articles with which it was loaded. We lost by this accident seven rifles, nearly all our ammunition, pistols, saddles, cornmeal, coffee, sugar, blankets, &c.

With broken axes and dull hatchets it would have been difficult if not impossible to have constructed another canoe; and, besides, the men were too much discouraged by this loss to undertake the labor with the spirit necessary to carry it through.

Our party was equally divided; we were seven on each side. Some of the gentlemen on the left bank were now anxious to return to New Mexico to proceed to California by some other route; but Mr. Beale would not listen for a moment to such proposition. He hailed me at eight o'clock, and told me that as soon as he could construct a raft, and get the few remaining things and the animals over; we would push on for the Mormon settlements near the Vegas de Santa Clara. Expedition was necessary, for we had provisions for only four or five days.

The Delaware swam back to Mr. Beale's side to assist him to construct a raft or canoe. He was a splendid swimmer, and went through the water like an otter. They immediately commenced the construction of another canoe, but both axes being broken, they soon had to relinquish the task as hopeless.

An inventory was made of the provisions, and it was found that we had twenty-five pounds of biscuit, mostly in dust, twenty-five pounds of dried venison, and ten pounds of bacon. Although this was but slender provision for fourteen hungry men, we had no fear of starvation, or even of suffering, as long as we had the mules. I also discovered in an old bag a small supply of powder and lead, and some chocolate and tobacco. A canister of meat-biscuit, upon which we had depended in case of an emergency of this sort, bad unfortunately gone down with the canoe.

At an early hour in the morning, we saw flying from a tree on the left bank, the preconcerted signal to "come down for a talk." To reach the river, we had to wade for half a mile through a deep marsh, into which we sank to our knees, and the air was thick with mosquitos.

Mr. Beale informed me that it had been decided to return to Taos for supplies, and inquired whether we could get back to the left bank. As two of the men on my side stated that they

who were

could not swim, it was decided to make a raft, and, if possible, to save the articles we had with us. Before this was determined upon, however, Mr. Beale ordered Archilete to swim over to his side, which the latter did at once, taking his timber leg under his arm; and in the afternoon they made another ineffectual attempt to get the animals across. There was but one point where it was possible to drive them into the river, and here they crowded in on each other until those underneath were near drowning. Mr. Beale and one of the men, riding, went into the river to lead the band across. The mules fell on them from the bank, which was at this place about three feet high, and for a moment they were in imminent danger of being crushed. An old horse alone struck boldly over, but none of the other animals followed his example. They all got out on the same side, and could not be again driven into the water.

Mr. Beale now desired me to make arrangements for returning to his side of the river, and while preparing the animals to move down to our camping ground, I thought I heard a faint shout, and at the same time perceiving two dark objects moving in the water, some distance up the stream, I suspected that they were men from the opposite shore endeavoring to reach land on our side. The current was carrying them swiftly on towards a high bank overhanging the stream, where, without help, to have effected a landing would have been impossible.

Hastily seizing a rope, and calling to the men to follow, I ran to the top of the cliff. In fact, they were our two best swimmers, Dick and Felipe, who were scarcely able to keep their hold until ropes could be led down to them. We drew them up half perished, and it required a good fire and something stimulating to restore circulation to their limbs, benumbed by the icy coldness of the water. Although we had no sugar, some coffee, that the Delaware had brought, tied in a handker. chief on his head, cheered the men, and we passed a good night, happy in any rest after such a day of toil.

June 29. At an early hour in the morning, I commenced throwing into the river everything that we could possibly dispense with, such as clothing, &c. I allowed each man to select sufficient clothes from the general stock to make up one suit, and it was singular how soon their wants increased. Some of the Mexicans, who heretofore had been satisfied with one shirt and a pair of pants, now arrayed themselves in as many breeches, drawers, shirts, and stockings as they could force themselves into. I cached, under a thick bush, a few Indian goods that we had brought with us as presents.

The three mules and two horses were passed over to the left shore without much difficulty by pushing them into the water from a bank, whence the eddy immediately carried thern into the middle of the stream. They got out safely on the other side, and we at once commenced constructing the raft.

It was completed at 1 P. M., and, although it was twelve feet in length by eight in breadth, the weight of seven men, with the saddles, arms, and provisions we had saved, caused it to sink eighteen inches under water. It drifted rapidly down the stream, the men whooping and yelling, until one struck up the old song of “O Susannah!" when the rest sang the chorus. In this style, we fell upwards of two miles down the river, propelling ourselves with rough paddles. Mr. Beale and others of the party stood on a hill on the opposite side cheering and waving their hats. Having approached within ten yards of the left bank, our tritons, Dick and Archilete, sprang into the water, with ropes in their teeth, and reaching the shore soon dragged the raft to the bank, upon which the remainder of the crew landed.




No time was lost in collecting and saddling the animals, and our packs being reduced from eleven to three, they were soon loaded. Those whose saddles went down with the canoe used their blankets instead, and at four P. M. we started to return to New Mexico. The defeat which we had sustained at Grand River, and the consequent delay, caused some of the party to be in low spirits; but regrets were useless; we determined to return again, and so well provided as to prevent a second failure. We now measure back. Day's travel, 8 miles; distance from Grand River, 8 miles.

June 30. We were in our saddles at sunrise, for the lightness of our baggage occasioned no waste of time in packing. Those of the party who had lost their blankets passed a cold night under their saddle-cloths. Our breakfast consisted of a few spoonfuls of atole (cornmeal mush), washed down with coffee without sugar; and although the repast was far from palatable, we found it wholesome and filling, a property which was to us of much importance. The mules had been much harassed by the various attempts made to drive them across the river, and by the mosquitos and gadflies; yet they had picked up both flesh and spirit, and appeared happy to be treading once more on dry land, where they were not exposed to the momentary danger of sinking into a mudhole. We therefore travelled rapidly, and at 3.30 P. M. reached the Nawaquasitch, forty-three miles from our last encampment. It was here that we had previously experienced some difficulty in crossing, and where a pair of saddle-bags, containing many articles of value to us, were lost. The road during the day was the same which we had before travelled in going to Grand River; the face of the country was generally perfectly level, offering to our view but little of interest until we reached the foot-bills of the Sahwatch range, which we entered by a narrow valley, watered by a small rivulet. This we followed up about twenty miles, the country rapidly improving in beauty and fertility as we advanced into the mountains. We this time crossed the Nawaquasitch below the forks, and followed up its right bank about two miles. All around us the hills and mountains were covered with rich verdure; beautiful copses and groups of trees diversified the scenery, giving it the appearance of a settled country, only wanting dwellings to render it a perfect picture of rural beauty.

As the grass at this place was rich and nutritious, timber abundant, and fine streams irrigated every valley, it was selected by Mr. Beale for an encampment, where he would await my return from New Mexico with fresh supplies. Wagner, Young, Dick Brown (the Delaware), and Felipe Archilete, Jr., would remain with him, and I was to take Felipe Archilete, Sr. (Peg. leg,) as guide; and was also accompanied by those of the party who preferred going the longer route to California, via Fort Laramie and Great Salt Lake, to risking another encounter with Grand River and the unknown hardships beyond. Day's travel, 43 miles ; distance from Grand River, 51 miles.

July 1. It was not until eight o'clock that I started from Mr. Beale's camp on the Nawaquasitch. He and the men who remained with him had many letters to write, which caused some detention.

We left them with regret, for who could foresee what might happen to their little party in this lonely region, particularly as the season was approaching when the Indians would be returning here from buffalo-hunting? In addition to other causes for anxiety, we had but a small store of provisions, consisting of sour cornmeal and coffee, which, when divided between the two parties, gave to each barely enough for three days' subsistence. The Delaware had gone out hunting at an early hour, and, as we lost sight of the camp, we saw him descending a mountain at some distance with a deer behind his saddle, which he was carrying into Mr. Beale's camp. .

The Rio de la Laguna (Willow Creek), where we had lost nearly a day in crossing our packs, had fallen slightly, and, as

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