ter, in the white part with myriads of bread of bark and straw which has been globules, intermixed with a shapeless sub- sometimes used." stance. The globules are the seeds. If T his account is so extraordinary that we a little iodine is then given to the flannel, hardly know whether we ought to treat it it is readily absorbed, and the contents, seriously. To see a modern Musidora, shapeless matter, globules, and all, become while taking her bath, provide herself with deep violet, showing that all this substance à flannel robe is certainly strange, but is starch.

that this said garment, when done with, “Hence it appears that the water flan- may be turned into bread is still more nel is a microscopical plant, composed of wonderful. Looking at the important jointed threads, secreting carbonate of lime discoveries that have occurred within the on their surface, and forming seeds com- last half century, we see such vast addiposed of starch within them. And when tional means at our command for multiplywe consider that the joints are smaller than ing food, clothing, and all the necessaries the eye can detect, while each contains of life, that it is hardly too much to hope from 50 to 100 seeds, it may easily be con. that the world, or at least this favoured ceived with what rapidity such a plant is portion of it, will shortly make its formultiplied; and, as their contents consist tune, and want, in the absence of misconto a great extent of starch, the most rea- duct, be unknown before the present genedily organizable of all vegetable materials, ration passes away. the means of growth with which the plant is provided are far more ample than any.

JUDICIAL SLAUGHTER. thing we know of in the higher orders of the vegetable kingdom.

CRIMINAL JUSTICE A CENTURY AGO. “ This curious substance has of late. It has latterly been common to speak of vears attracted the attention of people in the reign of George Ill as one of frightful various parts of England, and the inquiries severity;

vinice severity ; as if by him executions had been that have been made of naturalists have

wantonly multiplied. This is not the fact. been so incorrectly answered that it is full That the punishment of death was in his time to put an end to the mistakes about

time much more frequently inflicted than it. In the year 1840 the Royal Agricul

it is now, cannot be denied. William IV tural Society submitted specimens of it to

abated the number of capital punishments, the late Librarian of the Linnæan Society

once so mournfully frequent, and during and the Secretarr of the Royal Dublin the present reign still geater mildness has Society. Mr Don declared it to be the Oscillatoria corium-one of the half-animal

But it is due to the memory of George half-vegetable productions which form

III to say that while he sat on the throne entangled layers in the bottom of streams

the march of humanity had more than in the colder parts of England. But it is

commenced. During a very considerable difficult to conceive what could have given

portion of his reign so many as five or six rise to this statement; for the water

sufferers was a very extraordinary sight. flannel has no one of the peculiarities of

In the days of his grandfather, George II, Oscillatoria corium, which, moreover, is

the case was different. The reader will be glossy and slimy. Mr Hardyman reported amazed at the evidences afforded by a sinit to be a water plant called Conferva gle year, and that a year not distinguished sordida. or. as he called it (Hibernicè), a by any remarkable outbreak, as exhibited kind of fresh-water sea-weed; and he was

as in the following notices extracted from the nearly, though not quite. right: for it is London Magazine' for 1750:really the Conferva crispa of Dillwyn, or the Wednesday, Feb. 7.- This day the nine C. capillaris of Linnæus, known for years following malefactors, condemned the two for the singular property it has of forming

last sessions (Hammond having obtained a beds of rough, entangled curling threads.

respite, Lidd being pardoned, and the rest to “ And for what purposes, we may ask, is

be transported for life), were executed at

Tyburn, viz. J. Edwards, for breaking open this small plant intended? Is it for food and robbing the house of Mr R. Fleming; for man or animals, or for decorating the Pat Dempsey, for assaulting and robbing Mr waters in which it grows, or for adding to Evan Saxe of his watch, &c.; Edward Dempwealth or comfort in any way? It is hard sey, for assaulting and robbing Mr Thomas to answer questions of this sort. That it Brown of a gold watch, diamond ring, &c.; has its use we may rest assured; but R. Hixon, for the highway; James Aldridge whether for us or our fellow-creatures it is and Thomas Good, for divers robberies; scarcely within my province to determine.

Lawrence Savage, for robbing Mr Constan

tine Gagahan of a silver watch; with Dennis One quarter of its weight consists of starch

Branham and William Purnell, for robbing and azotised substance; that is to say, of the

Mr Whiffin in Shoreditch of a hat and wig. nutritious matter that gives bread its value. The criminals set out from Newgate about Why. then, might not the water flannel nine in the morning, in four carts, which be converted into food in times of scarcity? (pursuant to ancient custom, but by a new It would certainly be far better than the order made by a vigilant city magistrate) were double guarded, all the proper officers · hangman for a fortnight: Andrews was orbeing commanded to attend. The procession dered to be transported for life, and Read

closed with the two under sheriffs (who had head for fourteen years. Vaughan died in 'never attended an execution before) holding Newgate, and the remaining thirteen were · their white wands. Endeavours were used this day executed at Tyburn. Nunnan, for to get the carts to stop, in order for the counterfeiting the coin, was drawn in a sledge, criminals to drink, but this indulgence was the executioner riding with him; and the prudently refused them. It was discovered, other twelve were conveyed in four carts. about Turnstile, that one of the criminals was Mr Sheriff Janssen, with five high constables, untied, but he was soon made fast again, and a very great number of their officers, They behaved with great decency at Tyburn. attended the procession, which proceeded The two Dempseys and another Irishman from Newgate to Tyburn, with the utmost died Roman Catholics. Near the gallows decency. There being, at the place of execustood a hackney coach, in which was a well- tion, crowds of soldiers and sailors, to receive dressed young woman, accompanied by two some of the bodies, they were ordered by the gentlemen. She wept bitterly, and after sheriff (on the sailors, &c. having behaved wards took one of the executed criminals peaceably) to be delivered to them, after into the coach. Most of the bodies of the being cut down by the executioner. By this rest were delivered to their friends. The prudent regulation, the barbarous custom of great decency and regularity with which this fighting for the bodies after execution, and execution was performed, is a second proof the many cruel mischiefs arising from thence, that a military force is quite unnecessary, were prevented. Benjamin Campbell Hamilwhenever the civil power will exert its just ton, a boy of sixteen, behaved with great inand proper authority. Our ancestors exe- decency all the way to Tyburn, and even cuted the laws without an unnatural aid, there. John Groves protested at the gallows and so may we, if we will but employ the that the goods for which he suffered had safe and laudable methods so wisely ordained been lent him by the prosecutrix, in order by them.”

for him to get a shirt of his out of pawn, in In the following month a like tragedy which he designed to mount guard the day

In the following month a like tragedy was acted :

after the pretended robbery. 'Tis assured

that the sheriffs never had the least thoughts “ Monday, March 26.--Eleven of the male.

of applying to their own use any property factors, condemned last sessions at the Old which might happen to be found of the above Bailey, were executed at Tyburn, viz., Jones,

mentioned Capt. Clark, but merely to assert Carbold, Young, Scott, Gawen, Doe, Russel, their right to it, as a perquisite belonging to Busbey, Oldfield, Roney, and Bastow. The their office.” rest were reprieved for transportation (see the seventh day). Jones and Young rode In these days what would be thought (pinioned together) in the first cart; a pre- of a procession of three vehicles, filled caution judged absolutely necessary, as the with sufferers, passing up Holborn to former was a great favourite of a desperate the place of execution ! The following we gang, who had rescued him out of the Gate- add to show how cheaply human life was house; and the latter had like to have es. then valued caped out of his cell in Newgate, he having sawed off his irons, &c. The other nine cri

Wednesday, Aug. 8.This day were exe- . minals followed in three carts, three in each. cuted at Tyburn Henry Web and Ely Smith, Mr Sheriff Janssen attended, preceded by the for robbing Henry Smith in Bream's buildings; two under sheriffs. There were between two

heriffs. There were between two Benjamin Chamberlain, for robbing Mr Powel and three hundred constables, with their in Chancery lane; Thomas Crawford, for several high constables. viz., Mr Carne, for robbing Capt. Harris, in East Smithfield; Westminster: Mr Welch, for Holborn: Mr with Samuel Cook and James Tyler, for robAdlington, for the Tower Hamlets; and Mr bing farmer Darnel near Hackney. They Harford, for Finsbury division. The attend were carried in two carts from Newgate, at ance of the two last and of their posses had eight in the morning. Mr Sheriff Janssen never been required before. The several attended with the high constables; as likecarts are lined by constables within, and by wise did the city marshal (for the first time) civil officers on horseback without; and no with his officers, as far as Holborn bars. persons, either on horseback or on foot, suf. Most of these malefactors discovered an unfered to mix with them; by which means the concern which no ways suited their condition. whole proceeded regularly and without in- The procession 'went on with great order, and terruption. During the procession, and at the execution was over by half an hour past the place of execution, great numbers of the ten. Crawford, who had shown great resopoplace either threw away, or gave up (upon lution in his way to the gallows, turned extheir being required to do it) their blud. ceeding pale when the rope was about his geons; a remarkable example of the influence neck. The bodies of the criminals were de(superior to any other) of the civil power, any other of the civil power. livered to their friends: three hearses attend

i when duly exercised."

ing for that purpose. The regulations made Two months afterwards thirteen more

in the Sheriffaliy of Mr Alderman Janssen

more have been procluctive of two excellent effects wretches suffered at the same place: (among others): First, the reviving the

Wednesday, May 16.-When the report former decency and solemnity of executions : of the eighteen condemned malefactors was Secondly, the restoring the civil power to its made to the Lords of the Regency, Capt. ancient use and lustre. May future magisClark was respited sine die, and Thrift the trates copy the example here set them!

« It is remarkable, that the above six ma- be a desperate fellow, he was carried to the lefactors suffered for robbing their several place of execution handcuffed. The rest prosecutors of no more than six shillings. who were condemned the last sessions were 11 "Little villains must submit to fate,

reprieved for transportation. Reynolds, That great ones may enjoy the world in state.' executed for enlisting men into foreign ser:

GARTH." vice, declared in the Press-yard, whilst his The same volume contains further no

irons were knocking off, that he went to be

hanged with as much satisfaction as if he was tices of the same dismal character. In

going to be married, for that he was innothe next group is a sort of Macheath of the

cent of the crime for which he suffered, and time.

freely forgave his prosecutor.” “ Wednesday, October 3, 1750.—Twelve of the sixteen malefactors, who were condemned

THE CEMETERY. at the last sessions at the Old Bailey, among

(By'the American Poet Bryant.) whom were William Smith for forgery (who I GAZED upon the glorious sky was also charged with divers other forgeries). And the green mountains round, and James Maclean, were this day executed And thought, that when I came to lie at Tyburn, pursuant to their sentence.

Within the silent ground, Smith, who was the son of a clergyman in

"Twere pleasant, that in flowery June, Ireland, after he was haltered in the Press

When brooks sent up a cheerful tune, yard, went to a bench, and kneeling down,

And groves a joyous sound, made a devout extempore prayer, acknow

The sexton's hand, my grave to make, ledging his crimes, dying in charity with all

The rich, green, mountain-turf should break.

The rich, green, mou mankind, and hoping for forgiveness at the

There, through the long, long summer hours, great tribunal. Maclean was the son of a dissenting minister in Ireland, and has a

The golden light should lie, brother of the same persuasion now living at

And thick young herbs and groups of flowers

Stand in their beauty by. the Hague, a worthy and pious man, as ap

The oriole should build and tell pears by his excellent and most affecting letters, published in Dr Allen's account,

His love-tale close beside my cell ;

The idle butterfly one to his unhappy brother and the other to a friend. Both Maclean and Smith had been

Should rest him there, and there be heard educated in virtuous and religious princi

The housewife bee and humming bird. ples, but unhappily counteracted them; And what if cheerful shouts, at noon, though the force of them returned to their Come from the village sent, misery, and made them both, as is to be Or songs of maids, beneath the moon, hoped, sincere penitents. These twelve With fairy laughter blent; malefactors were carried from Newgate to

to And what if, in the evening light, Tyburn in four carts, Maclean, Smith, and Betrothed lovers walk in sight Saunders being in the last. Maclean, when

Of my low monument: he came to the gallows, looked up and said, I would the lovely scene around with a sigh, Oh Jesus! He took no notice Might know no sadder sight nor sound. of the populace, but was truly attentive to I know, I know I should not see his devotion, and spoke not at all, except to The season's glorious show, the constable who first took him up, who Nor would its brightness shine for me, desired to shake him by the hand, and hoped Nor its wild music flow; he would forgive him; which he said he did, But, if around my place of sleep and hoped that God would bless his friends. The friends I love should come to weep, forgive his enemies, and receive his soul. They might not haste to go. Smith was a man of parts, and had a very Soft airs, and song, and light and bloom, gentlemanlike appearance: he was very de- Should keep them lingering by my tomb. vout, as were all the others, and died very penitent. No soldiers attended at the above Mining in the Pyrenees.-A gentleman, execution; the excellent regulations made lately from the Pyrenees, says—" The (in this and other respects) during the late mines opened near the famous Port de sheriffalty, having rendered the aid of the Venasque, to within a few feet of the military power quite unnecessary. The fol

summit of the extraordinary natural obelowing lines were wrote on Smith's going to

lisk called the Pic de Picade, are the reexecution. ••• With talents blest to charm the mind and eye,

mains of a gallery about two hundred feet What pity thou, at Tyburn tree, must die!" long, piercing a rich vein of lead ore, Cover'd with crimes, no king cou'd well forgive; supposed to have been executed by the What pity so complete a wretch shou'd live. Romans, as it is known that the latter “ Wednesday, November 7, 1751. –The five were acquainted with the mineral wealth, following malefactors were executed at Ty of the Pyrenean mountains. The situaburn, viz. Thomas Reynolds, Thomas Pryor, tion of this shaft, occupying eight hours of George Robins, George Anderson, alias almost perpendicular climbing to attain Jeffery Everett, who were condemned the last sessions at the Old Bailey, and William

it, give some idea of the difficulties attendRiley, condemned the preceding sessions.

ant upon the execution of the work. The They all, except Everett, behaved in a man

mines, which are at the base of the Pic ner becoming their unhappy circumstances; have only been opened during the sumbut he seemed hardened and unconcerned, mer, and were yielding 1 oz. of silver in and, as by several symptoms he appeared to 13 lbs. of lead."

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NELSON'S PILLAR. We give this week a correct representation of the column just completed in honour of the hero of the Nile, Copenhagen, and Trafalgar. Want of space compels us to postpone till our next some particulars, interesting as a record connected with the fine arts, of this national monument.


Arms. Quarterly, first and fourth, az., three cross crosslets, fitchée, issuant from as many crescents, ar.

Crest. A dexter hand, couped above the wrist, and erect, ppr., grasping a crescent.
Supporters. Two parrots, ppr.
Motto. “I hope to speed."

THE NOBLE HOUSE OF CATHCART. he had no issue. He was succeeded by his This is an ancient Scottish family. Reic son Charles, who married, July 24th, 1753. naldus de Kethcart was a subscribing wit

Jane, daughter of Lord Archibald Hamilness to a grant to Alan, the son of Walter

ton, and granddaughter of William, fourth Dapifer Regis of the patronage of the Duke of Hamilton. He served as Aidechurch of Kethcart to the monastery of

de-Camp to the Duke of Cumberland at Paisley, in 1178. His lineal descendant,

Fontenoy, fought April 30th, 1745 ; atSir Alan Cathcart, was distinguished for

tained the rank of Lieutenant-General in his valour at the battle of Loudoun hill,

the army, and was invested with the Orin 1307. His worth is thus celebrated :

der of the Thistle. He died July 21st,

1776, and was succeeded by the present " A knight that then was in his rout,

peer, William Schaw, who was born in Worthy, and withal stalwart and stout Courteous and fair, and of good fame,

August, 1755. He married, April 10th, Sir Alan Cathcart was his name.”

1779, Elizabeth, daughter of Andrew He was succeeded by his son Alan de Cath- Elliot, Esq., Governor of New York. His cart, and the great-grandson of the latter lordship entered the army, and became a was created Baron Cathcart, by James II Major-General in 1794, and Lieutenantof Scotland, in 1447. He was Warden of General in 1801. He was Commander-in. the West Marshes, and on his death was Chief of the expedition sent against Cosucceeded by his grandson, John, the second penhagen in 1807, and on his return was Lord Cathcart. He had one son, known rewarded, Nov. 3rd, 1807, with the Baas Alan, Master of Cathcart, who “died rony and Viscounty of the United Kingthe death of fame” at Flodden field in 1513. dom. On the 16th July, 1814, he was His son succeeded to the title of the grand further advanced to the dignity of an father. He married the eldest daughter Earl. His lordship has also served the of Lord Sempill, and lost his life in the country as Ambassador at the Court of St battle of Pinkie, fought on the 10th of Petersburg. He is a General Officer in the September, 1547. The son of this noble- army, Colonel of the 2nd Regiment of Life man, the grandson, the great-grandson, Guards, member of the Board of General and the great-great-grandson, all of the Officers, a Commissioner of the Royal Milisame name, succeeded in due course tary College, and Royal Military Asylum, to the honours and estates. The last and Vice-Admiral of Scotland. dying in 1732, the title came to his son Charles, the eighth Baron. He was distin- GARDENING HINTS FOR NOVEMBER. guished as a soldier, and was in the battle 1.-KITCHEN-GARDEN AND ORCHARD. of Sheriffmuir. Several important offices

In-door Department. in the Court of George II were afterwards PINERY.—There is more danger from drips held by him. In 1740 he embarked for and over-watering than from the plants America, having been appointed Com- getting too dry, especially when bottommander-in-Chief of all the British forces heat is on the decline, and the pots not there, but died on the voyage on the 20th well filled with roots; these two causes of December. He had been married in soon tell on the black pines. A uniform 1718 to Marion, the only child of Sir John bottom-heat, with the atmosphere rather Schaw, of Greenock, by whom he had a dry, and not much on either side of 600 in son and two daughters. Of these the the morning, will do for this month. elder, Eleanor, married Sir John Houston, VINERY.-For the next six weeks a pracand Mary Anne, Lord Napier. He after- tised eye can see clearly if the plants in wards married Mrs Sabine, widow of the late vineries have been over cropped, Joseph Sabine, Esq., of Tring. By her even should the half of the crops be already

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