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Sir Hugh the Heron bold.-P. 83. Were accuracy of any consequence in a fictitious narrative, this castellan's name ought to have been William: for William Heron of Ford was husband to the famous Lady Ford, whose siren charms are said to have cost our James IV. so dear.
Warbeck, that Flemish counterfeit.-P. 86. The story of Perkin Warbeck, or Richard, Duke of York, is well known. In 1496 he was received honourably in Scotland; and James IV., after conferring upon him in marriage his own relation, the Lady Catherine Gordon, made war on England in behalf of his pretensions. To retaliate an invasion of England, Surrey advanced into Berwickshire at the head of considerab orces, but retreated after taking the inconsiderable fortress of Ayton.
And driven the beeves of Lauderdale.-P. 86. The garrisons of the English castles of Wark, Norham, and Berwick, were, as may be easily supposed, very troublesome neighbours to Scotland. Sir Richard Maitland of Ledington wrote a poem, called “The Blind Baron's Comfort," when his barony of Blythe, in Lauderdale, was harried by Rowland Foster, the English captain of Wark, with his company, to the number of 300 men. They spoiled the poetical knight of 5000 sheep, 200 nolt, 30 horses and mares; the whole furniture of his house of Blythe, worth 100 pounds Scots (£8, Gs. 8d.), and everything else that was portable.
And given them light to set their hoods.-P. 86. This line contains a phrase by which the Borderers jocularly intimated the burning of a house. When the Maxwells, in 1685, burned the castle of Lochwood, they said they did so to give the Lady Johnstone “light to set her hood.” . The Priest of Shoreswood-he could rein.-P. 87.
ems to have been akin to Welsh, the vicar of St. Thomas of Exeter, a leader among the Cornish insurgents of 1549.
Saint Rosalie retired to God.-P. 88. Dryden, in his “Voyage to Sicily," says, “Sante Rosalia was of Palermo, and born of a very noble family, and when very young, abhorred so much the vanities of this world, and avoided the converse of mankind, resolving to dedicate herself wholly to God Almighty, that she, by divine inspiration, forsook her father's house, and never was more heard of, till her body was found in that cleft of a rock, on that almost inaccessible mountain where now the chapel is built."
The summoned Palmer came in place.-P. 89. A Palmer, opposed to a Pilgrim, was one who made it his sole business to visit different holy shrines, travelling incessantly, and subsisting by charity; whereas the Pilgrim retired to his usual home and occupations when he had paid his devotions at the particular spot which was the object of his pilgrimage. The Palmers seem to have been the Quæstionarii of the ancient Scottish canons 1212 and 1296.
Where good St. Rule his holy lay.-P. 90. Regulus (Seottice St. Rule). a monk of Patræ. in Achaia. warned by a vision, is said, A.D. 370, to have sailed westward, until he landed at St. Andrews in Scotland, where he founded a chapel and tower. The latter is still standing; and, though we may doubt the precise date of its foundation, is certainly one of the most ancient edifices in Scotland. A cave, nearly fronting the ruinous castle of the Archbishops of St. Andrews, bears the name of this religious person. It is difficult of access; and the rock in which it is hewed is washed by the German Ocean. It is nearly round, about ten feet
in diameter, and the same in height. On one side is a sort of stone altar; on the other an aperture into an inner den, where the miser. able ascctic who inhabited this dwelling probably slept. At full tide, egress and regress is hardly practicable. As Regulus first colonized the metropolitan sec of Scotland, and converted the inhabitants in the vicinity, he has some reason to complain that the ancient name of Killrule (Cella Reguli) should have been superseded, even in favour of the tutelar saint of Scotland. The reason of the change was, that St. Rule is said to have brought to Scotland the relics of St. Andrew.
Thence to Saint Fillan's blessed well.-P. 90. St. Fillan was a Scottish saint of some reputation. There are, in Perthshire, several wells and springs dedicated to St. Fillan, which are still places of pilgrimage and offerings, even among the Protestants. They are held powerful in cases of madness.
Where flourished once a forest fair.-P. 91. Ettricke Forest, now a range of mountainous sheep-walks, was anciently reserved for the pleasure of the royal chase. Since it was disparked, the wood has been by degrees almost totally destroyed, although, wherever protected from sheep, copses soon arise without any planting. When the king hunted there, he often summoned the array of the country to meet and assist his sport.
Where erst the Outlaw drew his arrow.-P. 92. The tale of the outlaw Murray, who held out Newark Castle and Ettricke Forest against the king, may be found in the “ Border Minstrelsy," vol. i.
By lone Saint Mary's silver lake.-P. 94. This beautiful shcet of water forms the reservoir from which the Yarrow takes its source. It is connected with a smaller lake, called the Loch of the Lowes, and surrounded by mountains. In the winter it is still frequented by flights of wild swans; hence Words. • worth's lines :
“ The swans on sweet St. Mary's lake
Float double, swan and shadow." Near the lower extremity of the lake are the ruins of Dryhone Tower, the birth-place of Mary Scott, daughter of Philip Scott of Dryhope, and famous by the traditional pame of the Flower of Yarrow. She was married to Walter Scott of Harden, no less renowned for his depredations than his bride for her beauty.
Hath laid Our Lady's Chapel low.-P. 94. The chapel of Saint Mary of the Lowes (de lacubus) was situated on the eastern side of the lake to which it gives name. The vestiges of the building can now scarcely be traced; but the burial-ground is still used as a cemetery.
To sit upon the Wizard's grave.-P. 95. At one corner of the burial-ground of the demolished chapel, but without its precincts, is a small mound, called Binram's corse, where tradition deposits the remains of a necromantic priest, the former tenant of the chaplainry.
Like that which frowns round dark Loch-skene.-P. 96. A mountain lake of considerable size, at the head of the Moffat Water. The character of the scenery is uncommonly savage; and the erne, or Scottish eagle, has for many ages built its nest yearly upon an islet in the lake. A brook issues from Loch-skene, which, after a short and precipitate course, forms a cataract of immense height and gloomy grandeur, called, from its appearance, the "Grey Mare's Tail." The "Giant's Grave," afterwards mentioned, is a sort of trench, which bears that name, a little way from the foot of the eataract.
Where froin high Whitby's cloistered pile.-P. 96. The abbey of Whitby, in the Archdeaconry of Cleveland, on the coast of Yorkshire, was founded A.D. 657, in consequence of a vow of Oswy, king of Northumberland. It contained both monks and nuns of the Benedictine order; but, contrary to what was usual in such establishments, the abbess was superior to the abbot Its ruins are very magnificent.-Lindisfarne, an isle on the coast of Northumberland, was called Holy Island, from the sanctity of its ancient monastery, and from its having been the episcopal seat of the see of Durham during the early ages of British Christianity. A succession of holy men held that office; but their merits were swallowed up in the superior fame of St. Cuthbert, who was sixth bishop of Durham, and who bestowed the name of his “ patrimony" upon the extensive property of the see. The ruins of the monastery upon Holy Island betoken great antiquity. The arches are in general strictly Saxon; and the pillars which support them, short, strong, and massy. In some places, however, there are pointed windows, which indicate that the building has been repaired at a period long subsequent to the original foundation. The exterior ornaments of the building, being of a light sandy stone, have been wasted, as described in the text.
Must menial service do.-P. 101. The popular account of this curious service is given in “A True Account,” printed and circulated at Whitoy.
The lovely Edelfled.-P. 101. She was the daughter of King Oswy, who, in gratitude to Heaven for the great victory which he won in 655 against Penda, the pagan king of Mercia, dedicated Edelfleda, then but a year old, to the service of God in the monastery of Whitby, of which St. Hilda was then abbess. She afterwards adorned the place of her education with great magnificence.
And how, of thousand snakes, each one.-P. 101. The relics of the snakes which infested the precincts of the convent, and were, at the abbess's prayer, not only beheaded, but petri. fied, are still found about the rocks, and are termed by Protestant fossilists Ammonitoe.
They told how sea-fowls' pinions fail.-P. 101. Mr. Charlton, in his History of Whitby, points out the true origin of the fable, from the number of sea-gulls that, when flying from a storm, often alight near Whitby; and from the woodcocks, and other birds of passage, who do the same upon their arrival on shore, after a long flight.
His body's resting-plaoe of old.-P. 101. St. Cuthbert was, in the choice of his sepulchre, one of the most mutable and unreasonable saints in the calendar. He died A.D. 686, in a hermitage upon the Farne Islands, having resigned the bishopric (f Lindisfarne, or Holy Island, about two years before. His body, after having been carried hither and thither, was at last taken to a place named Wardlaw, or Wardilaw. Here the Saint chose his place of residence, and all who have seen Durham must admit that, if difficult in his choice, he evinced taste in at length fixing it. It is said that the Northumbrian Catholics still keep secret the precise spot of the Saint's sepulture, which is only intrusted to three persons at a time. When one dies, the survivors associate to them, in his room, a person judged fit to be the depositary of so valuable a secret.
Before his standard fled.-P. 102. When David I., with his son Henry, invaded Northumberland in 1136, the English host marched against them under the holy banner of St. Cuthbert; to the efficacy of which was imputed the great
victory which they obtained in the bloody battle of Northallerton, or Cuton Moor.
And turned the Conqueror back again.-P. 102. Cuthbert had no great reason to spare the Danes when opportunity offered. Accordingly, I find in Simeon of Durham that the Saint appeared in a vision to Alfred, when lurking in the marshes of Glastonbury, and promised him assistance and victory over his heathen enemies : a consolation which, as was reasonable, Alfred, after the victory of Ashendown, rewarded, by a royal offering at the shrine of the Saint. As to William the Conqueror, the terror spread before his army, when he marched to punish the revolt of the Northumbrians, in 1996, had forced the monks to fly once more to Holy Island with the body of the Saint. It was, however, replaced before William left the North; and, to balance accounts, the Conqueror having intimated an indiscreet curiosity to view the Saint's body, he was, while in the act of commanding the shrine to be opened, seized with heat and sickness, accompanied with such a panic terror, that, notwithstanding there was a sumptuous dinner prepared for him, he fled without eating a morsel, and never drew his bridle till he got to the river Tees.
The sea-born beads, that bear his name.-P. 102. Although we do not learn that Cuthbert was, during his life, such an artificer as Dunstan, his brother in sanctity, yet, since his death, he has acquired the reputation of forging those Entrochi which are found among the rocks of Holy Island, and pass there by the name of St. Cuthbert's Beads. While at this task, he is supposed to sit during the night upon a certain rock, and use another as his an vil.
Old Colwulf built it for his fault.-P. 103. Coelwolf, or Colwulf, king of Northumberland, flourished in the eighth century. He was a man of some learning; for the Venerable Bede dedicates to him his “Ecclesiastical History." He abdicated the throne about 738, and retired to Holy Islavd, where he died in the odour of sanctity.
Tynemouth's haughty Prioress.-P. 104. That there was an ancient priory at Tynemouth is certain. Its ruins are situated on a high rocky point: and, doubtless, many a vow was made the shrine by the distressed mariners, who drove towards the iron-bound coast of Northumberland in stormy weather. It was anciently a nunnery; for Virca, abbess of Tynemouth, presented St. Cuthbert (yet alive) with a rare winding-sheet, in emulation of a holy lady called Tuda, who had sent him a coffin: but, as in the case of Whitby and of Holy Island, the introduction of nuns at Tynemouth, in the reign of Henry VIII., is an anachronism. The nunnery at Holy Island is altogether fictitious.
Alive, within the tomb.-P. 106. It is well known that the religious, who broke their vows of chastity, were subjected to the same penalty as the Roman vestals in a similar case. A small niche, sufficient to enclose their bodies, was made in the massive wall of the convent; a slender pittance of food and water was deposited in it, and the awful words, VADE IN PACEM, were the signal for immuring the criminal. Among the ruins of the abbey of Coldingham were some years ago discovered the remains of a female skeleton, which, from the shape of the niche and position of the figure, seemed to be that of an immured nun.
The death of a dear friend.-P. 119. Among other omens to which faithful credit is given among the Scottish peasantry, is what is called the dead-bell," explained, by my friend James Hogg, to be that tinkling in the ears which the country people regard as the secret intelligence of some friend's decease,
The founder of the Goblin Hall.-P. 121. A vaulted hall under the ancient castle of Gifford, or Yester (for it bears either name indifferently), the construction of which has, from a very remote period, been ascribed to magic.
There floated Haco's banner trim.-P. 121. In 1263. Haco. king of Norway, came into the Frith of Clyde with a powerful armament, and made a descent at Largs, in Ayrshire, Here he was encountered and defeated, on the 2d October, by Alexander III. Haco retreated to Orkney, where he died soon after this disgrace to his arms.
But, in his wizard habit strange.-P. 122. “Magicians, as is well known, were very curious in the choice and form of their vestments. Their caps are oval, or like pyramids, with lappets on each side, and fur within. Their gowns are long, and furred with fox-skins, under which they have a linen garment, reaching to the knee. Their girdles are three inches broad, and have many cabalistical names, with crosses, trines, and circles inscribed on them. Their shoes should be of new russet leather, with a cross cut upon them. Their knives are dagger fashion; and their swords have neither guard nor scabbard."- Reginald Scott.
Upon his breast a pentacle.-P. 122. “A pentacle is a piece of fine linen, folded with five corners, nccording to the five senses, and suitably inscribed with characters. This the magician extends towards the spirits which he evokes, when they are stubborn and rebellious, and refuse to be conformable unto the ceremonies and rites of magic."-Reginald Scott.
As born upon that blessed night.-P. 122. It is a popular article of faith that those who are born on Christ. mas or Good Friday have the power of seeing spirits, and even of commanding them.
Scarce had lamented Forbes paid.-P. 129. Sir William Forbes of Pitsligo, Baronet; unequalled, perhaps, in the degree of individual affection entertained for him by his friends, as well as in the general respect and esteem of Scotland at large.
Been lanthorn-led by Friar Rush.-P. 132. This personage is a strolling demon, or esprit follet, who, once upon a time, got admittance into a monastery as a scullion, and played the monks many pranks. He was also a sort of Robin Goodfellow, and Jack o' Lanthorn.
Where Crichtoun Castle crowns the bank.-P. 135. A large ruinous castle on the banks of the Tyne, about seven miles from Edinburgh. As indicated in the text, it was built at different times, and with a very differing regard to splendour and accommodation. The oldest part of the building is a narrow keep, or tower, such as formed the mansion of a lesser Scottish baron: but so many additions have been made to it that there is now a large court-yard, surrounded by buildings of different ages. The eastern front of the court is raised above a portico, and decorated with entablatures, bearing anchors. All the stones of this front are cut into diamond facets, the angular projections of which have an uncommonly rich appearance. The inside of this part of the building appears to have contained a gallery of great length and unconimon egance. Access was given to it by a magnificent staircase, now quite destroyed. The soffits are ornamented with twining cordage and rosettes; and the whole seems to have been far more splendid than was usual in Scottish castles. It belonged originally to the Chancellor Sir William Crichton.