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what they get for these services must be beans from Alexandria in Egypt. She quite large.
had forty days quarantine, and as the As we approached the entrance of the weather was rainy and the vessel's deck harbor, we came suddenly in sight of leaked, the captain was afraid his cargo the city of Valette, with its castle and would sprout and shoot up into a forest fortifications. They stand close to the of bean-stalks before he could get it on sea, and burst upon the spectator before shore. he is aware.
We were much struck It was now the first of February, a with their noble and commanding ap- season when, by our recollection, the pearance—and the bells of the city country at home must be covered with chiming merrily at the time, the agree- snow; yet here we found the fields green, able sensations they inspired were still the air soft, and the trees in full foliage. further heightened. It was a great mor- The oranges were just ripening, and tification to us, however, to find that we the Maltese boatman brought them to were to be subjected to a quarantine of us on board for four cents a dozen. The more than a week. For this purpose Malta oranges are famed for being the our vessel was taken into that part of finest in the world, and I must admit the harbor adjoining the lazaretto, where that they are worthy of their reputation. we were brought to anchor, and treated The oranges we get in Boston are gathwith a prospect of the shore close at hand ered before they are quite ripe, that they without the privilege of setting foot upon may keep the better; but an orange in it for a week to come.
full ripeness, fresh plucked from the tree, The quarantine regulations are very as far surpasses the imported fruit, as a troublesome in almost all parts of the ripe apple does a green one. We had, Mediterranean. The people in this besides, dried figs strung upon reeds, quarter are always afraid of contagious somewhat in the manner in which we diseases, particularly the plague, which prepare dried apples. Here I saw for in former days committed terrible rava- The first time the pomegranate, a fruit ges. The quarantine on vessels from the larger than an orange, fuil of little sweet Levant, or the eastern part of the Medi- kernels. So we contented ourselves terranean, sometimes lasts for forty days. with eating fresh fruit and wishing the This restriction, when applied to ships quarantine at an end. from the United States, is very
(To be continued.) and absurd; yet it is rigidly enforced, for these people have heard that a contagious disease, called the yellow fever, sometimes prevails in America, and as The New Custom House, Boston. they have little knowledge of geography, they make hardly any distinction be- BETWEEN Long and Central wharves, tween one portion of the western conti- in Boston, a large edifice is now in pronent and another. The quarantine gress, called the New Custom-House. therefore is laid upon all vessels from A picture of it as it will be when finAmerica.
ished, engraved by Mr. Devereux, whose We found ourselves in company with office you will find at No. 47 Court fifteen or twenty other vessels perform- street, is given on the opposite page. ing quarantine, English, French, Span- The building is of granite, and already ish, Portuguese, Austrian and Greek. it may be seen that it is to be one of the There was an Austrian brig, loaded with finest structures in the city.
fluted columns have already an impos- There are public stores attached to ing effect. They are thirty-two feet in the custom-house, to which goods may length, and weighed forty-three, tons be sent, if the master applies for the each-they were obtained in one of the privilege, or if they are not called for in quarries at Quincy. It required forty five days. During the unlading of a or fifty yoke of oxen to bring one of vessel, an officer of the custom-house, these enormous pillars to the city.
called a tidewaiter, remains on board, This Custom-House is constructed by and takes an account of the cargo, so as the government of the United States. I to see that it corresponds with the manisuppose most of my readers know the fest and the entries made by the owners. use of a custom-house; but for the ben- The great object of all this is to get efit of those who do not, I will explain money to support the government with. its object. It is a place where the cus- The tax on some goods is twenty-five toms, or duties, laid on goods brought per cent., and on some it is thirty per into port by ships from foreign countries, cent., and on some there is no tax. The are paid and received.
amount of goods received at the BosThe course of the business is this. ton custom-house is immense. You When a vessel from England, or France, may judge of this by considering that or any other place, comes into port, a several millions of dollars are taken person from the custom-house, called a
there every year.
About eighty persons boarding officer, goes into her, and re- are employed at the custom-house in ceives from the captain the ship's pa- Boston. The superintendent of the pers. These consist of–1. The Mani- whole business is called the Collector. fest, which is a paper setting forth the The old custom-house of Boston, now cargo, and signed by the master of the used, is inconvenient; the new vessel. 2. The Register, which is a will be much larger and better. paper signed by an officer of the treas- There is a new custom-house at New ury at Washington, and countersigned York, which is a very different edifice by the collector of the port where she be- from this at Boston ; it is also much longs--giving a description of the vessel, larger, for the business done there is with her name, her size, who her owners more than four times as great as that are, and where she was built. 3. The done at the Boston custom-house. Roll of Equipage, which contains the There are many other custom-houses names of the ship's company, that is, the in this country, as at Philadelphia, Balcaptain, mate, and hands; and, 4. A list timore, and other places where ships of the passengers.
From all these, the government These papers are taken by the board of the United States receives about ing officer to the collector of the port, twenty millions of dollars every year. and the captain is required to enter his With this money, and what they get ship at the custom-house within twenty- from the sale of public lands and other four hours after his arrival. Then, if sources, they pay the expenses of the all the papers are right, the goods government, which are very great. The brought in the vessel may be entered army costs a great deal of money, and so at the custom-house by the several per- does the navy. I suppose one ship of war sons to whom they belong. These per- will cost half a million of dollars a year sons must make oath that the invoices while in active service! Then the are correct, pay the duty or tax on the President receives 25,000 dollars a year, goods, and then take them
away. and each of the foreign ministers has
9,000 a year, and the officers of the cus a great deal of money, it has need of tom-houses, members of Congress, and a great deal. The average expense of ten thousand postmasters, and a great our government is 25,000,000 of dollars, many other
persons, in the service of the which is about six hundred and fifty government, must all be paid. So you tons of silver, and would be as much as will see that if the government receives four hundred horses could draw!
The New Patent Office, Washington The building of which we here give rows, and coffee-mills, and saws, and a representation, is a depository for the water-wheels, and rakes, and corn-shelmodels of such inventions as are patented lers, and stump-removers, and a multiin the United States. The old patent tude of other things, all arranged accordoffice was burnt down a few years ago, ing to their kinds. In one part are and this has just been erected. It is a agricultural implements; in another, handsome and extensive edifice, and are machines for the manufacture of well adapted to the purpose for which it cotton; in another, those for the manuis designed.
facture of wool, &c. The number of The contents of this building display these inventions amounts to many
hunin an eminent degree the inventive and dreds, and some of them display admiingenious character of our countrymen, rable skill and contrivance on the part and especially of the New England peo- of the inventors. ple, for a large proportion of the models Perhaps some of my readers hardly here collected are furnished by New know why these things are collected in England men. There are machines a great building at Washington. I will here for almost every purpose under endeavor to make them understand it.
There are ploughs, and har. If a man contrives a plough, which is
on a new principle, he may send a houses, good roads, good means of model of it to the superintendent of the travelling, become cheaper and easier patent office, and he will grant him to be got
, and, therefore, it benefits LETTERS PATENT, which set forth that everybody to have government promote such a model has been so deposited, useful inventions by granting patents. according to an act of Congress. This being done, the inventor has the sole right to make and sell said ploughs, and have the profit arising from the same. What sort of Heart have you got? Thus he has what is called “ Patent Right”, for the plough he has invented. Most people seem to think only of The reason why the government their external
pergrants such patents is this: if a man sonal beauty, or their dress. If they who invents good and useful things can have a handsome face, or a good figure, have the advantage of their sale, he or a fine attire, they are perfectly satiswill be encouraged to invent more fied; nay, more—we often see persons useful things, and thus society will be showing vanity and pride merely bebenefited.
cause they have beautiful garments on, The utility of some_inventions to or because they are called pretty or mankind, is immense. Robert Fulton, handsome. of New York, about thirty years ago, Now I am not such a sour old fellow invented a steam engine that would as to despise these things—it is certainly propel a steamboat through the water. desirable to appear well; but I have This led to steam navigation, which is remarked that those persons who are the greatest improvement of modern vain of outside show, forget that the times. A man in England contrived real character of a person is within the an engine that would drive a car upon breast, and that it is of vastly greater a rail-road track, and thus rail-roads importance to have a good heart than a came into use. Eli Whitney, of Con- handsome person. necticut, about forty years ago, contrived The heart within the body is of flesh, a cotton gin, for separating the seed but it is the seat of life. Upon its from the cotton, which saved a vast beatings our life depends. Let the deal of labor, and reduced the price of heart stop, and death immediately folcotton one half. Thus it is that inge- lows. Beside this, the heart is influnious inventions improve the condition enced by our feelings. If one is sudof mankind. But many of these inven- denly frightened, it beats more rapidly. tions cost vast labor and expense to per- Any strong emotion, or passion, or senfect them. Fulton spent several years sation, quickens the action of the heart. and thousands of dollars before he com It is for these reasons,-because the pleted his steamboat. Therefore it is heart is the seat of life, and because it that, in most cases, men could not and seems to be the centre or source of our would not produce these useful contri- passions and feelings,—that we often call vances, if the result of their toil and the soul itself, the heart. Thus the expense could not be secured to them. heart of flesh is a sort of emblem or Therefore we see that there is good image of the soul. When I ask, therereason for giving them encouragement fore, what sort of heart you
have by granting patents. By means of these mean to ask what sort of soul you
have patents, good clothes, good food, good got? We often hear it said that such a