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Grand River is fordable from August till April; at other times it is swollen by melting snows. The same may be said of the Avonkarea, though in some years its waters do not fall sufficiently to be fordable. I was told that Green River is never fordable, but doubt the correctness of this information, and believe that in most years, from August to early in the spring, animals can wade across it. But for wagons, these three streams should have ferry boats.

SECTION VIII.

From Green River to Mormon Settlements near Las Vegas de Santa

Clara, Utah Territory, 242 miles.

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Eighty-six miles are across barren plains, occasionally seamed with dry watercourses. Good camping places are found at easy distances, with grass, water, and wood.

For one hundred and fifty-six miles the trail leads through successive ranges of the Wahsatch Mountains. All these ranges are separated by broad valleys, watered by abundant streams, and smaller ones give access to and unite the larger ones.

Throughout these mountains grass, water, and timber are abundant; game is scanty.

SECTION IX.

From Settlements near Las Vegas de Santa Clara to Mohaveh

River, 374 miles.

This section is over a part of or near the Great Salt Lake Basin; and in it are two jornadas (long distance between waters); the first is 45, the second 55 miles in length.

At the Mormon settlements, beef, flour, and cornmeal can be purchased at reasonable rates. Groceries are scarce and dear.

With the exception of the jornadas, camping grounds are found along this route at short distances, on the Vegas de Santa Clara, Rio Santa Clara, Rio de la Virgen, Muddy Creek, Vegas del Gaetan, Ojo de Arcbilete, and Amargosa Creek.

In some of these places the grass is salt and wiry, and affords little nourishment. Mesquit bushes, which grow on all the waters of the desert, bear a nutritious bean on which animals feed greedily. The only game

is

sage rabbits.

SECTION X.

From Mohaveh River to Los Angeles, 137 miles.

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The road now follows up the Mohaveh, and near it is good pasturage, and timber. Water is first found in holes; higher up there is running water.

After leaving the river, the road crosses an elevated plain covered with small trees and good bunch grass, but no water is found until arriving on the head waters of the Santa Anna, a creek flowing into the Pacific, a distance of about 25 miles. A rough wagon-road leads down this creek, through the Cajon Pass into the valley of San Bernardino, from which a broad, well-beaten track leads to Los Angeles.

ITINERARY OF THE CENTRAL ROUTE.

From Westport, Missouri, to Los Angeles, California.

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25 24 Arkansas River 20 25 FORT ATKINSON 5 26|1st Crossing of S. 10

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5 26 Camp on Ark. 20 27

20 28 Island on Ark. 19 28 Chouteau's Island 12

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376 396 416 435 447

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coarse grass; no wood.

little wood. coarse rank grass; drift

wood.
wiry grass; no wood.

Good water;

coarse grass; large timber.

abundant bottom grass ; timber. Scanty dry grass; water in pools,

warm; wood. Bottom grass, river Arkansas; wood.

Dry bunch grass; water; wood near

river.

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good grass; wood. Coarse grass; timber. Abundant grass; timber;

water.

river

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23 Rio Uncompágre 16 23 Mouth of the Un- 12

compagre July 18 Cerenoquinti Creek 25

19 River Avonkaria
21 Camp l'Amoureux, 16

on Grand River 24 Rio Salado, Grand 10

River 24 Grand River

20 23

15 23 Plain betw'n Grand 21

and Green Rivers 24 Green River, left 35

shore 25 Green River, right 1

shore

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15 9

10 9 Rio Atascoso (Mud- 8

dy Creek) 11 Ojo del Gaetan 45

(Jornada) 12 Vega Quintana 17 13 Agua Escarbada 25

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Good pasturage; bushes; cool,

running water. Good pasturage; trees; spring. Grass and mesquit beans; small

trees; water to be dug for. Good pasturage; bushes; .cool

water. Salt grass; mesquit beans; water

in pools, bad; small spring, brackish water, under rock.

1630

1635

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