feet.”—“Be was performed ; but it was not until