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presents much that deserves warm com- change of the horizontal plane. Many inmendation. Some of the articles, most stances of this kind are on record : ably written, communicate the results of sun-dials excavated from the ruins of profound reflection in a very attractive Pompeii and Herculaneum do not now shape. The following reflections, enclosed tell the hour in the latitudes in which they as they are by a reference to facts, will be have been found; if any person would take found very striking:

the trouble to compare the time which such “The latitudes of ordinary places may dials now show, with that time which they differ from time to time in a greater or less ought to show, they will find that the degree from the inaccuracy of instruments, earth's axis must change in the manner observations, or measurements ; but it which we have described. It may be supought to create a suspicion to find the lati- posed, because the bearings of natural tudes of observatories changing, where objects, such as the tops of mountains, do oversights have no possible chance to enter not change in exact accordance with the into such a simple problem as the deter- motion of the earth's axis, like the founmination of the latitude. Now, it is a dation of churches and other structures of noted fact, that every astronomer in Eu- man, that such a law has not an equal inrope counts his observatory to be in a dif- fluence over them: the fact is, that the ferent latitude from that of any of his rigidness of the materials of which they predecessors, if such have had a prede- are composed, not only prevents them imcessor; even astronomers called Royal, in mediately yielding to this motion, but also enlightened England and France, differ leaves them elevated or depressed, either respecting the latitudes of their respective gradually or suddenly, above or below the observatories given by their several pre- rest of the surrounding matter." decessors, but their differences are sure to be saddled upon any cause except the true

The Gatherer. one-the actual change of the place with reference to the poles. These facts are so The Organ of Judge Jefferies.- When well known that it would be useless to give the Benchers of the Temple, in the reign a list of the latitudes in which the several of Charles the Second, wanted an organ observatories have been said to stand. for their church, the two most eminent

“It would likewise be useless to state builders, Schmidt and Harris, were induced the different latitudes which have been to enter into an animated rivalry, to ascergiven to the same remarkable places on tain which could produce the best instrucoasts and elsewhere; these were changed ment. The contention lasted long. Blow without the slightest compunction, as time and Purcell showed the power of Schmidt's; could not be spared for them to undergo M. Lully performed on Harris's organ. the like cookery which the latitudes of Both were admired; but it was doubtful observatories have undergone.

which would carry the prize. At last the “Not only the change of the latitudes Lord Chief Justice (Jefferies) was empowof objects and places show this change in ered to set at rest the important question, the earth's axis; but, among many other and he decided in favour of Schmidt, and observed facts, we may here mention the established the organ now heard in the foundation of all our old churches, which Temple Church. were laid out due east and west, and due The Panorama of Cologne.--Mr Burford's north and south, have shifted to comply new effort is one of his best. Every object with the right motion of the earth's axis, is beautifully distinct. The bold scenery and that, too, in direct proportion to the in the vicinity of the city is happily dedates of their standing. One of the most picted; the rich summer glow which rests remarkable instances of this kind that has on the whole scene, and the transparency fallen under our notice, is that presented of the water, are in good keeping. Of by the position of the city of Philadelphia, course all the buildings of any note are in the United States of America: the surexactly portrayed, and we must not forveyors, under the direction of Wm. Penn, get to add the animated and well employed the founder, laid out Market street and figures introduced give the whole scene Broad street, crossing each other at right an air of reality, which greatly heightens angles, due east and west, and due north the interest of the picture. Victor speaks and south; but now they point in different of the rafts which were formerly seen on directions, accommodating themselves to the Rhine as if they had ceased to move the universal law which is here, for the on its bosom. Mr Burford shows us that first time, shown to exist. Among other they are still used. They look considerable objects which can be submitted to actual islands, and on these we are told many measurement, may be mentioned sun-dials human beings pass nearly the whole of of long standing, especially horizontal ones, their lives. as they partake of this motion in a two- Old Times. The fourth report of the fold manner-that is, with respect to the deputy keeper of the public records, just elevation of the gnomon, and the gradual laid before the House of Lords, contains an

entry in the reign of Henry the Third, to 1,400 tons burthen. All the materials setting forth that “Nicholas de Brakendal, necessary for the construction of the cana clerk, a scholar of Cambridge, imprisoned are found on the soil which it has to tra. at Cambridge on a charge of homicide, verse ; and the total cost has been esti. ought lawfully to be tried before an Eccle. mated at 2,778,615 dollars, including the siastical Court, and praying that the said price of four steam-boats, and two iron Nicholas may be given up for that pur- bridges, 46 mètres long, and opening for pose.”

the passage of ships. Raising the Wind. — Bibb, the original Knowledge of Costume.-Among the blun. Jeremy Diddler, met Morton the dramatist ders committed by Breughell, the Dutch one day, after the successful performance painter, not the least curious was that in of one of the latter's plays, and concluding his picture of the . Eastern Magi,' where that a prosperous author must have plenty he has drawn the Indian king with boots of cash, ventured to ask the loan of a crown. and spurs, and in his hand the model of a Morton assured him that he had no more Dutch 74, as a present to the holy child. silver than 3s. 6d. Bibb readily accepted Poisoning Whales.-At the Paris Acathat, but said, on parting, “ Remember, demy of Science a paper was read from I intended to borrow a crown, so you owe M. Ackermann on the means of killing me ls. 6d.”

whales. He suggests there should be inLady Montaque's Letters --The Margra- troduced into the harpoon, by means of a vine of Anspach says in her Memoirs,' hollow tube, a quantity of prussic acid, says Lady Bute, the daughter of Lady Mary which, being set free by the blow of the Wortley Montague “sent me a very polite harpoon, would flow into the wound. A message on hearing that I had said the trial of his plan has been made in the bay cloven foot of the pedant was plainly to be of Valparaiso. The whale did not die imperceived in the printed letters of her mediately, but lived an hour, but, from the mother; that some things might be hers, first, was so weakened by the poison, that but I was sure most of the letters were the pursuit was not attended with danger. composed by men. Her ladyship, upon her introduction to me, said, that she had always had a high opinion of my sense,

TO CORRESPONDENTS. and what I had observed respecting her mother's letters confirmed it. She then Several correspondents whose scientific inquiries retold me that Mr Walpole and two other Duels and Duellists next week.

main unanswered will be attended to next week. wits, friends of his, joined in a trio to Memnon's communication is inadmissible. A feeble divert themselves at the expense of the translation of that which has appeared more than

once in an English dress, can have no value for the credulity of the English public, by com

readers of the Mirror.' That which delights his posing those letters.”

ignorance would not be endured by their intelliSoldiers not firm Friends.— Military peo

gence. ple, from having travelled much, and seen To the question of J. S. we reply-Iron cannot be

welded, or plates or bars made to adhere permamuch, unless they are very stupid indeed,

nently, unless the heat applied is equal to 60 degrees are sure to be agreeable companions, but of Wedgwood's pyrometer, or to 8,877 of Fahrenlook not for friends among them. The heit. The fire must be clear, and a little silex, or very movement in which they are conti

fine sand, sprinkled over the parts to be welded, to

keep their surface from the atmosphere, and to serve nually kept, renders them facile to receive

as a fiur. Cast steel must not be heated so much, new impressions, and easily forgetful of as it would be fused, and run from under the hamold ones.

mer when struck.

Silenus, to discover the quantity of spirit in wine, Cutting through the Isthmus of Panama.

ale, or other liquors, must take eight parts of the The long-contemplated achievement of liquid to be examined ; add one pint of concentrated science, the cutting through this isthmus,

solution of sub-acetate of lead; a dense precipitate

will ensue; shake the mixture for some minutes. is likely, at no distant day to be attempted.

He must then pour it upon a filter. Collect the M. Guizot lately read to the French Cham

filtered fluid, and it will contain the spirit and ber of Deputies a letter from Baron Hum water of the wine together, with any portion of the boldt in favour of the plan. From a docu

sub-acetate of lead that may have been added in ac

cess. Add to this, in small quantities at a time ment forwarded to the Academy of Sciences

warm and dried (by heat) pure sub-carbonate of by Mr Warden, an American citizen, it potash. The spirit contained in the fluid will be then appears that the cutting necessary to unite

separated from the water, forming a distinct stratum

floating upon the alkaline solution made by the the two seas, by means of the three rivers,

sub-carbonate of potash and the water in the wine Vino Tinto, Bernardino, and Farren, is or ale. The experiment should be made in a long but twelve and a half miles in length. The glass vessel or tube. By this method he may always fall will be regulated by four double locks

detect the intoxicating properties of the liquids,

and ascertain if they are from spirit or fron of 45 mètres long. The canal will be al

drugs. together 49 miles in extent, 43 mètres 50 centimètres wide at the surface, 17 mètres LONDON: Published by CUNNINGHAM and 50 centimètres at the bottom, and having MORTIMER, Adelaide Street, Trafalgar Square; a depth of 6 mètres 50 centimètres. It and

and Sold by all Booksellers and Newsmen.

Printed by C. REYWELL, 16 Little Pulteney street, will be navigable for vessels of from 1,000

and at the Royal Polytechnic Institution.

The Mirror

OF

LITERATURE, AMUSEMENT, AND INSTRUCTION.

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Original Communications. Louis affected great simplicity of dress.

On one occasion, when it had been arranged

that he should hold an interview with the ROYAL PLEASANTRIES, OR THE King of Castile, at St John de Luz, Philip

DAYS OF LOUIS XI. . de Comines says—“ Our King wore a short It was seen in the remarkable career of coat, as ill-made as possible; sometimes he Louis XI, that a mirthful disposition is wore very coarse cloth, and he did so parnot incompatible with savage cruelty. ., ticularly there. His hat was old, and dif

The youth of our Henry V and George fered from the hats of every body else, from IV, was not more full of careless frolic its being ornamented with an image of than was that of Louis while Dauphin. lead in front.” He quarrelled with his father, Charles VII, War between France and Burgundy was and fled to Philippe, Duke of Burgundy, frequently renewed. The success which who gave him a cordial reception and a had attended the visit above described, royal establishment near Brussels, with an paid by Louis to the Count de Charolais, allowance of 2,500 louvres per month. induced him to repeat it under somewhat

“Louis," says the historian, "remained similar circumstances, when the latter had there till the death of his father, enjoying become the Duke of Burgundy, and was at the pleasures of the chase, and those of the Peronne. It was discovered by the Duke table, with convivial companions. There, that the King, while seeking him as a he was best esteemed who best recounted friend, had sent two ambassadors to Liege tales of gallantry, and he who furnished to stir up the people of that place against the most luscious story was most welcome. him. Proof being obtained that Louis was The Count de Charolais, the bastard of acting a double part, the Duke made him Burgundy, and the sieurs De Vienne, De a prisoner in the castle of Peronne, and Dagoine, De Thianges, De Rothelin, De set a guard over him, nor would he release Lannoy, De Crequi, contributed their him till Louis had subscribed such a treaty share to these sportive narratives ; and at as he was pleased to dictate. This failure times the grand duke himself joined the of the King in that coaxing, or, as it could revellers. A collection of the histories re- now be called, humbugging, system of dipcited in these meetings was made and lomacy, on which he valued himself, was published under the title of The Hundred the subject of great mirth among the PariNovels.”

sians. The word “ Peronne” became a While he was in voluntary exile Louis standing joke, and parrots and starlings and the Count de Charolais, were boon com- were taught to repeat it in derision of the panions. This did not prevent their becom- King. This satirical humour so exasperated ing bitter enemies after Louis had ascended Louis, that he sent officers through the city the throne. De Charolais was brave and to wring the necks of all the birds which violent, and in several instances he pre- had been trained to repeat that fatal name. vailed over the craft of the French King. In the gravest matters he could someHis temper often broke out, and on one times jest. He would indulge in playful occasion, when he was offended, he told conceits while contemplating the sorrows the ambassador of Louis, that “ he would of a victim shut up in an iron cage which make his master repent his conduct before had been contrived for his gratification ; a year had expired.” He afterwards ad- or when dooming a prisoner to die, vanced to Charenton, near Paris, with his “Why I can smile and murder while I smile," army. Louis then resolved to go to his camp, trusting to the honour of the Count. might have been his motto. Writing to the There he greeted De Charolais as an old

Constable de St Pol, whom he was about

Constab friend, affecting the utmost frankness and to bring to the

Cost frankness and to bring to the scaffold, he, with great apfamiliarity. Their interview opened thus: parent kindness, thus expressed himself“ Brother, I see now that you are a gen

* I want a good head like yours;" he then tleman and of the family of France."

turned round and facetiously remarked to “ Why so?” inquired the Count.

those who were near him, that he had only “Because when I lately sent my ambas, said “he wanted the Constable's head; he sador to Lisle to wait on your father, and was indifferent about the rest of him." that old fool Morvilier (the French ambas

Sometimes the cold blooded jocularity sador) talked so saucily to you. vou sent of the King was answered in a like spirit me word by the Archbishop of Narbonne. by those who had to treat with him in im• who is a gentleman, that I should repent P

portant affairs. Having proposed to the what had been said before the year was

Emperor that they should seize on the out. and. by Heaven, vou have been as territory of the Duke of Burgundy, and good as your word, ere your time has ex. divide it between them, his ambassadors pired. I like a man of business. It is were told this story :-"Three jovial comwith such people that I would treat.”

panions having run up a score at a tavern This meeting led to negotiations which which they were not prepared to pay, terminated in the treaty of 1465.

agreed to settle the matter by killing a

bear which - infested that vicinity, and vectives. Louis appeared to be highly giving the landlord its skin. With this pleased with this account. ' Speak object in view they went forth, but the louder,' said he, “I grow old, and am bear coming among them unexpectedly, rather deaf.' He acted thus in order that two: escaped, but the third fell on the it should be repeated within the hearing of ground, and counterfeited death, when the the Lord de Contay, that nothing might animal having lingered about him some be lost. They finally proposed that the time retired, and the man rejoined his King should do all in his power in concert friends. One of these having climbed a with the Constable to pacify the English, tree had seen the bear with its nose close greatly to the prejudice of the Duke of to the prostrate man. He now inquired Burgundy. Contay, having thus learned "what he had said ; Why,' he replied, the how his master was treated, glowed with bear told me never again to give away the indignation, and immediately hastened to bear's skin till the bear was dead.' "And communicate all to the Duke, while the in a like spirit the King's ambassador was King laughed heartily at the drama which told, thatIf the King came according to he had caused to be performed.” promise to the Emperor's aid, they would take the Duke's dominions if they could, and then it would be time enough to talk

THE MOON SEEKER. of dividing the spoil.'”

A TALE FROM THE GERMAN, BY LUDWIG :: On one occasion Louis got up a curious

TIECK. scene, which furnishes the subject of our engraving. The story is thus related by

LOUIS TO HIS UNCLE. Comines :-“ There arrived at court a

( Continued from last week.) servant of the Constable, named Louis de My inward discord and perplexity were Creville, and one of his secretaries, named to become still more agonizing. News was John Rusher, who was ordered by the received from the father, who would reKing to deliver their message to the turn in a few months, and had sent three Lord De Bouchage and me. The tidings friends, with whom he had become acthey brought pleased Louis exceedingly, quainted in Naples, with letters. We had and he resolved to make his advantage of often seen relations and friends from Ge.it, as you shall hear. The Lord de Contay, neva, Rolle, or other towns in the neighwho was a servant to the Duke of Bur- bourhood, who, if not always of the most gundy, having some time before been made polished description, were always of the a prisoner before Arcas, was allowed to go best natured, and at the utmost could only backward and forward on his parole. give rise to tediousness. All, especially

The King had promised him a large re- the uncle in Rolle, had taken me under 'ward if he could dispose his master to their protection, and once I had even peace. He had just returned from waiting visited him at his house, in company with on the Duke of Burgundy the very day the his nieces and his sister. The three two gentlemen above mentioned arrived at newly-arrived strangers, however, concourt from the Constable. The King ducted themselves immediately as though 'caused the Lord de Contay and myself to house and garden, mother and daughters, hide behind a great old screen that stood belonged solely to them. The eldest, an in his chamber, that the Lord de Contay officer, was wretchedly educated, and of might hear and report to the Duke of Bur. coarse manners. He drank much, and gundy the language held respecting him allowed himself to be so overcome on his by the Constable and his people. The King first visit, that he was forced to be led placed himself upon a stool near the screen away by his people. On the following day that we might the more distinctly hear he was so little ashamed, that he talked what the said Louis de Creville had to say. boastingly and jestingly of it with the girls, His colleague then began and told the King as though it had been some heroic achievethat their master sent them lately to wait ment, and assured them they would often on the Duke of Burgundy ; that they had find him in that situation, in which those used several arguments and remonstrated who knew him considered him most amiamany things to induce him to a rupture ble. The mother was so frightened and with the English, and they had found him hurt that she would willingly have closed in so great a passion against the King her door against this barefaced toper for of England, that they were in a fair ever, had she dared thus to offend her deway to prevail upon him not only to spotic husband in the person of his friend. abandon, but also to fall upon them in The second guest was an old wealthy their retreat. To please Louis the more, marquis, who, in the father's letter, was he imitated the voice and manner of more strongly recommended than all the the Duke of Burgundy, and stamped with others, so that the forebodings of the pruhis foot, and swore by Saint George dent mother already saw a future son-inthat the King of England was the son of law in him. The old fellow, also, seemed an archer, and repeated many other in to examine the girls, one after the other,

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