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they could for themselves, as their utter Manchester, where they were joined ruin would be inevitable, if any acci- by two or three hundred men. But, dent occurred to him, even although the except in this instance, scarcely any contest should terminate in their favour. testimonies of zeal for the cause of the The prince was consequently obliged to Stuarts was exhibited by the English, content himself with accompanying the and the situation of Charles Edward second line of his forces; which had became daily more dangerous. He, merely to join in the pursuit, the royal however, boldly pursued his course, by troops having been broken and routed regular marches, through Macclesfield by the impetuous charge of the first. to Derby, where he arrived on the 4th
The next morning Charles Edward of December. He was now nearer returned to Edinburgh with his vic- London than the royal army under torious army, and immediately began to the command of the Duke of Cumexercise, as prince regent, various acts berland; but the rashness and folly of sovereign authority. He appointed a of a further advance had become so council, ordered regiments to be levied evident, that the majority of the for his service, and held drawing-rooms, chiefs determined on a retreat towards which were, for the most part, bril- the north with all possible expedition. liantly attended, and generally ended The young prince, it appears, was exin a public supper and a ball. It is re- ceedingly averse to a retrograde movelated, in a narrative of James Maxwell, ment. In the march forward he had of Kirkconnell, published in the notes always been up at break of day, and to Waverley, that while the young Che usually accompanied the men on foot ; valier was at Edinburgh, it was proposed but, during the retreat, he rose late, to send one of his prisoners to London, and when he appeared, mounted a to demand a cartel for the exchange of horse, and rode straight on to his prisoners taken on both sides during the quarters, apparently absorbed in gloom war, and to consider the refusal of the and discontent. court of St. James's tantamount to a The Duke of Cumberland, as soon as declaration, that they meant to give no he had obtained information of their requarter; in which case the prince would treat towards the north, pursued the rehave been justified in retaliating, and bel forces with the whole of his cavalry might thereby have prevented his ad- and some mounted infantry. A portion herents from being executed as traitors, of his troops came up with them on the when taken by the royalists. But.al- 29th of December, at Clifton, near Penthough this measure was justly regarded rith, and a skirmish ensued, in which as very important by the prince's friends, the royalists were defeated. On the folhe could not be brought to accede to it; lowing day, Charles Edward and his declaring, that it was beneath him to followers entered Carlisle, which they make empty threats, and that he never garrisoned with three hundred men, could take, in cold blood, those lives (who surrendered in a few days afterwhich he had saved, in the heat of wards,) and proceeded towards Glasgow, action, at the peril of his own.
where they levied a heavy contribution Meanwhile, a large body of the royal on the inhabitants, the greater part of troops, with six thousand Dutch auxilia- whom were violent Anti-Jacobites. ries, had arrived from Flanders, and On the 17th of January, 1746, after Charles Edward saw that further inac- some movements of minor importance, tion would be fatal to his cause. Many the insurgents attacked a body of vetedeliberations were held by his council, rans, under the command Hawley, as to what would be the best course to at Falkirk, over whom they achieved adopt; and it was, at length, determined, a victory which was at once glorious to push the enterprise to the utmost, by to themselves, and disgraceful to their marching at once into England. Ac- opponents. They derived, however, but cordingly, on the last day of October, the little ulterior advantage from their rebels, whose numbers were now some- splendid success on this occasion ; the what under six thousand, quitted Edin- approach of the Duke of Cumberland's burgh, and proceeded towards Carlisle, army compelling them, shortly afterwhich capitulated to them on the 14th wards, to raise the siege of Stirling castle, of November. On the 29th they reached and retreat into the Highlands.
A long period elapsed before another against a hill campaign, as they called it. general action took place. Charles Ed- What I can aver is, that myself and most ward eventually fixed his head-quarters of the clans were for this operation; and at Inverness, and the duke encamped in the prince could have supported the the neighbourhood of Nairn. The 15th fatigue as well as any person in the of April being his royal highness's birth- army. It's true there were some of day. it was supposed that his men would our sleek gentlemen who could not drink so freely on the occasion, that have undergone it: so we were obliged they might, without much difficulty, to be undone for their ease.” be surprised during the night. Charles The rebels advanced to the attack with Edward determined on making the at- their usual impetuosity ; but the royal tempt: the rebels, accordingly, began troops received them with unexpected their march towards the position occu- firmness: the artillery, according to pied by the royal army, about eight in Johnstone, swept away whole ranks of ihe evening, in two columns, the first of them at once, and they who had charged which was led by Lord George Murray, like lions, soon fled in the greatest disorand the second by the prince in person. der. Charles Edward, who had posted On account of the darkness of the night, himself on an eminence behind his segreat confusion occurred during the cond line, with two troops of cavalry for march, and the Highlanders were so his guard, had his face be pattered with widely dispersed, that on arriving dirt by a cannon ball, and a servant within a mile of the English, Lord who stood near him with a led horse George saw the absolute necessity of was killed. Johnstone accuses the halting until the straggling parties came prince of not acting with proper spirit up. Charles Edward, however, insisted in this crisis of his affairs.
" It was," on hazarding an immediate attack, says our author, “ a moment when he which Lord George not only opposed, ought to have displayed the courage of but, finding the prince obstinate, he a grenadier, by immediately advancing gave orders for an immediate retreat, al- to put himself at the head of his ledging that it would be daylight before army, and commanding himself those the insurgents could reach the enemy's maneuvres which he wished to be camp, when the king's troops might executed. In the desperate expedition destroy them with ease. Charles Ed- on which he had entered, though it was ward was dreadfully incensed, on this proper that he should guard against occasion, against Lord George, whom danger, he ought to have done so in a he accused, but without the least foun- manner which showed that life or death dation, of treachery, and publicly de- was equally indifferent to him ; conclared, that no one, for the future, should ducting himself with valour and prucommand his army but himself.
dence, according to circumstances. An alarm having been given, the Lord Elcho also declares, that he duke's forces pursued the insurgents earnestly besought the prince to charge with great rapidity. On the arrival of the enemy at the head of his left wing, the latter at Culloden, although they which remained unbroken, and either were dreadfully fatigued by their march, achieve a victory, or fall like a man of and had eaten only a biscuit each during honour; but that, his counsel being the preceding day, Charles Edward declined, he left the prince, swearing rashly and obstinately determined on never to look upon his face again. It giving the enemy battle, in spite of is, however, asserted by Home, that, the remonstrances of Lord George, and but for the entreaties of his friends, the his other experienced leaders, who urged prince would have advanced to rally him, but in vain, to retire to the high the Highlanders, when he saw them regrounds, beyond the waters of the pulsed ; and, in another account of the Nairn, where he could have refreshed battle, by an eye witness, it is stated, his men, and set the duke at defiance. that such entreaties would have been “We might,” says Lord George, in one ineffectual, had not Sir Thomas Sulliof his private letters, “have retreated van seized the bridle of the prince's to this secure post, even when the enemy horse, and turned the animal comwere in sight; and why it was not done, pletely round. let them answer who were resolved The prince left the field, with a few of
his guards and attendants, and crossed O'Neil, Burke, Donald Macleod, (a the river Nairne, at a ford about three pilot), and the boatmen, were compelled miles distant, where he dismissed most of to remain for two days and nights at his followers, and proceeded to Gorth- Rossinish, in a miserable hut, and with leek. Having taken some refreshment nothing to subsist on but a little oatand changed his dress, he set out for meal and water. On the third day Invergarie, about ten o'clock the same they endeavoured to reach Stornaway, night, and reached that place early on in the island of Lewis, another of the the following morning. All his atten- Long Island group, where Charles had dants now took leave of him, except been informed he could hire a vessel to Sullivan, O'Neal, and Burke, one of carry him to France ; but they were Alexander Macleod's servants, who was obliged to put in at Glass, whence retained as a guide. From Invergarie the pilot proceeded, in another boat, he went on to Locharkaig, and thence to Siornaway, and succeeded in hiring to Glenbeisdale, where he remained for the vessel. Macleod then sent for the two or three days.
prince, who immediately put to sea, In the meantime, Lord George but was compelled, by the boisterous Murray had taken precautions to guard state of the weather, to land at a distant the passes into the Highlands; and two part of the island of Lewis; whence, days only after the defeat at Culloden, setting out on foot, during a dark rainy many noblemen and chieftains, with night, he lost his way, through the about five thousand men, had collected, ignorance of his guide, and did not without any previous concert, at Ruth- arrive at Stornaway until eleven o'clock ven. Lord George sent a messenger to the next morning. In the meantime, the prince, to acquaint him with these the master of the ship, having heard and other propitious circumstances, and for whom Macleod had hired it, refused invited him to come and place himself to abide by his bargain. at the head of his adherents, who were Charles then returned to his boat, eager for the renewal of hostilities, and and coasted the Long Island towards whose numbers would doubtless, in a South Uist, another of the group, where few days, amount to eight or nine be arrived about the middle of May, thousand, at the least. On the 20th after having narrowly escaped being of April, Lord George's messenger re- taken prisoner by a sloop-of-war during turned to Ruthven, as Johnstone states, bis progress. Clanronald, the proprietor with the following “ inconsiderate and of the greater part of the island, kindly heart-breaking” answer from Charles assisted him with various necessaries, Edward :-“ Let every man seek his of which he had become dreadfully in safety in the best way he can." Accord- want, and placed him in a house, ing io another authority, the young where he remained for above a fortPretender thanked his adherents for night. But his condition soon after their attachment, and complimented became apparently desperate, and he them on their bravery, but, at the passed nearly the whole of the month of same time, recommended them to think June amid perils from which it is almost only of their own preservation until miraculous that he effected his escape. a more favourable opportunity should A number of vessels of war, up to forty occur of exerting themselves in his gun ships, were lying off the Long behalf.
Island, and from fifteen hundred to two From Glenbeisdale, the young ad- thousand men were traversing it in venturer went to Boradale, where he search of him; a guard was placed at embarked in a boat with eight oars, on every ferry, and no one was permitted the 26th of April, and after having to quit it without a passport. His been tossed about in a violent storm health had become affected by the hardduring the night, landed, with great dif- ships he had undergone, and, as a climax ficulty, the next morning, at Rossinish, to his distress, it was rumoured, as in Benbecula, one of several islands Johnstone asserts, that the commanders lying due west of Scotland, and which of the various parties who were in together, are termed the Long Island. search of him, had received orders from Stormy weather still continuing, Charles the Duke of Cumberland to make no Edward, and his companions, Sullivan, prisoners, from which it was understood
that they were expected to kill the forward to prepare for the young Chevaprince if he fell into their hands. lier's reception, but as there were several
Through the devoted attachment of of the king's officers in the house, he the islanders, who informed him of every walked on to the residence of Sir Alexmovement of the troops, he was enabled ander's factor, Macdonald of Kingsto avoid his enemies, whose posts he burgh, where he passed the night. often passed and repassed during the On the following morning, while Flora night, but not without extraordinary was putting on his cap, Kingsburgh's hazard. At length he was delivered wife desired her, in Gaelic, to ask for a from the perils which surrounded him, lock of his hair: Flora declined, and said by Flora Macdonald, a step-daughter of to Mrs. Macdonald, “Why cannot you Macdonald of Armidale, in Skye, who ask him yourself?" The prince then was senior captain of the companies inquired what they were talking about, belonging to that island, which were and on being told 'what had passed, he then posted at South Uist. She hap-placed his head in Flora's lap, and depened to be on a visit at the house of sired her to cut off a lock, which she her kinsman, Clanronald, when O‘Neil | immediately did, and gave one half of came to him, with a message from it to Mrs. Macdonald. After breakfast, Charles Edward. Having expressed he went out with Kingsburgh to a her earnest desire to befriend the prince, neighbouring hill, where he exchanged O`Neil shortly afterwards introduced his female apparel for a Highland dress. him to her at a farm-house. Although With the assistance of a guide, whom greatly debilitated, Charles Edward dis- Kingsburgh had provided, he soon played, at this interview, to use his fair reached Port-Ree, at which place deliverer's own words, a cheerfulness, Flora Macdonald, who had travelled magnanimity, and fortitude, remarkably by another road, in order to prevent great, and incredible to all but such as discovery, again met, and finally parted then saw him. She was so struck with from him. his forlorn situation, that she at once From Port-Ree, he went in a boat, consented to conduct him to Skye, in with two of Macleod's sons, to the little the dress of a maid-servant. Returning island of Rasay; which, having been to Clanronald's, she procured from her concerned in the rebellion, had recently step-father a passport, in which her been laid waste by a party of royalists. disguised attendani was mentioned as The houses were all burnt, and the cattle a Betty Burke, an excellent spinner of destroyed, so that Charles Edward and flax, whom Captain Macdonald warmly
the two young Macleods were comrecommended to his wife. The evening pelled to live in a cowhouse, and to subbefore his departure, Charles Edward, sist upon such scanty fare, that the prince in his female attire, met Miss Macdonald soon determined on returning to Skye. and Lady Clanronald on the sea-shore: On his way back, the weather became while they were at supper, a messenger so boisterous, that the crew of the boat came to acquaint the latter that General wished to put about, but the prince enCampbell and Captain Ferguson, of the couraged them to proceed by exclaiming, navy, had arrived, with a number of “Cæsarum vehis! Providence, my boys, soldiers and marines, in quest of the that has carried me through so many young adventurer, at Clanronald's.
dangers, will no doubt preserve me for Four armed cutters soon after ap- a nobler end than this !" He then cheerpeared in sight, from the crews of which fully sang them a Highland song, and Charles Edward concealed himself as took his turn in lading the water out of they passed, by retiring behind some the boat. rocks near the shore. The next morn- Having landed in safety, he took leave ing he left South Uist in a six-oared of the two Macleods; to the younger boat, with Miss Macdonald and a man of whom he presented a case, conservant. On approaching Waternish, taining a silver spoon, knife, and fork, in Skye, a party of militia levelled their which he desired him to keep until guns at the boat, but the fugitives pro- they met again. He then went off with ceeded on their course, and landed in Captain Macleod, a relative of the safety near Mugstot, the seat of Sir Macleods of Rasay, to whom, after Alexander Macdonald. Flora went
they had walked a mile together,
without speaking, he said, “ I commit length reached the braes of Kintail, myself entirely to your care: take me inhabited by a barbarous clan of the to Mackinnon's bounds, in Skye.” Thi- | Macraws, of whom necessity enforced ther, they accordingly proceeded; the them to seek assistance. At the house prince, while it was daylight, carrying of Christopher Macraw, under the plea a small bundle, in order to pass for the that they were ready to perish, the servant of his companion. After tra prince and his companions obtained velling all night, they arrived at the food and shelter ; for which, however, place of their destination, and the laird, they paid most liberally. It appears that with a Captain Mackinnon, embarked Macraw, in the course of conversation, with the prince, (who now dismissed exclaimed against the Highlanders who Macleod,) in a sailing boat, for Loch- had taken up arms for the Stuarts; and nevis, a lake in the main land, where said, that those who knew where to they put him ashore on the 5th of July. lay their hands on the prince, would
The royal troops in the neighbour act wisely in delivering him up, and hcod, soon obtained information of taking the £30,000 offered by governCharles Edward's landing, and formed ment for his capture. a line of posts, so as, if possible, to pre During the night, another Macvent his escape. Having made his way donald, who had served in the rebel to Boradale, the prince sent for Mac army, arrived at Macraw's, and indonald of Glenaladale, who immediately stantly recognizing the prince, warned came to him with another of his ad Glenaladale to beware of their host. herents of the same name, who had He also stated, on being apprized of formerly been in the French service. their intention to seek refuge in the After some consultation, it was deter Ross-shire Highlands, that the royal mined that, with the help of the two troops were then actually in the country Macdonalds, he should endeavour to of the Mackenzies, and advised the get through the line of posts that had prince to make the best of his way been established for his detention : but towards Corado, in the most remote this was a fearful undertaking, for cen part of which there were seven men, tinels were placed at such short dis- living together, the greater part of tances from each other, that it was im whom had fought in his behalf; and possible in the day time to evade them, who, he was sure, would never betray and during the night, fires were lighted him. This counsel being adopted, at every post. A couple of men con Charles Edward and his iwo friends stantly patrolled between every two of proceeded, under the guidance of the these fires, each moving regularly from third Macdonald, towards Corado. On one to the other, so that they met and arriving within a short distance of the crossed each other in their progress; cave, where the seven men alluded to and it consequently happened that at had taken up their abode, Glenala. one period of their transit, they were dale and Macdonald the guide went marching back to back, towards the forward, and found six of the seven two fires, leaving the dark space between dining on a sheep which they had them altogether unguarded. Between recently killed. Aiter some conversatwo of these posts a rivulet had worn tion, he brought in the prince, whom a channel in the rock; up which, in he introduced to them as young Clanthe dead of night, Charles Edward and ronald, than whom they had previously the two Macdonalds crept; then, watch- declared, that nobody could be more ing for the moment when the centinels welcome, for they would obtain food crossed each other, they passed on, and for him at the sword's point. But no safely accomplished their escupe. sooner did they behold Charles Ed
Macdonald of Glenaladale now pro. ward than they recognised, and fell on posed to conduct the prince towards their knees before him. the Ross-shire Highlands, where the With these men the prince remained Mackenzies, having taken no part in for above five weeks; during which the rebellion, had not yet been visited period they procured him a welcome by the king's troops. Thither they ac supply of linen, &c. by waylaving some cordingly proceeded, on foot; and after officers' servants, and despoiling them having suffered great privations, at of their masters' portmanteaus. About