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LITERATURE, AMUSEMENT, AND INSTRUCTION.
Original Communications. forward state before they could be an
nounced as nearly finished, every one must HUNGERFORD BRIDGE. be struck with the contrast now supplied The public will be rather taken by sur- when the Hungerford-market bridge, which prise to find that the new bridge from careless observers would regard as little Hungerford market to Lambeth is on the more than commenced, is found to be so point of being completed. Remembering, far advanced that the public may expect as many inhabitants of this vast city must, to be in possession of their new thorough. how many years the Vauxhall and Water- fare across the Thames before next Mid. loo bridges were apparently in a more summer. No. 1191]
From the glyphographic drawing an losing those appellations by which it is in nexed, it will be seen that the new struc- the first instance proposed that they shall ture will be what is called “a suspen- be known. When the foundation stone of sion bridge." It will stand about mid- Blackfriars bridge was laid, an inscription way between Westminster and Waterloo was deposited with it, which stated the bridges.
building, when finished, would be called The idea of a bridge over the Thames “Pitt bridge.” In like manner, Vauxhall coming before the public on a sudden, bridge was intended to be known as “ Reseems almost as extravagant as the build- gent's bridge.” In these cases, the statesing of a palace in a single night by means man and the ruler intended to be honoured of Aladdin's lamp. We can only say in were put aside, and the bridges were explanation, that the two piers standing called after places with which they were in the river are nearly all that can arrest connected. The magnificent erection by attention in the present state of the works. Somerset house, on the contrary, intended More, much more, those who have watched to be called “Strand bridge,” was subsethe progress of the other bridges of the quently proposed to be distinguished by metropolis, would naturally conclude must the name of “ Waterloo,” in compliment to be seen, long before the several parts could the Duke of Wellington. All London, we be connected. But let the inquirer pass may say all England, acquiesced, and it from Hungerford to the wharf opposite, and will, doubtless, continue to be known by there he will find that the ribs, the saddles, that name so long as one stone remains and all the iron work necessary to finish upon another. the undertaking have been silently pro- From pier to pier, the length of the Hunvided. Every piece is distinctly marked, gerford bridge will be 600 feet; the entire and kept in such admirable order, that extent 1,440 feet; and its height, from the when the pier on the Lambeth side is water level to the footway, 28 feet. The done, which will be about Christmas, it is height of each pier will be nearly 100 feet. confidently declared that the ironwork can The links that compose the supporting be put together with little labour, and with chains are made of malleable iron, and the such rapidity that the structure will be in weight will not be less than 700 tons. The every respect complete by next June, if property required to make the approaches not sooner.
will cost 13,000/.; and the bridge itself It need hardly here be repeated, that 80,000). Including incidental expenses, the bridge is not for carriages, but for foot those for obtaining the Act of Parliament, passengers exclusively.
&c., the total cost will be 106,000!. It has Some doubts have been thrown out as to been calculated that the tolls collected may, the utility of such an erection while West- when the bridge is fully at work, be ex. minster bridge is gratuitously open, and pected to give a profit to the proprietors Waterloo bridge, which may be crossed for of eight per cent. on their outlay. a halfpenny, are so near. It, however, appears that it is not on the profits derived from those who go over it that this undertaking THE DESPOT; OR, IVAN THE TERwill mainly depend. Originally it was in
RIBLE. tended to build a pier for the convenience
(Continued from p. 329.) of the numerous steam boats that leave DEEPLY and memorably affecting was the Hungerford stairs. This bridge will supply scene which followed. Arrived at the that desideratum, a commodious approach place of execution, each victim was anfor the accommodation of those who are xious to suffer first. The son presented about to embark, and the rickety, wooden himself to the axe, and begged that it temporary in-convenience by which the might descend on him, leaving his father boats are now reached will be removed. as many moments of life as the instruments The bridge is to be entered from the gals of the tyrant dared to concede. But the lery over the floor of the market. Com- prince claimed the sad privilege of leading bining the advantages of a well-frequented the way to the tomb, and so earnestly prayed pier with those of an important and com- to be spared the shock of seeing the blood modious thoroughfare from the Strand to of his offspring shed, that the son gave up the York road, Lambeth, it may be found the point. He saw his father fall. The both useful to the public and largely remu. head was severed from the body, and the nerative to the proprietors, which we fear young man, witness of the awful deed, the the larger bridges have not proved as yet moment after sprang forward, and eagerly The erection when completed promises to kissed, the venerated, but now lifeless feabe one of equal elegance and solidity, tures, and was thus engaged when the fatal
What the name of it will be we may blow was struck which laid him lifeless. by almost be excused for saying its projectors the side of his parent's remains. Four and proprietors themselves cannot be ex. other princes were beheaded in the same pected to know. We cannot tell why, but day, and one was impaled. bridges are very much in the habit of The shedding of blood seems really to
intoxicate as well as brutalise. The career It was his pleasure that this new order of most tyrants will be found to be marked should be most splendid in its appearance, by absurdities not less startling than their and for that purpose habits embroidered crimes were enormous. The wretched Ivan, with fur and gold were provided, and at proceeding in his career of wickedness, in the same time he was as strict in his obdulged in unimaginable extravagances, and servances as if the most fervent piety had the horrid was frequently found associated animated his bosom. It would almost with the ridiculous. The select legion, seem as if the sacrilegious monster had which was to have consisted of a thousand cheated himself into a belief that the persons of birth and importance, was in- sins against reason and humanity, in creased to six thousand, and in this fearful the perpetration of which he was daily body the lowest and most infamous of the engaged, were to be atoned for by the mob were freely admitted. They were en- solemnities he practised. At three o'clock couraged to commit every sort of excess. in the morning he left his bed and repaired More than ten thousand householders were with his children and the sacristan to the driven from their dwellings that the Stre- church, in order to ring the bell, which litzes might be well lodged. They plun- was to call the brothers to matins. Any dered with impunity, and brought forward monk who dared to absent himself was charges which were wholly false, to gain punished with imprisonment for a week. an order for wholesale confiscation. To Prayers were then read, and a service, render their appearance more striking, a which lasted from three to four hours, was dog's head and a broom were ordered to be performed. Ivan engaged in it with the suspended from their saddle bows, to indi- zeal of a pious enthusiast, whose every cate that it was their province to worry the thought was fixed on the glories of a betenemies of their master, and to sweep them ter world. He sung and prayed, and re. from the face of the earth.
peatedly prostrated himself on the floor, The magnificent Kremlin was not suffi- and that with such energy that his forecient to satisfy the despot's pride, and by head was often severely bruised. At eight his command a new palace was built out. o'clock the farce was resumed, and mass side its limits, which was provided with was celebrated. At ten the fraternity sat bulwarks like a fortress. Its aspect was down to table, with the exception of Ivan, most formidable, and by commanders of who remained standing, and read to them that period it was pronounced to be im- from some pious book, to assist, even while pregnable ; but fear, which uniformly pur- they were feasting, the progress of their sues guilt, whispered to Ivan that within souls in grace. They fared sumptuously, its walls he was not secure. To Alexan- and the remains of their repast were sent to drovsky, to which he had withdrawn on the market place and given to the poor. the occasion of his threatened abdication, To mark his humility, the abbot dined he determined to return. There palaces, after the rest of the fraternity, and then he churches, and houses, were soon seen in would converse with them on spiritual the course of erection, and the humble vil affairs, and on the steps proper to be taken lage was changed into a large town. The with a view to the salvation of their imchurch of Our Lady was a splendid object. mortal part, in order “to make their calling It was painted outside of the most dazzling and election sure.” colours, and enriched with gold and silver, Few readers will be prepared for what while every brick presented a representa- was to follow these devout exercises. His tion of the cross. Never was that religion prayers ended, the Czar descended into the which breathes “Peace upon earth and dungeons of his prison, to see the torture goodwill to men” more outrageously inflicted on the wretches who languished mocked than it was by this fiend in human there. His ingenuity assisted the ministers form. While Ivan reposed in a splendid of his wrath, and, prompted by him, the palace, defended by a ditch and a rampart, tormenters often succeeded in causing the and while all persons were prohibited from unhappy captives to experience a more leaving or entering the town without his awful thrill of intolerable agony than their express permission, and patrols con- own unaided labours would have inflicted. stantly surrounded it to enforce this man- From this scene, which might have appaldate, and while the most abominable sen- led a demon, he withdrew, apparently suality was indulged in from day to day, much cheered by what he had witnessed. Ivan affected to establish a monastery, and The sufferings of the victims furnished styled his favourite companions in riot him with mirthful themes to heighten and dissipation monks, and himself their the gaiety of his evening, which, as might abbot. Nor was this merely an irreverent be expected with one who rose so early, jest; he made the brothers, as his Baccha was short. Vespers were read at eight nalian crew were called, go through the o'clock, and shortly after he retired to most solemn exercises of the church, and his bed chamber, where three blind men, Prince Skuratof received the title of Sa skilled in the art of story-telling, atcristan.
tended to lull him to repose ; but commonly he directed that he should be wanton barbarity was not confined to the roused from his slumbers at midnight, in place which has been named. In Moscow order that he might commence the new the wife of an obnoxious boyard was often day by humbling himself before the mighty compelled, when he passed in procession, being, his Creator, whom he lived but to to appear in a state of nudity. Scenes outrage.
equally offensive to decorum marked the Such was the singular construction of pageants of the monarchs of France in this man's mind! But that his deeds were the preceding century, but these were not So unequivocally atrocious that charity inflictions on women of character. If cannot regard them as anything less than disorderly females for pastime or pay apmonstrous crimes, they would almost have peared in several public scenes, their been supposed to proceed from inspira- attendance was always voluntary. tions, or at least from virtuous error. But, In the year 1569 a native of Volhynia, alas ! while singing the matin song, named Peter, who for gross misconduct while in the very act of claiming mercy had been punished by the authorities of from above, he would issue his orders for Novgorod, panting for revenge, determined remorseless butchery on earth. To torture to make the suspicious Czar believe that and murder his fellow men, with the those who had incurred his hatred were in amusement of bear-hunting, were the great correspondence with the King of Poland, delights of his life. The former luxury and contemplated putting themselves under never seemed to cloy. He went forward his protection. He forged a letter to that "As if increase of appetite
monarch, purporting to be written by the Had grown on what it fed on.”
Archbishop of Novgorod in the name of His fatal orders were issued from Alexan the inhabitants. He contrived to get it drovsky; havock was the word, and placed behind the figure of the Virgin in princes, nobles, and substantial citizens the church of St Sophia, and in due time fell in every direction. The ferocious the paper was found, and the Czar inStrelitzes, from day to day growing bolder formed of all the particulars of the preunder his protection, increased the number tended conspiracy. This was enough for of their victims. Not fewer than twenty Ivan. Sentence was pronounced against per diem are said thus to have perished, the whole city, and on the 29th December, and, to gratify Ivan and his unworthy 1569, he left Alexandrovsky, accompanied favourites, the unburied bodies were left as by his son and the select legion, in order decorations of the streets and squares to execute the scheme of hellish vengeance through which they occasionally passed, which he had resolved to carry into effect till decomposition had more than com- against the inhabitants. Not to lose time, menced.
he exterminated the whole population of Against these appalling deeds Philip, one or two towns on his way, and at Twer, the new metropolitan, who had been com- where the metropolitan lately deposed repelled by the Czar to quit a desert island sided in a monastery, Ivan's confident and which he had chosen for his residence, was mock secretary, Skuratof, saw the unhappy the only man who had the courage and the ecclesiastic, and strangled him in his cell. virtue to remonstrate. He ventured to Ivan did not himself enter Twer, but point out to the despot the evil conse established himself at a neighbouring moquences which they were likely to produce nastery, where he remained five or six here, as well as the tremendous punish days. His soldiers, however, pillaged the ment which might be expected to meet town, and in
town, and in resentment of the admonithem in the world to come. For this the tion their master had received from the good man was thrown into prison, and metropolitan, their fury was especially ditreated with great severity. The morose rected against the clergy. A catalogue of tyrant, far from profiting by the sage horrors is now presented to us, which the council which had been given, now deter- eye shudders to look upon, which have the mined to extend the scale of his operations, air of being too extravagant for romance, and, not satisfied with shedding the blood though unhappily they are well attested of individuals, he aspired to signalize him as forming part of real history. Not only self by destroying a whole community. was property of every kind seized and At a fáir held at Torjek, a quarrel occur- carried away, but the ferocious Strelitzes red between a few of the select legion and made torturing and hanging the helpless some of the townsmen, and for this the inhabitants their daily pastime. The Powhole of the inhabitants were denounced lish prisoners who were there confined as traitors. The six thousand Strelitzes were brought out and slaughtered in cold were let loose. Many of the people were blood; some were shot, some cut in pieces, inhumanly tortured, and many more were and others drowned in the Volga, and all drowned. At Kolomna similar scenes were this was but the prologue to the memoraacted, and the ladies doomed to die were ble tragedy which remained to be acted at first stripped naked, exposed to the gaze Moscow. of the populace, and then shot. This
(To be continued.)
RELICS OF CHARLES THE FIRST. and gave it to my grandmother, Lora Pitt, THE Counterpane which covered the bed of as is stated on the cover herein inclosed : Charles I at St James's Palace, the night the endorsement was written ninety years before his execution, and which is made of after the event took place, and my granda thick blue satin, embroidered with gold mother was born in the reign of Charles and silver, in a deep border, was used by the Second. I myself know that that enthe family of Champneys, of Orchardleigh, dorsement is the handwriting of my grandnear Frome, Somersetshire, as a christen- mother, who evidently believed it to be ing mantle, from the period it came into true ; and this I write ninety years also their possession, by marriage with the sole after the writing of that endorsement by heiress of the Chandlers of Camon's hall, my grandmother.” near Fareham, in Hampshire-a family The Satin Cap worn by Charles I at the connected with Cromwell. The Sword-belt time of his Execution. It appears that this of the unfortunate king is also at Orchard. melancholy relic, after having been in the leigh house.
possession of Bishop Juxon, came into that The Prayer Book of King Charles, and of Sir — Hungerford, standard bearer to used by him on the morning of his execu- Charles I, and afterwards into the family tion, was sold by auction, May 17, 1825, by of the Innocents, of Great Newport street, Mr Thomas, of King street, Covent gar- Leicester Square, London, who, it is said, den: it was printed partly in black letter, retained it for upwards of one hundred of folio size, bound in russia, originally years. It next became the property of purple, but very much faded, with arms on General Crewe, who gave 701. for it; and, the cover in gold, of the Elector Palatine, lastly, that of the Rev. Edward Leigh, of afterwards King of Bohemia, empaling the Painton, whose executors offered it for arms of his wife, Princess Elizabeth, sale, 1843. There was an old written daughter of James I, and sister of Charles I. paper fastened to the cap, stating it to be The title-page was wanting. On the leaf the identical one worn by Charles at his of the preface was written, “King Charles execution. the First's own prayer book;” and “ Er The Watch and Shirt* belonging to Libris Biblioth. presby. Dumf. Ex dono Charles I came into the possession of the Joan Hutton, M.D., 1714.” On the title. Hon. Bertram Ashburnham, who, by his page of the Psalter was “Carolus R.” sup will, dated 16th June, 1733, bequeathed posed to have been the autograph of them to the church of Ashburnham, SusCharles. This book is reported to have sex, as appears by the following extract : been given by the king to Dr Juxon, who “And I desire and direct my executor or attended him on the scaffold. It was sold executors, soon after my decease, to deliver to a Mr Slator, for one hundred pounds. the watch and shirt which are now in my
The Chair used by Charles I during his custody, and formerly belonged to his MaTrial. This attractive curiosity was also jesty, King Charles I, to the minister of placed for the king's accommodation upon the church of Ashburnham aforesaid, in the scaffold at Whitehall. It has a long order to be deposited among the plate and seat and high back, and is covered with linen belonging to the said church, where deep crimson velvet, a footstool being at I desire and direct the same may remain tached to it of corresponding style and for ever.” They were deposited accordmaterial. It was exhibited at the Bir- ingly in the chancel of the church ; but, mingham Mechanics’ Institution, Febru- some rogue contriving to steal the outary, 1840.
ward case of the watch, they can only be The Pocket Handkerchief of Charles I was seen now through the medium of a glass purchased some years since by a silver- case. smith of Bath, at the sale of the effects of The Linen Chest of Charles I is in the W. M. Pitt, Esq., of Dorchester ; it was of possession of the writer of this memoir : fine white cambric, and peatly marked the inside is lined with pink silk, and the with the imperial crown and the initials “C. R.” It was accompanied by the fol- * On the morning of his execution, Charles lowing certificates :- This was King awaking, after four hours' sound sleep, called
Herbert. who was lying by the side of his master's Charles the First's Handkerchief that he bed, saying to him: “This is my second weddinghad on the scaffold when he was beheaded, day: i would be as trim as may be." He then apJanuary ye 30th, 1648.--From my cousin pointed what clothes he would wear. “Let me have Anne Foyle, 1733."-"Certincate by me,
a shirt on more than ordinary by reason the season
is so sharp, as probably may make me shake, t July 25, 1828–W. M. Pitt:-as to the which some observers may imagine proceeds from authenticity of the fact, I can only state fear. I would have no such imputation."-Herbert's that I was informed by my father, that Mrs Memoirs, p. 127, 8vo. 1702.
As the shirt in Ashburnham church has the stain Anne Foyle was a cousin of his mother's, of blood on it, most probably it was the one worn whose father was much attached to the over the under-shirt. king; was present at his death, and ob- - + Whilst Bailly, the mayor of Paris, was ascending
the steps of the scaffold to be executed (1793), a soldier tained by some means or other, this hand
accosted him, saying, “You tremblel” “No, my kerchief ; from her father she obtained it, Triend,” replied Bailly, “I only shake with cold."