ページの画像
PDF
ePub

THE PRETENDERS' ADHERENTS.

BERNARDI, (John,) the son of a noble than his courage ; for he sucGenoese consul, who settled in Worces ceeded in bringing off prisoner Captain tershire, was born at Evesham, and Preston, of Preston's regiment of foot, abandoned his home at an early age, to who was mortally wounded through become a common soldier, in one of the the body, by a bullet from the rebels, English regiments in the Dutch service. and just at the point of being cut in Being possessed of considerable talents, pieces. He hazarded his life among he gradually rose to the rank of captain ; his own men, if possible, to save that but precluded himself from further pro: gentleman, though an enemy, and was motion, by giving some offence to the wounded in doing it." Having been Prince of Orange, afterwards William taken prisoner, he was brought to trial, the Third ; on whose elevation to the and convicted of high treason; but rethrone, Bernardi followed James the ceived the royal pardon on the 16th of Second to Ireland. A mission, on which | August, 1710, and died in 1734. he had been despatched to Scotland, proving fruitless, he made his escape to FITZJAMES, (JAMES, Duke of BerHolland ; whence he ventured to return wick,) an illegitimate son of James, Duke to this country, in 1695, and, being dis- of York, afterwards James the Second, covered, was committed to Newgate, by Arabella Churchill, sister to the great on a charge of having taken part in a Duke of Marlborough, was born on the plot against the life of King William. 21st of August, 1670, and educated with By six express enactments, of as many his brother, subsequently Duke of Aldifferent parliaments, he remained a bemarle, at Tully, the college of Plessis, prisoner for a period of forty years; his and Paris. At the age of fifteen, he captivity terminating with his life, in entered the imperial army, and served the month of September, 1736. The a campaign in Hungary, where he reason why a man of so little importance obtained the command of a regiment was thus 'detained in confinement by of cuirassiers. On his return to Eng. authority of the legislature, under four land, although still under eighteen, successive sovereigns, without being he was appointed governor of Portsbrought to trial, was, it is surmised, mouth. In the next summer he was that some unpleasant exposures must made colonel of a regiment of infantry, necessarily have attended his conviction. and, soon after, of Lord Oxford's horseHe is described as having been small guards. At the time of the revolution, in person, brisk, vivacious, and endowed he surrendered Portsmouth to the with extraordinary fortitude. During Prince of Orange, by command of his his imprisonment, he married and had royal father, with whom he embarked, a large family.

at Rochester, for France. In March,

1689, he landed, with James the Second, WOGAN, (NICHOLAS,) was born in at Kinsale, and highly distinguished Ireland, about the year 1667, and himself against the troops of William highly distinguished himself on the con the Third, at Donegal, Enniskillin, and tinent, in his younger days, as a soldier other parts of Ireland ; which he quitted of fortune. "He joined Forster,” says in 1691, and, shortly afterwards, accomPatten, “ at the first meeting, and was panied Louis the Fourteenth, as a voindefatigable in forwarding the success lunteer, to the seat of war in Flanders. of the cause. His self-devotion was During the campaign of 1693, he was truly chivalrous; and in the action at made prisoner by his uncle, BrigadierPreston, his intrepidity was remarka. general Churchill, brother to the Duke bly conspicuous. . His generosity on of Marlborough. in 1695, he married the same occasion, was

a daughter of the Earl of Clanrickard;

even

more

and, having become a widower in 1698, affairs. It was not our fault that we on his return from a tour in Italy, had not concerted any arrangements in about two years after, formed an union case of the event which had just hapwith a nicce of Lord Bulkeley. In pened; and France, however well in1702, he appears to have commanded clined she might be, was not in a condipart of the French forces in Flanders, tion to risk a new war to support the under the Duke of Burgundy and interests of the young Pretender.” Marshal Boufflers; and, in 1704, he The French monarch being either unserved a campaign in Spain, as captain- willing or unable to afford the Jacobites general of the forces of Philip the Fifth, any assistance, Berwick applied for who invested him, for his services, with help to the King of Sweden, who, as he the order of the Golden Fleece. During states, had eight thousand men enthe next year, being recalled by the camped at Gottenburg, and several King of France, he held the supreme transports in the harbour, which might command in Languedoc; and, besieging have conveyed the troops to Scotland in Nice, then considered one of the eight-and-forty hours.' The Pretender strongest places in Europe, compelled agreed to pay down fifty thousand it to capitulate. In February, 1706, he crowns, for the costs of embarkation ; was created marshal of France; and, the court of France encouraged the shortly after, resumed the command of enterprize; but the Swedish king, acthe army in Spain, the previous dis- cording to Berwick, who wrote some asters of which, he had the honour, in very interesting memoirs of his life, some measure, of retrieving; and ob- missed a glorious opportunity of adtained, as a mark of gratitude from the vancing his affairs, or rather, of relieving Spanish king, the title of Duke of himself from oppression, by declining Berwick, with the towns of Liria, to afford the expected aid, -alleging, Xerica, and their dependencies. In that he wanted the whole of his troops 1708, he was appointed to command for the defence of his own dominions. the French forces in Dauphiny; but In 1716, the Duke of Berwick was was shortly afterwards removed to the appointed to a military command in army under the Elector of Bavaria, of Guienne; and, subsequently, distinwhich, although second in command, guished himself, on various occasions, he is said to have solely directed the as a general of consummate skill, and operations. In 1709, he obtained from extraordinary courage, until 1734, the French king the dukedom of Warty; when he was killed by a cannon-ball, and, after having, in the interim, added at the siege of Philipsburg. He is dematerially to his reputation as a com- scribed as having been fond of glory; mander, he reduced, in 1714, the gar- but to have sought it, chiefly, in the rison and city of Barcelona. About line of his duty, which no one knew or this time, he appears to have devoted performed better than himself. In the much of his attention to the restoration | hurry of the most difficult operations, of the Stuarts. By means of Lady and the heat of the warmest actions, Masham, he and his party succeeded, he is said to have preserved that as he states, in procuring the dismissal tranquillity and coolness, which is the of the lord treasurer, Harley; " but, effect of natural intrepidity, and a perunfortunately,” he adds, “before the fect knowledge of that art, which, in new ministry could have time to con- shewing us all we have to fear from an cert their measures together, every hope enemy, points out, at the same time, of success was precluded by the death what we have to oppose to him.” Il of the queen, wbich happened on the is added, that no man of modern times 12th of August, 1714, four days after approached so nearly, in character, to the Earl of Oxford's dismission. The an heroic Greek. Elector of Hanover was instantly proclaimed king, and, by his orders, every MURRAY, (WILLIAM, Marquess of thing was changed. I was then in | Tullibardine,) son of the Duke of Athol, Catalonia, at too great a distance to act, incurred forfeiture by engaging in the or even to give advice; and had I been rebellion of 1715; he, however, avoided at Paris, I should have been much em- capture, and resided for a number of barrassed, considering the position of years on the continent. In 1745, he

arrived in Scotland, with the young Firth of Forth, although then an old Pretender, whose fortunes he followed man, he was “ the only person who during the whole of the campaign. At seemed to propose a plan of resistance." Culloden, he fell into the hands of the king's troops, and was confined in the MURRAY, (Lord CHARLES,) son of Tower until his death, which took place the Duke of Athol, was born in 1687, at the latter part of 1747.

and distinguished himself as a zealous

partizan of the Stuarts, during the reSTEWART, (ANDREW, of Inver- | bellion of 1715. “He had been,” says hayle,) one of the foremost in the charge | Patten, "a cornet of horse beyond sea, of the insurgents, on the Sir John Cope's | and had gained a mighty good charactroops, at Preston-Pans, after having ter for his bravery, even temper, and saved a colonel in the royal army, named graceful deportment. Upon all the Whitefoord, from being cut down by a marches he could never be prevailed gigantic Highlander, with some diffi. with to ride ; but kept at the head of culty prevailed on him to surrender, his regiment (the 5th) on foot, in his and, out of respect for the bravery he Highland dress, without breeches. He had displayed, soon afterwards pro- would scarce accept of a horse to cross cured him his liberty on parole. Oni the rivers, which his men, in that season the ruin of the young "Pretender's of the year, forded above mid-thighi hopes, by the decisive victory obtained deep in water." Being taken at Preston, over his adherents, at Culloden, Colonel he was tried by a court-martial for deWhitefoord gratefully exerted himself sertion, and sentenced to be shot; but to procure his benefactor's pardon, by received a free pardon in September, the most urgent appeals to all the 1717, and died in 1729. great officers of state in Scotland. His efforts proving fruitless, he waited on KEITH, (JAMES,) the youngest son the Duke of Cumberland, and entreated of William Keith, Earl Marshal of Scota protection for Inverhayle's family and land, was born in 1696. On the breakestate ; which, however, he could not ing out of the rebellion, in 1715, he obtain, until he had intimated his de abandoned the law, for which he had sire to abandon a service in which no been destined, and joined the Preclemency was extended to the van tender's standard. At the battle of quished and helpless. In compliance Sheriff-muir, he was severely wounded, with the protection thus wrung from and, with much difficulty, escaped to the duke, Inverhayle's property was France, where he devoted himself to spared, by a party of troops who were the study of military tactics. In 1717, encamped on his estate, for the purpose, he visited Italy, and thence proceeded if possible, of securing his person. Like to Spain, where he obtained a commis. the Baron of Bradwardine, in the novel sion in Ormond's Irish brigade, through of Waverley, the leading incidents of the interest of the Duke of Liria, whom which are avowedly founded on anec he shortly afterwards accompanied to dotes of the life of İnverhayle, the pro Russia. Entering into the service of scribed chief lay concealed in a neigh the Czarina, he obtained the rank of bouring cave, whither provisions were lieutenant-general, as well as the order so adroitly conveyed, as to elude the of the black eagle, and highly distinvigilance of the English centinels, by one guished himself against the Turks and of his children, a girl about eight years Swedes. He also took a conspicuous part of age. With much difficulty and some in the revolution by which Elizabeth “ hair-breadth 'scapes," he succeeded was raised to the throne; but, at length, in avoiding detection, and was eventu he retired in disgust to Prussia, where, ally included in the act of indemnity. he was received with great honour, and, The author of Waverley, who knew immediately made a field-marshal, by him well, in addition to the foregoing Frederick the Great. After having accircumstances, states, that Inverhayle quired the highest military renown in had been out in the rebellion of 1715, the service of that monarch, his career as well as in that of 1745 ; that he had was terminated by a cannon-shot, at fought a broadsword duel with Rob Roy; the battle of Hochkirchen, on the 14th and that, when Paul Jones entered the of October, 1758. His skill as a poli

tician, is said to have equalled his talent ascribed to his reckless extravagance, as a commander.

he once more visited the continent;

where, being now a widower, he married WHARTON, (PHILIP, Duke of a Spanish maid of honour. For his inWharton,) son of the Marquess of trigues in behalf of the Pretender, he Wharton, was born

about the year

was soon afterwards attainted of high 1699. At the age of fourteen, he clan- treason, and deprived of his estates. destinely married a daughter of Major- | It is said, that his conduct had by this General Holmes, and soon afterwards time excited universal disgust; yet, the proceeded to the continent, avowedly exiled prince thought proper to send for the purpose of completing his edu- him £2,000, which he speedily dissication; but abruptly quitted his tutor pated. Rejecting an offer of Sir Robert at Geneva, leaving a bear's cub “ as a Walpole, to reverse his attainder, he more suitable companion" for the latter travelled, for some time, on the contithan himself, and went to Avignon, at nent, attended by a regiment of ragged that time the residence of the Pre- servants; and, it is stated, would have tender, who conferred upon him the perished in a state of destitution, had order of the Garter, and the title of he not been charitably entertained by Duke of Northumberland. " Thus at- some monks, of the order of St. Bers tached,” says Seward, " to the party nard; in whose convent, near Tarragona, of that unfortunate prince, he came he fell a victim to habitual intemperto Paris, where he is thus described, ance, on the 31st of May, 1731; during in a despatch of that excellent mi- which year, two volumes of his poems, nister, Sir Benjamin Keene :- The speeches, and plays, appear to have Duke of Wharton has not been sober, been published. He appears to have or scarce had a pipe out of his mouth, been a man of great abilities, singular since he leit St. Ildefonso.'” The Dow- eloquence, brilliant wit, and fascinating ager Queen of James the Second, manners; but without judgment, mopawned her jewels, to raise him £2,000, rality, religion, or common decorum. which he promised to expend in furthering the Jacobite cause, but speedily MACDONALD, (ANGUS, of Kep. squandered in the most extravagant poch,) was born in 1711, and joined

While yet a minor, he took The standard of Charles Edward in his seat in the Irish house of lords, 1745, with the whole of his clan. To where he displayed so much zeal and the bravery of Keppoch and his talent in favour of government, that he followers, the success of the Jacowas raised to the English peerage. bites at Preston-Pans and Falkirk has Shortly afterwards, he abandoned the been chiefly attributed. The clan, Whigs; published a virulent opposition however, acted in the most disgraceful paper; and became an avowed Jacobite. manner at Culloden ; having, in conWhen Atterbury was impeached, “ act- sequence, it is said, of being placed ing contrition, according to Horace in the left wing of the rebel forces, Walpole," he professed being deter- retreated, when about twenty paces mined to work out his pardon at court, from the royal troops, without striking by speaking against the bishop; in a blow. Indignant at the conduct of order to which, he begged some hints. his countrymen, “Macdonald of KepThe minister was deceived, and went poch,” says Home, “advanced with through the whole case with him, his drawn sword in one hand, and his pointing out where the strength of the pistol in the other : he had got but a argument lay, and where was its weak- little way from his regiment, when he

The duke was very thankful, was wounded by a musket-shot, and returned to town, passed the night in fell. A friend, who had followed, drinking, and, without going to bed, conjuring him not to throw his life went to the house of lords, where he away, said that the wound was not spoke for the bishop,-recapitulating, in mortal; that he might easily join his the most masterly manner, and answer- | regiment, and retreat with them. Keping, all that had been urged against poch desired him to take care of himhim." On account of pecuniary em- self, and, going on, received another barrassments, which are wholly to be shot, and fell to rise no more."

manner.

ness.

COPPOCK, (Thomas) sometimes leader, Malcolm Macgregor, received called Cappouch, who is stated to have no less than five gun-shot wounds, two been a native of England and a stu- bullets actually passing through his dent, was created Bishop of Carlisle, by body. As the party marched on, MalCharles Edward, whom he accompanied colin, though at the point of death, in the march to Preston. Being taken raised himself upon his elbow, and exprisoner, he was brought to trial, with claimed: “ Hark ye, my lads, I'm not several of the other insurgents, found dead: therefore, let no man think of guilty of high treason, and executed, neglecting his duty, for, by G-d! my with revolting barbarity, at Carlisle, on eye will be upon him." the 18th of October, 1746. It is stated, that when he and his companions re- DICKSON, (Serjeant,) was made ceived sentence, he said to the latter, / prisoner by Charles Edward, at Preston, as they were quitting the court, “ What and enlisted into his service. Having the devil are you afraid of? We sha'n't got a day's march beyond the rebel be tried by a Cumberland jury in the forces, he entered Manchester, with his next world!"

mistress and a drummer, on the 29th

of November, 1745, and immediately ANDERSON, (ROBERT,) of Whit- began to beat up for recruits. Great burgh, a gentleman of property, in East numbers of the populace soon surLothian, was one of the persons whom rounded, and attempted to take him Lord George Murray consulted as to prisoner, but he kept them at bay with the practicability of crossing the marshy his blunderbuss, until he was rescued piece of ground which divided the royal by the resident Jacobites, under whose and insurgent armies, previously to the protection he paraded the streets for battle of Preston-Pans. At first, he several hours, and, in the evening, deemed the morass impassable, but, marched off, undisturbed, to meet after Lord George had dismissed him, Charles Edward, at the head of one he recollected that there was a cir- hundred and eighty followers, whom cuitous path, eastward, which led to he had enlisted at the triling expense the position occupied by the king's of three guineas. On account of this troops. At the suggestion of Hepburn adventure, Manchester, with its thirty of Keith, he returned to communicate thousand souls, was jocosely said to the fact to Lord George, who was no have been taken by three Jacobites, sooner apprised of it, than he hurried -a serjeant, a drummer, and a girl! with the welcome intelligence to Prince Charles, whom he found fast asleep on JOHNSTONE, (Chevalier de,) the the field, with a bunch of peese-haulm son of a merchant at Edinburgh, was for his pillow. In the course of the born in 1720. At an early age he apnight, all the rebel forces crossed the pears to have evinced an inclination for morass, and taking the royal troops by a military life; and, being brought up surprise, obtained a brilliant victory. in Jacobite principles, on the breaking

out of the rebellion, in 1745, he privately MACGREGOR, (MALCOLM,) son of quitted his father's house, and joined Duncan Macgregor, of Craigee, appears the insurgents at Duncrub. He was to have been captain of a iroop of the immediately appointed aide-de-camp to Macgregors, who, at the battle of Lord George Murray, and, afterwards, Preston-Pans, in 1745, armed with aide-de-camp to the prince. After hay. scythe-blades, fixed at the ends of poles, ing fought at the battle of Preston-Pans, as it is stated, cut off the legs of he obtained a captain's commission, horses, severed the bodies of men in and raised an independent company, twain, and contributed, materially, by with which he served throughout the the dreadful execution they did, to the campaign. Escaping from the fatal victory obtained by Charles Edward battle of Culloden, he concealed himover Sir John Cope. At an early period self for some time in the house of Lady of the contest, while proceeding across Jane Douglas, whence he proceeded to the field to join their clan-regiment, England in the disguise of a pedlar. At they were fully exposed to the fire of length he reached the continent; and the royal troops; and their gallant after having, for some time, subsisted

« 前へ次へ »