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after a long pause that his order was remains were interred with extraorobeyed. He never before affected the dinary magnificence. least power. At his coming into an Some interesting observations occur assembly, no English protestant rises with regard to the Chevalier's chaup, and even the Roman catholics
racter, in Bolingbroke's letter (before pay him the compliment in a very su quoted) to Sir William Windham, from perficial manner. His pusillanimity, which the following are extracts : " The and the licentiousness of his amours, Chevalier's education renders him inhave lessened him in every body's es finitely less fit than his uncle, and, teem.
at least, as unfit as his father, to be “His lady is too pale and thin to be King of England : add to this, that thought handsome; her frequent mis there is no resource in his understandcarriages have brought her very low, ing. He is a slave to the weakest preso that she seldom stirs abroad, unless judices; the rod hangs like the sword to visit a convent. She allows her ser of Damocles over his head, and he vants no gold or silver lace on their trembles before his mother and the liveries, and this proceeds from what priest.” “ His religion is not founded is called her piety ; but it is partly on the love of virtue and the detesowing to her ill health, and partly to tation of vice; the spring of his whole the jealousy, inconstancy, and other ill conduct is fear-fear of the horns of qualities of her husband; and one of the devil, and of the flames of hell. these provocations affected her so much, He has all the superstition of a caputhat she withdrew into a convent, chin, but none of the religion of a whilst the Pretender, to be more at prince." “ When the draught of a liberty to pursue his amours, went to declaration, to be circulated in Great Bologna. But the pope disapproved of Britain, (that dated at Commercy,) was their
separate households, and to induce to be settled, his real character was him to return to Rome, and be recon- fully developed. He took exception ciled to his lady, discontinued his pen- against the passages in which the sesion. Yet the reconciliation was merely curity of the protestant church was formal; he pursues his vices as much promised. He said, he could not, in as ever, and she can never entertain a conscience, make such a promise ; and cordial affection for him again. Mr. asked warmly, why the Tories were S-, who affects to be an antiquary, so anxious to have him, if they exnarrowly watches the Pretender and pected those things from him which his adherents, being retained for that his religion did not allow. I left the purpose by the British ministry. A draughts with him, that he might few years since, Cardinal Alberoni, to amend them; and, though I cannot save the Pretender's charges, proposed absolutely prove it, I firmly believe that the palace Alla Langharā should that he sent them to the queen, to be be assigned for his residence. This corrected by her confessor. Queen house lies in the suburbs, and in a Anne was called, in the original, his private place, and has a large garden sister, of blessed and glorious memory; with a passage to the city walls, so that in that which he published, blessed' the Pretender's friends might have was left out. When her death was visited him with more privacy, and he mentioned, the original said, “when himself be absent without its being it pleased Almighty God to take her to known in Rome. This change was himself;' this was erased, and the folobjected to, on the part of England, by lowing words inserted :—when it Mr. S—, and did not take place; but pleased God to put a period to her life.' a new wing was built to the Pretender's He also refused to allow the term of old mansion, he having represented it blessed martyr' to be applied to as too small for him.”
Charles." For five years before his death, James Horace Walpole thus spoke of James Frederick was too infirm to leave his Frederick, in 1752:4" The Chevalier room. He lost his wife on the 18th de St. George is tall, meagre, and melanof January, 1765, and his own death choly in his aspect : enthusiasm and distook place on the 12th of the same appointment have stamped a solemnity month, in the following year. His on his person, which rather creates
pity than respect. He seems the phan- and the ancient Jacobites, never could tom which good-nature, divested of be induced to relish this scheme: the reflection, conjures up, when we think boy and his adherents embraced it as on the misfortunes, without the de- eagerly as if the father had really had merits, of Charles the First. Without a crown to resign. Slender as their the particular features of any Stuart, cabinet was, these parties divided it.”. the Chevalier has the strong lines and In opposition to Bolingbroke, the fatality of air, peculiar to them all.” | Earl of Mar, a devoted adherent to “ He never gave the world very fa the Stuarts, describes the Chevalier as vourable impressions of him: in Scot- having possessed “all the great and land, his behaviour was far from heroic. good qualities that are necessary for At Rome, where to be a good Roman making a people every way happy;" Catholic, it is by no means necessary and Lesley, a non-juring divine, whom to be very religious, they have little the prince entertained in his household, esteem for him : but it was his ill treat for the purpose of officiating to the ment of the Princess Sobieski, his wife, protestants in the family, declares that that originally disgusted the papal court. he was magnanimous, tolerant, and She who, to zeal for popery, had united devout; courteous, sensible, and diliall its policy,—who was lively, insinu- gent. ating, agreeable, and enterprising,-was Bolingbroke, it is probable, exagfervently supported by that court, when gerated some of the Chevalier's vices: she could no longer endure the morti- Lesley and Mar, on the other hand, fications that were offered to her by and particularly the former, have given Hay and his wife, the titular Countess him virtues which, in reality, he nerer of Inverness, to whom the Chevalier possessed. There were apparently but had entirely resigned himself. The few, if any, bright points in his chaPretender retired to Bologna, but was
His courage is at least questiobliged to sacrifice his favourites, before onable ; his dilatory conduct, in not he could re-establish himself at Rome.joining his adherents until his cause The most apparent merit of the Cheva was ruined, although, according to lier's court, is the great regularity of Bolingbroke and Mar, not without exhis finances, and the economny of his cuse, is altogether unexplained; and exchequer. His income, before the his assumption of the empty forms of rebellion, was about £23,000 a year ; sovereignty at Perth and Fetterosse, arising chiefly from pensions from the while at the head of a defeated rempope and from Spain, from contribu nant of his friends, was vain, silly, and tions from England, and some irregular contemptible. The absence of power, donations from other courts : yet, his only, appears to have prevented him payments were not only most exact, from displaying the more obnoxious but he had saved a large sum of money, qualities of his race. In him, the blood which was squandered on the unfor of Mary of Modena had deteriorated, tunate attempt in Scotland. Besides rather than improved, that of the the loss of a crown, to which he thought Stuarts. Bigotry descended to him as he had a just title; besides a series of an heir-loom; but he disgraced the disappointments from his birth ; be- religion he professed, by scrupulously sides that mortifying rotation of friends, following its forms while his conduct to which his situation has constantly was totally at variance with his prinexposed him, he has, in the latter ciples. Unrestrained by marriage, he part of his life, seen his own little became grey before he had ceased to court, and his parental affections, torn be incontinent. At once weak and to pieces, and tortured by the seeds of licentious, he not only entertained faction, sown by that master-hand of mistresses, but courted their advice sedition, the famous Bolingbroke; who i and direction in his most important insinuated into their councils a project affairs. What can be said in his fafor the Chevalier's resigning his pre vour?— This: he was badly educated; tensions to his eldest son,
and thrown, at an early age, upon likely to conciliate the affections of the the world, a royal wreck, without pilot English to his family. The father,
CHARLES EDWARD STUART.
The subject of our present article, signal for an enemy's fleet in sight; and Charles Edward Louis Philip Casimir, the English ships having the tide with eldest son of James Frederick Edward them, beat down the channel against Stuart, the Pretender, and Maria Cle- the wind, and at four in the afternoon, mentina, his wife, was born at Rome, came up with the French, off Dungeon the 30th of November, 1720. His ness: but as the tide was spent, both education, it is alleged, was neglected, feets were compelled to come to an on account of his governor having been anchor. in the pay of the British court. In his In the mean time, Marshal Saxe, youth, he made a tour through the north who had been appointed to the comof Italy, under the title of the Count of mand of the land forces, arrived with Albany; but with this exception, up to the young Pretender, at Dunkirk, and 1744, his residence appears to have been began to embark his troops. During the invariably at Rome.
following night, the French admiral, At the latter end of 1743 he was sum- sensible of his inferiority, gave orders moned to Paris, for the purpose of that all his ships should run down the joining a body of forces, which the channel ; and the whole of the English French government had 'destined for fleet, with the exception of two sail of the invasion of Britain : accordingly, on the line, parted from their cables, by the 9th of January, 1744, he departed stress of weather, and drove. In this from Rome, under the avowed intention critical posture of affairs, it was feared of going to hunt the boar, and rode post that the invading army would be able to to Genoa; where he embarked in a reach England unmolested, before Sir felucca, and proceeded by Monaco, to John Norris could return to the Downs : Antibes; whence he continued his but all apprehensions from the French journey to Paris, with all possible des- armament had now become groundless; patch. Notwithstanding the precautions -a large portion of the troops having he had taken to conceal his movements, perished on board some of the transthe British government obtained infor- ports, which it appears, were wrecked mation of his arrival at Antibes, on by the gale that had driven the English his way to the French capital, and fleet from its anchorage. A great quanimmediately called upon his most tity of warlike stores was also lost; and Christian majesty to give orders, in the expedition was abandoned, as being pursuance of treaties then existing, for utterly hopeless. Charles Edward's removal from the Charles Edward now retired to Graterritories of France. A few days after velines, where he assumed the name of this application had been made, a the Chevalier Douglas. During the French fleet, of fifteen sail of the line summer, he earnestly solicited the and five frigates, appeared off Torbay; French government, by means of his and it was understood, that a large agents, to make another effort in his body of troops was about to be em- behalf; and early in the following winbarked in transports at Dunkirk, forter, he proceeded to Paris, for the the purpose of making a descent, under purpose of personally urging his suit. convoy of the fleet, on the British coast. Failing to procure any positive asThe greater part of our naval force surance of immediate aid, he became was at that time in the Mediterra- | impatient, and determined, contrary to nean; but, by great exertions, twenty- the advice of his friends, on embarking one sail of the line, and several frigates, for Scotland at the first favourable opwere soon collected from the different portunity; and on trying his fortune, parts of the channel, and despatched, unassisted by foreign troops, at the head under the command of Sir John Norris, of his father's adherents. Accordingly, to blockade Dunkirk. On the 23rd of on the 20th of June, 1745, soon after February, one of the frigates made the the battle of Fontenoy, in which the
British army had been defeated, Charles course towards the main land; and have Edward left Nantes in a fishing boat, ing brought the Doutelle to an anchor and proceeded to St. Nazaire, where near Moidart, he sent a boat to the shore he embarked on board a frigate of with a letter for young Clanronald, who, sixteen guns, called the Doutelle. with his cousin, Kinloch Moidart, soon
He was shortly afterwards joined came on board. Almost driven to desby the Elizabeth, an old sixty gun ship, pair by the refusal of Boisdale to assist which had been granted by the French him, Charles Edward, with great emogovernment, to two merchants of Irish tion, besought the two chieftains to extraction, who were also proprietors stand by their prince in his utmost need. of the frigate. These persons had not But Clanronald and Moidart, although only lent Charles Edward their vessels, warmly attached to his family, replied but had also furnished him with all the that it would be pulling destruction on arms and money they could procure their heads to join him in asserting his To what extent they assisted him in rights, without concert at home, or asthese particulars does not appear; but it sistance from abroad; and in spite of all is certain, that he set out on his ex- his arguments and entreaties, they were pedition against the existing govern preparing to depart, when a younger ment of Great Britain, with a few at brother of Kinloch Moidart, who stood tendants, five or six hundred broad on the deck, armed at all points, atswords, about two thousand muskets, tracted Charles Edward's notice, by and rather less than four thousand the emotion which he betrayed on pounds in cash.
hearing Moidart and Clanronald refuse Soon after the Doutelle and Elizabeth to take up arms for one whom he conhad set sail from Belleisle, the latter sidered to be their lawful prince. “Will was attacked by the Lyon man-of-war, you not assist me?” said Charles Edof sixty guns; an obstinate contest en ward, turning briskly towards him. sued, in which the Elizabeth was so “ I will, I will !" was the spirited reply; much disabled, as to be obliged to " although no other man in the Highabandon her consort and return to port. lands should draw a sword in your Charles Edward pursued his course in cause, I am ready to die for you !" the Doutelle, which, after avoiding This gallant declaration had an imanother man-of-war, was safely brought mediate effect on Clanronald and Moito an anchor between South Uist and dart, for they at once agreed to do their Erisca. The young Pretender imme utmost in Charles Edward's behalf. diately landed on the latter island, in The young Pretender then went ashore, the assumed character of a young Irish with the Marquess of Tullibardine, Sir priest, and despatched a messenger, to Thomas Sheridan, and three or four inform Boisdale, Clanronald's brother, more of his adherents, who had come of his arrival. He passed the night at with him from France, and proceeded Erisca, and returned on board the Dou to Boradale, on the estate of Clanronald. telle, on the following morning. Bois- | Cameron of Lochiel was next made dale soon afterwards arrived, but flatly acquainted with his arrival, and soon refused to persuade his brother, or young appeared at Boradale, for the purpose Clanronald, his nephew, who was then of dissuading Charles Edward from at Moidart, to take up arms in Charles persisting in his rash attempt. He had Edward's behalf: nor would he under- called on his brother, John Cameron, of take a mission from the prince to Mac- Fassefern, while on his way to Boradale, donald and Macleod, those chiefs having and stated his determination not to lately, as he stated, expressed their de- implicate himself in so desperate an termination not to join the Jacobite undertaking. Fassefern approved of standard, unless Charles Edward should Lochiel's resolution, but advised him to land in Scotland at the head of a body impart it to the prince by letter. "No," of regular troops. Unmoved by the said Lochiel, “ I ought, at least, to wait entreaties of the young adventurer, on him, and state my reasons, which Boisdale soon after quitied the frigate, admit of no reply.” “Brother," replied with a determination to take no part in Fas:efern, “I know you better than so rash an enterprise.
you know yourself. If once the prince Charles Edward then pursued his sets eyes upon you, he will make you
do whatever he pleases." Lochiel, how- places in Angus and Fife. He was ever, confident of his inflexibility, went now joined by the titular Duke of on to Boradale, and with all the elo- Perth, and Lord George Murray, brother quence he possessed endeavoured to per- to the Duke of Athol, whom he made suade the prince to return to France, lieutenant-general of his army, which and reserve himself and his friends for had been daily increasing in numbers a better opportunity. But Lochiel's since he had first set up his standard at arguments and entreaties had no effect Glenfinnin. Lord George is described on the young adventurer. “ In a few as having been a man of so much milidays,” said he, “with the handful of tary talent, that had Charles Edward, friends who are about me, I will erect as the Chevalier Johnstone states, given the royal standard, and proclaim to the him the sole command, and then gone people of Britain, that Charles Stuart is to sleep, when he awoke he would have come to claim the crown of his ancestors, found the crown of Great Britain en-to win it, or to perish in the attempt! circling his brows. Lochiel, who, my father has often told On the 16th of September, the rebels me, was our firmest friend, may stay at marched towards Edinburgh, of which home, and learn from the newspapers Lochiel and his followers obtained posthe fate of his prince!" "No," said session, without difficulty, the next Lochiel, “I'll share the fate of my morning About ten o'clock the main prince, and so shall every man over body of the Highlanders marched into whom nature or fortune has given me the king's park, where a vast number any power.” It is an admitted fact, that of persons had assembled, for the purhad this interview terminated otherwise pose of seeing the prince. His figure than it did, the hopes of Charles Edward and presence, according to Home, who must have been destroyed in their bud; was present on the occasion, were not for none of the other chiefs would have ill suited to his lofty pretensions. He joined the young Chevalier, if Lochiel was tall, handsome, of a fair comhad declined to assist him.
plexion, and wore the Highland dress, On the morning of the 19th of August, with the star of St. Andrew at his breast. Charles Edward, attended by about The Jacobites compared him to Robert twenty-five of his adherents, proceeded Bruce, whom he resembled, as they to Glenfinnin, where he was met by thought, in figure as in fortune; the Lochiel, at the head of seven hundred Whigs, however, said that he looked of the Camerons, escorting two com- like a gentleman and man of fashion, panies of the king's troops whom they but not like a hero; and that even when had surrounded and made prisoners. | about to make a triumphant entry The Marquess of Tullibardine then un- into the palace of his ancestors, he furled the young prince's standard, and appeared melancholy and languid. Macdonald of Keppoch soon afterwards Within three days after Charles Edarrived with three hundred men. ward's arrival at Edinburgh the battle
Sir John Cope, the commander-in- of Preston Pans was fought, in which chief for Scotland, now put himself at the royal forces, under Sir John Cope, the head of a body of the king's forces, suffered a complete and most inglorious at Stirling; but notwithstanding he had defeat. Johnstone asserts that the received positive orders from the lords Highlanders, on this occasion, threw of the regency, (the king being abroad,) | their opponents' ranks into irretrievable to march into the Highlands, and at confusion, by slashing, with their broadtack the rebels wherever they might be, swords, at the noses of the horses, he declined giving them battle, on ac- which, on being wounded, turned round, count of the strength of a position which and, becoming unmanageable, threw they had taken, on the summit of Cor- the whole line into disorder. Charles ryarak, and marched towards Inverness. Edward, it is said, would have led his Charles Edward immediately proceeded adherents on to the charge at this in a different direction, with a view of battle, but for the remonstrances of his getting possession of Edinburgh. On chiefs, who declared, that if he perthe 4th of September he entered Perth, sisted in his avowed intention of taking where he remained for several days, the post of danger, they would at once and proclaimed his father at various return home and make the best terms