be possible from the windows of one house it indispensable that the face, the mirror to pry into those of another. This of the heart, should be seen, it is usually task, of course, it is not always possible to uncovered piecemeal, first one cheek and accomplish; in which case, not only are then the other, but never the whole at the windows masked by railings of carved once. wood, but the light of heaven and the The Duke of Wellington's Last Triumph.glances of the curious are farther impeded The following is a literal account of part of by the interposition of stained glass. a conversation held with a young man of

The Land Tax.-This is equally borne twenty-one:-“Did you ever hear tell of by the property in towns and the estates of

the Duke of Wellington?” “No,—but I the landed aristocracy. In one form or

seed his shape once." "Did you see it over another it has existed since the Normans

& public-house door?" “ No ; I seed it introduced the feudal government into riain

ridin' on a jackass, with a pair o'owd boots this country. Under the Commonwealth

on, and a pipe in his mouth.” “And it became a permanent money tax on the

where did this happen?” “Why at Marsland. Four years after the Revolution a

den;"—where, as I subsequently gathered, new survey and valuation were made ;

this effigy of his grace had been paraded which survey and valuation, notwithstand.

on the occasion of some political exciteing the vast increase in the value of the

ment.-Chaplain's Report on the Preston land, have never been altered to the pre- House of Cor

House of Correction." sent day. In the reign of Queen Anne

- An ancient coffin was discovered the tax on the survey and valuation of some time since in the cemetery of Lens King William was rated at four shillings

(Pas de Calais). 'The body, which fell to

(ras de Calais). The body, which tell to in the pound of the rent, and this has

dust when exposed to the air, was supposed never been exceeded in a period of more to have been that of a person of rank, than 130 years; so that, even where the

from a certain quantity of jewels found tax has not been redeemed, the original W

original with it. They consist of a pair of earrings, four shillings scarcely amounts to a six. a

a brooch, two cloak-clasps, a large pin, and pence.

sa bulla or medallion, all of gold. The clasps Thames Water.- In the course of the are covered over with a fine tracery of parliamentary inquiry which took place gold, giving the appearance of net-work. some time ago it was proved that, between The whole of these articles were submitted Chelsea Hospital and London bridge, the to the Historical Committee of Paris. The contents of more than 100 common sewers opinion given by the committee is, that emptied themselves into the Thames. Fur. the objects date from the time of the thermore, instead of this mass of filth Merovingian race, and that they formed being swept into the ocean by every ebb the ornaments of a princess. of the tide, it appeared that after being carried about thirty miles by every ebb

TO CORRESPONDENTS. . tide, the same water returns by the flood, so that a constant flux and reflux of Nitre, commonly called saltpetre, is formed in great the abomination was established. “The

abundance on the surface of the earth, more par

ticularly in India, South America, and Africa, Thames,” observed Mr Mills in his evi

In Germany and France it is obtained from artidence, “is neither more nor less than the ficial nitre beds, which consist of the refuse of common sewer of London.”

animal and vegetable bodies undergoing decomHow to Live Long and Joyously.The

position. When oxygen gas is presented to azote,

at the instant of its disengagement nitric acid is wonderful story of Louis Cornaro teaches a formed which seems to explain the origin of these fine moral lesson. He was infirm and acid beds. The azote disengaged from these putrefearfully passionate in his youth, and

fying substances combines with the oxygen of the

air, and the potash, probably, partly being furnished addicted, like most of the young men of

by decomposed vegetable matter, forms the nitre in his clime and period, to intemperance ; question. It is obtained in a marketable form by but perceiving the injurious consequences

lixiviating the earthy matters with water, and when

sufficiently saturated pouring it of. The salt is colof indulging in excesses of temper and

lected in brown crystals by evaporising the water by sensuality, he changed the whole course of

repeated processes, the nitre is obtained in a pure his life, and, submitting himself to regular . form.

R. W. must be blind if he does not see many costly and and severe discipline, vanquished his dan

valuable additions have been supplied, which might gerous inclinations, became one of the

console a reasonable observer for the absence of what most hearty and cheerful men of his age, he is pleased to say, formerly "threw luster” on and expired gently in his arm-chair, after

«The Mirror,' but which has not been neglected. having survived his hundredth year.

Natural Magic next week.

Many communications omitted in the present number Oriental Modesty. Even from a physi. "will be attended to at the same time. cian, to whom an Eastern woman is suffi. ciently unreserved in every other respect, the face must be carefully concealed. “My


Adelaide Street, Trafalgar Square; and Sold by all face thou must not see, for then I should

Booksellers and Newsmen. have shown thee my whole heart,” she will Printed by C. REYNELL, 16 Little Pulteney street, say; and if the nature of her illness makes and at the Royal Polytechnic Institution.




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Original Communications.

left it at his death, in 1486, to his succes-,

sors and that see for cver. Archbishop KNOLE, IN KENT.

Morton, who succeeded him, augmented It is a grateful task to explore those noble,

the building, and died at Knole in the year time-defying edifices which have seen

1500. He appears to have been visited many successive generations pass away,

once, or more than once, by Henry VII. which still retain much of their grandeur,

Dene and Warham were the next prewhile their lords are seen no more, and

lates in succession, and the seventh and “ Hands which the reins of empire once had held, eighth Henries were among the visitors of

In arms who triumphed or in arts excelled,” the latter. After Warham, Cranmer filled have crumbled into dust. One of these we the see, and many of its rich possessions find in the subject of the cut which em- he deemed it prudent to surrender to the bellishes the present number of the King, in order to secure the rest. Knole,

Mirror.' The mansion there represented with its park and lands, thus became the has been the seat of many distinguished property of the Crown, by whom it was families. It is near Sevenoaks, in the retained till after the accession of Edcounty of Kent, and stands in a large and ward V, when it was granted, with other beautiful park. Baldwin de Bethun, Earl estates, to John Dudley Earl of Warwick, of Albemarle, held it in the time of King afterwards Duke of Northumberland. On John. To the Mareschals, Earls of Pem- the attainder of that nobleman, in the time broke, it passed by marriage, and next to of Queen Mary, for supporting the cause the proud Bigods, Earls of Norfolk, and of his daughter-in-law, Lady Jane Grey, from them to Otho de Grandison. Sirfor which crime he was brought to the Geffrey de Say, a knight banneret, bought block, it was granted by Mary, with Sevenit of Sir Thomas Grandison, the descendant oaks and other estates, to her kinsman, of Otho. Thence it is traced to Rauf Cardinal Pole, then archbishop. By a Leghe, who sold it to the Fienneses, Lords remarkable coincidence, that prelate Say and Sele. In 1456 it was disposed of died on the same day that Queen Mary by William Lord Say and Sele to Thomas breathed her last; and Knole, again reBourchier, Archbishop of Canterbury, who verting to the Crown, was bestowed No. 1182]



by Queen Elizabeth, in the third year of In the chimney there are two ancient dogs her reign, on Robert Earl of Leicester. of elaborate workmanship. The hall has He did not long enjoy it, being induced five at one end a raised floor for the table of years afterwards to surrender it to his the lord, as was customary in “the olden royal mistress. It was next granted, in time,” while long tables were ranged on the following year, to Thomas Sackville the sides of the apartment for the tenants Lord Buckhurst, K.G., subject, however, and domestics : one of these remains, to the remaining terms of a lease which which appears to have been constructed. had been granted by the Earl of Leicester, for the ancient game of shuffleboard. through which the new proprietor did not Stained glass, of a former century, adorns obtain full possession until 1603, when it numerous parts of the building, and the was given up by the Lennards of Chevering, Holbein gallery, which is eighty-eight feet in who had held it in the interim. Lord length, presents a fine collection of portraits Buckhurst was a poet, and was said to by the celebrated Holbein, or his pupils. have been gifted with “a sublime genius,” Many other paintings and costly works of

art afford the visitor a grateful surprise, 'Till hateful business damp'd his flame, And for vile titles barter'd fame;

and attest the fine taste and liberality of Till the chill cup of worldly lore,

the noble proprietors of Knole. Quench'd the rich thoughts to wake no more." When a young student in the Inner THE DESPOT; OR, IVAN THE Temple, he wrote the celebrated induc

TERRIBLE. tion to his Legend of the Duke of Buck

( Continued from page 344.), ingham, in the Mirror for Magistrates,' IVAN had witnessed with great apparent which Warton considered came nearer to satisfaction the cruelties committed on the “Fairie Queene' in the richness of alle- their route by the legion, as if it gratified gorical description than any previous or him to find them so accomplished in the succeeding poem. His tragedy of Gorbo. art of murder. At length, on the 2nd of duc,' performed four years afterwards be- January, 1570, his advanced guard reached , fore Queen Elizabeth by the gentlemen of the devoted city of Novgorod. The the Inn, was the first tragedly known to churches and convents were immediately have been written in English verse. He closed, and money demanded from all the then became a statesman, and after the clergy without exception. Every monk death of his father, Sir Richard Sackville, who could not ransom himself by paying a in 1566, was created a peer, by the style fine of twenty roubles, was seized, bound, and title of Baron Buckhurst, was subse. and flogged with inhuman severity. The quently made a Knight of the Garter, and houses of the inhabitants were closely having served Elizabeth as Ambassador to watched, and their owners thrown into several foreign courts, at length, on the fetters to await the arrival of the Czar. death of Lord Burleigh, became Lord High He reached Goroditche on the 6th, and on Treasurer. He succeeded to the confidence the following day all the monks who had of James the First, by whom he was cre- not paid the fine were put to death, and ated Earl of Dorset. He took up his re. their bodies sent for interment in their sidence at Knole in 1603, and two hundred several monasteries. Ivan made his grand men were kept constantly at work in re- entry on the 8th, at the head of the select pairing and beautifying the mansion and legion, and accompanied by his son. The estate till 1608, when his lordship died archbishop, with his clergy, and the sacred while sitting at the Council Board.

images, waited for him on the bridge. Since his time many improvements have Ivan scornfully refused to receive the cus. been made in the manor. The principal tomary benediction, and breathed a fierce entrance is through a great tower-portal, and most reproachful malediction on the leading into the first or outer quadrangle. prelate. The crucifix and images were In the centre of the grass plat on each ordered to be carried into the church of side are models of ancient statues, the St Sophia. There, with his usual affectaGladiator and Venus, orta mari. Through tion of piety, Ivan attended to hear mass. a large tower there is an entrance from He then proceeded to the episcopal palace, this court to the inner quadrangle, with a and sat down to dinner with his boyards. portico in front, supported by eight Ionic He suddenly rose from table and uttered a columns, over which is an open gallery loud cry. This was a preconcerted signal. with a balustrade. Some of the water. His officers promptly appeared, seized the spouts bear the dates of 1605 and 1607.

archbishop and his officers and servants The great hall of the mansion measures and the palace and cloisters were instantly, seventy-four feet ten inches in length, and given up to plunder. The cathedral itself twenty-seven in breadth. A nobly-carved was not spared. Its treasures, its sacred screen at one end supports a grand music vessels, its images, and bells were all taken gallery, decorated with the arms of Thomas, away, and the churches attached to the Earl of Dorset, and those of his countess. rich monasteries were treated in the like manner. All the valuables that could be his arrival there he resumed his religious secured having been seized as a prelimin- exercises, if so the mockery of devotion in ary, on the following morning the grand which he indulged may be called, and the business of the expedition, the tortures captives were confined in noisome dungeons, and executions, commenced. At these the being occasionally tortured, till the abbot Czar and his son regularly assisted, and could find leisure without too seriously each day, dreadful to relate, from five hun- interrupting the course of his devotions to dred to a thousand unhappy beings were decide on their fate. dragged before them to be consigned to The summer season arrived, and still the grave. Some were deprived of their these unfortunates languished in close coneyes and limbs, others were slowly con- finement. Others were added to them. sumed by a combustible composition pre. Some persons who had in the first in. pared for the occasion, and some were tied stance acted against them now shared by the head or the feet to sledges, and their sufferings. The instruments of ty. conveyed to the Volkhof, to a part of the ranny are commonly in the end numbered river which is never frozen hard. There, among its victims. At length the time from the bridge over it, wives with their came when the Czar deemed it fit to rehusbands, mothers with sucking children fresh himself with another banquet of at their breasts, and, in short, whole fami- blood. lies, were pitilessly hurled into the water, On the morning of the 25th of July no while some of the Strelitzes, armed with fewer than eighteen gibbets were erected pikes, lances, and hatchets, sailed on the in the market place of Moscow, to which river to pierce or cut to pieces all who at- city Ivan returned to take part in this tempted by swimming to save their lives. grand ceremony. Various instruments of For five weeks the horrible havock was torture were in readiness, and a huge fire continued without intermission. Not only was kindled, over which a vast copper was it accompanied by a pillaging of the cauldron was suspended. The Muscovites, houses, but the churches and monasteries terrified at the awful spectacle, thought in the neighbourhood were ruined, the only of saving their lives, and fled, leaving horses and cattle were killed, and the corn their shops open, and their merchandize, which had been stored away was wil- and even their money, unprotected. The fully destroyed. The commodities found streets were almost wholly deserted. Few in the shops which the soldiers did not besides the Strelitzes, who formed in silence want were thrown into the street, to be round the gibbets and the fire, were seen. scrambled for by the populace.

The beating of the drums announced the The number of victims which fell on coming of the Czar and his son, who made this occasion at Novgorod and the several their appearance on horseback. They places in its vicinity, which were visited were attended by the boyards, several with the same monstrous cruelty, has been princes, and that portion of the select legion estimated at sixty thousand souls! At the which had not been previously stationed end of the period which has been named, in the market place. In solemn order wearied at last, it may be presumed, of the the Strelitzes followed the Czar and those brutal punishments he commanded being who accompanied him, and to these sucso often repeated, Ivan made a grand dis- ceeded the long and melancholy procession play of clemency by granting his pardon of the unhappy men who were doomed to to the heart-broken, miserable survivors. die. Their appearance was distressing in Pale and ghastly, they assembled at his the extreme. From the tortures they had bidding, the living images of terror and already known they looked pale and despair. He pretended to address them emaciated. They were smeared with blood, with parental kindness, lamented the rigor- and so feeble that they could scarcely ad. ous measures which had been forced upon yance to the spot on which their sufferings him by the treason so happily repressed, were to be terminated with their lives. On and, exhorting them to pray to the Al. reaching the intended scene of murder, mighty to grant him a long and a happy Ivan was at once surprised and grieved to reign, bade them most graciously fare- find that the crowd usually assembled on well, as if a kind word at parting could such mournful occasions was absent. None make them forget that their fathers and had repaired to the market place as specchildren, mothers and sisters, had by his tators. for the wayward brutality of the ruthless decree been hurried from life by despot was such that each felt he himself one comprehensive, unhallowed, undis. might probably be added to the condemned tinguishing massacre.

list. Such conduct on the part of the From Novgorod he carried off an im- populace appeared to him strangely remiss. mense booty, which was in all probability. He immediately gave orders that the the true cause of its being thus awfully citizens should be summoned to behold the visited. He compelled the Archbishop of spectacle which he had prepared for Novgorod, and many other priests, to them, and joined himself in encouraging accompany him to Alexandrovsky. On those who first appeared by assurances of his perfect goodwill towards them. The fame, and as the necessary consequence to means used were so far efficacious that a impugn the justice of the Czar, was a crime multitude were speedily brought together too horrible to be witnessed with patience from their various hiding places. When by the satellites of the tyrant. They imthis had been accomplished, before com- patiently rushed on the unhappy victim to mencing the dismal business of the day, stop his mouth, that no addition might Ivan thought it incumbent on him to ad- be made to the outrage offered to their dress the people on the subject of their sovereign. Viskovati was suspended head being commanded there. He accordingly downwards. The Sacristan, as Skuratof spoke to the following effect :

was called, then approached to prove his “ Citizens of Moscow, you are about to loyalty by commencing the work of blood. witness torture and punishments. These He dismounted from his horse and cut off are awful to behold, but I visit with seve. the sufferer's ear, which he displayed, thus rity none but traitors. Tell me, is mine a severed from a helpless, unresisting man, righteous judgment ?"

as if it had been a trophy won in gloWhatever the feelings of the crowd, this rious war. The furies who surrounded condescending appeal seemed to win their him imitated his brutality by inflicting hearts. Loud acclamations instantly rent innumerable wounds, and the ex-counseller the air, and the cry was general, “Long was, in a few moments, literally cut to pieces. live the Czar, our lord and master. May Funikof, the friend of Viskovati, was his enemies perish !”

the next of the doomed. The miserable Then the tyrant selected from the train fate of the latter, and the still more appalof prisoners in the market place one hun- ling punishment that awaited himself, did dred and twenty individuals, to whom, as not so far unnerve him but he could adless guilty than the rest, he granted life. dress to the despot the language of scornThe names of the others were read by the ful defiance and warning. “I salute thee, secretary of the Privy Council from a long Ivan,” was his speech, “ for the last time roll of parchment. Viskovaty, one of them, on earth, and may the God of the just, was ordered to advance before his fellow before whom I am now to appear, bestow prisoners, when Ivan read from a paper upon thee, in another world, the approthese words :

priate reward for thy monstrous cruelties “ John Mikhailof, confidential ex-coun- in this." sellor of the Czar, you have served me dis. The fiercest tortures, wantonly proloyally, and have written to King Sigis. tracted, Funikof was compelled to sustain. mund, offering to put him in possession of Boiling and freezing water were succesNovgorod. This is your first crime." sively poured on his wretched frame, till Saying which he struck the unhappy ob- his flesh was detached from his bones, ject of his vengeance on the head with his while the inhuman author of these fiendish whip.

doings enjoyed the disgusting spectacle He proceeded: “The second crime is with horrid exultation and heartless not quite so heinous. Ungrateful and per- mockery. In four hours two hundred fidous man, you have written to the Sul- unfortunates were butchered, some of them tan, encouraging him to seize on Astrakan by the Czar himself. and Cazan.” Two blows followed the read. While the groans of the slaughtered ing of this charge. “You have also,” he prisoners were still heard, and their blood added, “invited the Khan of Tauris to in- remained on the ground, the Czar, after vade Russia. This is your third crime.” labouring with the utmost assiduity to

Viskovati stood unmoved before the render death terrible, did not fail to reruthless tormentor. In a tone that was sume his devotions. He bowed with an marked by respect for authority, and air of profound devotion before that Alat the same time high-minded courage, mighty Being, whose image he had so he replied

wantonly outraged and so mercilessly de. “I take the Searcher of all hearts, from stroyed; and almost the next moment diswhom the most secret thoughts cannot be solute riot and joyous carousings resounded concealed, to bear witness that I have ever through the palace. Among the amusefaithfully served my sovereign and my coun- ments of the monster, we must not forget try. What I have heard is but a series of to mention, one was the letting fierce bears monstrous calumnies. To defend myself I run loose among his subjects. When å well know is vain, for my earthly judge is group of persons were assembled within deaf to the voice of pity, and heeds not the sight of the palace, two or three of these claims of justice. The Eternal Being who savage animals were sent among them. reigns in Heaven knows my innocence, The hasty flight, agonizing alarm, and and to him I fearlessly appeal; and you, piercing cries which were caused by the sire, in his awful presence, will one day attack, seemed to afford him exquisite deconfess how foully I have been wronged.” light. Some of the poor wretches, who

That he, thus standing on the verge of were nearly torn to pieces, were requited eternity, should presume to vindicate his for their sufferings with a small piece of gold.

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