lity proposed to withdraw the coun- situated on the Baltic, among wbich try from the supremacy of Poland, are Libau and Vindau: the first a and to put it under that of Russia. flourishing and commercial city; the The principalmembers of the grard second, likely to become one day council made a faint opposition to the station of the Russian fleets. this alteration, by observing, that, the port of Vindau, which is never before they proceeded to a reso. obstructed by ice, by a little improvelution, it would be expedient to ment, miglit be rendered capable wait the return of the duke. The of containing a hundred ships of Oberburgraff Hoven rose up, and the line. spoke a long time in favour of Rus. At the same time that she quietly sia. Some counsellors expressed usurped the sovereignty of Cour. themselves of his opinion, and others land, she sent out her arms against reproached them with treason. The Persia. Under pretence of defenddispute grew warm on both sides; ing Lof-Ali-Khan, of the race of challenges were reciprocally given, the Sophis, she aimed at the posand swords were about to be drawn, session of the Persian provinces, when the Russian general, Paklen, which border on the Caspian. Vaappeared in the assembly. His pre. lerian Zuboff, at the head of a numesence restored tranquillity. No one rous army, penetrated into the propresumed to raise his voice against vince of Dagbestan, and advanced Russia; and the proposal of the 10 Jay siege to Derbent. His first nobles was adopted. The nexe day attack was directed against a high the act was drawn up, by which tower, which defended the place; Courland, Semigallia, and the circle and, after having made bimself of Pilien, made a formal surrender master of it, and put the whole of themselves to the empress of Rus- garrison to the sword, he was presia ; and it was carried to Peters- paring to make an assault upon the burgh, where the duke of Cous. town. The Persians, intimidated

land learnt, from the mouth of bis by former successes, and the impeI own subjects, that they themselves tuosity of the Russians, cried out

had deprived him of his dominions. for quarter; and the commandant, The empress inmediately sent a a venerable old man, of the amazing governor thither.

age of one hundred and twenty However, some discontent remain. years, and the same whr, at the ed in Courland : discontent brought commencement of the present cenon proscription; and the possessions tury, had surrendered Derbent to of the proscribed were given to the Peter I. came now to deliver the courtiers of Catharine.

The fa- keys to Valerian Zuboff. vourite, Plato Zuboff, and his bro- : Aga Mabmed was advancing ther, Valerian, obtained a great part with succours to the relief of Derof those rich and shamesul spoils. bent, when he heard that the place The acquisition of Courland to

was already in the hands of the Russia, was of great importance. It Russians. Valerian Zuboff came produces much corn, as well as tim. forth from the place to 'offer him ber: in both of which articles. iť batile, in which victory declared carries on a great commerce ; and for the Persians, who forced their it has several ports advantageously. enemies lo return into Derbent.


Catharine, being informed of this, successful : in all her regulations, immediately gave orders for a holy for the internal government of her of troops, which she had in the Kuo mighty empire, there appeared that ban, to go and reinforce the army benevolence, which, for the honour <f Valerian Zuboff, not doubting of human nature, is usually found that ber general would very soon in conjunction with sublimity of give a total defeat to Aga Mah- genius. She wished, soon aster her med. She also flattered herself with accession to the throne, to intro. the hopes of obtaining a greater tri• duce civil liberty among the great umph. The new treaty, which she mass of the people, by the emai). bad just concluded with Great Bri- cipation of the peasartry. It was tain, and with Austria, secured to found impracticable to emancipate her the assistance of those two pow. their bodies without enlightening ets against Turkey. In a word, she their minds. To this object she now reckoned on the full 'accum bent the powers of her inventive, plishment of her darling project, though prudent, genius. Schools of driving the Ottomans out of Eu. were instituted in all parts of her Tope, and of reigning in Constan. dominions, and a way was opened unople. But she suddenly finished, for the lowest of her subjects to by an easy death, the career of a liberiy, by certain privileges, within splendid life, in the sixty-sevenih the scope of industry and merit. year of her age, and thirty-sixth of The code of laws, drawn up by ber reign. She died at Petersburgh, her own hand, was never exceeded, of an apoplexy, on the tenth of in point either of sagacity or goodNovember, on which ber son, the ness : for, we are always to bear in great duke, Paul Petrowitz, was mind, that even Solon found it proclaimed emperor:

expedient not to d ctate the best Catharine was the most illus. Jaws, but the best that the people, trious sovereign, after the exit of for whom he dictated, were capable Frederick the great, king of Prus. of bearing. Her military plans parbla, on the theatre of Europe, for took of the strength of simplicity: comprehension of mind, loriy am- She did not feed ihe flame of war bition, courage, and perseverance to no purphie, by throwing in, as in ber designs, and the general it were, faggot after faggot, nor influence of her policy and arms, waste time in tedious detours, but, in the affairs of Europe. Her with a mighty and irresistible con. ambition was not directed merely centrated force, proceeded directly to the security and extension of the to her object. She had not the empire, but io the civiljeation and art of appearing affable, generous, welfare of subject tribes and na ünd magnanimous, but the merit tions, by the introduction of arts, of really being so. · She was not liberal and mechanical, and the only a patroness, but a great proimprovement of manufactures and ficient, in literature; and, had not commerce: and all this, by means her life been spent in great actions, mure gentle and gradual than many it would, probably, have been emof those employed by - Peter the ployed, though with somewhat less zreat; and, consequently, more ef- glory, in celebrating the illustrious lectual. In all her wars, she was

achievrments of others. It is an 4


invidious thing to pry, with too and had ceased to be a formidable much curiosity, into the frailties rival. It is to be considered, far: of such a character. The severest ther, that had she moved sooner, critic has not been able to charge the Turks, on the other side, instiher with any thing unnatural, or, in gated by French intrigues, might her predicament and situation, not have moved also. The Czarina easily to be forgiven. As to the obo vaited, too, until she should secure scure event that led her to the throne, peace, on the most formidable fronif this had not taken place, an event tier, by a marriage between her of another kind must have led her grand daughter and the young king first toimprisonment, and then, most of Sweden; an object which she assuredly, to deatb.

had much at heart, though it was The last of her grand designs found impossible to accomplish it. was to curb the power and inso Catherine II. has left a name that lence of the French republic. It will ever be memorable, and rewas the policy of the empress, who membered by future generations; to detested the French republic, with whom the benefits of her instituout loving the Austrians, to let both tions will extend, with grateful adparties exhaust themselves: deter- miration. Yet, it was the love of mined, however, whatever might glory that was ber predominant be the fate of their arms, to pre- passion ; and the humane will revent either from acquiring an un- gret that she pursued this through controlled sway in Germany. Or seas of blood : so that she will take ders were issued for a levy of a her station in the temple of fame, hundred and fifty thousand iroops, among the great, not the good destined to act, in some shape or princes; and in this speculative order, for the relief of the em age, add to the odium of absolute peror of Germany. It has been monarchy, by displaying the miseries questioned, whether it would not that flow from unbounded power, have been wiser policy, in her Im- united with unbounded ambition. perial majesty, to have moved for

This year also, general Washingthe assistance of the confederales ton, the greatest of cotemporary sooner? She, perhaps, entertained men, as Catharine was of colema persuasion, that the allies would porary sovereigns, resigned the prestand firm together, and make a sidency of the United States. These more successful opposition to the illustrious characters were both rerepublic. She was, no doubt, well spectively at the head of the twe enough pleased to see almost all the latest, greatest, and most rising other powers of Europe weaken pires in the world'; both nearly of themselves by war; whilst, at the ihe same age; both of equal celesame time, it must have been her brily; though not of true glory: intention, as has since appeared, to pure and disinterested patriotism beinterfere, more and more, in the ing the rubing principle in the mind general conflict, in proportion as of Washington ; the patriotism of the party she detested gained ground Catharine only secondary to her on a sovereign prince ; who, though ambition, and subservient to the a neighbour, and ancient enemy, love of fame. General Washington yet possessed a hereditary throne, having rescued his country from the




oppression of the English govern- most ardent prayers for the prospement, and restored it, by a commer- rity and peace of America. There cial treaty, in spite of France, and is nothingin profane history to which almost in spite of itself, to an ami- his parting address to the states can cable connection with the English be compared. In our sacred Scripnation, voluntarily retired from tures alone we find a parallel in that power, after giving the most pro- recapitulation of divine instructions found instruction and advice respect- and commands which the legislator ing union, virtue, liberty, and hap- of the Jews made in the bearing piness : between all of which there of Israel, when they were about to was a close connection, with the pass the Jordan.*

It * In his address to congress, on the seventh of December, 1796, having given an account of the situation of the United States, in relation to foreign powers, and strongly recommended the creation of a navy, he directs the attention of congress to the encouragement of manufactures, agriculture, a national university, and also a military academy. His sentiments, on these subjects, are those of an enlightened and philosophical statesman.

" I have heretofore proposed to the consideration of congress, the expediency of Establishing a national university, and also a military academy. The desirableness of both these institutions, has so constantly increased with every new view I have taken of the subject, that I cannot omit the opportunity of, once for all, recalling your attention to them.

“The assembly to which I address myself, is too enlightened not to be fully sensible how much a flourishing state of the arts and sciences contributes to national prosperity and reputation. True it is, that our country, much to its honour, contains many seminariesof learning, highly respectable and useful; but the funds upon which they rest are too narrow to command the ablest protessors in the different departments of liberal knowledge, for the institution contemplated, though they would be excellent auxiliaries.

Among the motives to such an institution, the assimilation of the principles, opinious, and manners of our countrymen, by the common education of a portion of our youth, froin every quarter, well deserves attention, The more homogenous our citizens can be made, in these particulars, the greater will be our prospect of a permanent union; and a primary object of all such a national institution should be the education of our youth in the science of governinent. In a republic, what species of knowledge can be equally important? and what duty more pressing on its legislature, than to patronize a plan for communicating it to those who are to be the future guardians of the liberties of the country?

"The institution of a military academy is also recommended by cogent reasons. Howerer pacific measures may contribute to the general policy of a nation, it ought never to be without an adequate stock of military knowledge, on emergencies. That first would impair the energy of its character, and both would hazard its safety or expose it to greater evils when war could not be avoided; besides that, war inight not often depend upon its own choice.

"In proportion as the observance of pacific maxims might exempt a nation from the necessity of practising the rules of the military art, these ought to be its care in preserving, and transmitting, by proper establishments, the knowledge of that art. Whatever argument inay be drawn from particular examples, superficially viewed, a thorough examination of the subject will evince, that the art demands much previous study, and that the possession of it, in its most improved and perfect state, is always of great moment to the security of a nation. This, therefore, ought to de a serious care of every government; and, for this purpose, an academy, where a regular course of instruction is given, is an obvious expedient, which ditterent nations have suscessfully einployed."


It has often happened, nay it the most brilliant talents and vira has most frequently happened, that tues, in politicians and warriors,


General Washington, in September (1705), published a little piece, entitled “ A Letter from General Vashington, on his Resignation of the Office of President of the United States.” This letter, written by the lather and saviour of his country to his countrymen, on an occasion when his heart was warm, and open, and the tenor and grand object of his life in luis full recollection.paints the man in juster and livelier colours than any thing we can record. He begs the people of the United States to be assured that his resolution to resign the presidency had not been taken without a strict regard appertaining to the relations which bind a dutiful citizen to his country; and that, in withdrawing i he tender of service, which silence,in his situation, might imply, he was influenced by no dimipution of zeal for their future interests; no deficiency of gratitude for their past kindness; but was supported by a full couviction, that the step was compatible with boih. Having mentioned the motives that induced him to accept and continue in the high office to which their suffrages liad twice called him, and tbose which had urged him to lay it down, he says, “ In looking forward to the moment which is intended to terminate the career of my public life,my feelings do not permit me lo suspend the deep acknowledgment of that debt of vratitude which I owe to my beloved country,for the manyhonours it has conferred upon me; still more, for the stedfast confidence with which it has supported me; and for the opportunities I have then enjoyed, of nianifesting my inviolable attachment, by services faithful and persevering, though in usefulness uncqual to my zeal. Ifbenelits have resulted to our country from these services,let it always be remembered to your praise, and as an instructive example in ouranvals,that under circumstances in which thepassions,agitated in erery direction, liable to mislead; amidst appearances, sometimes dubious; vicissitudes of fortune,often discouraging; in situations in which, not unfrequently, want of success has countenanced the spirit of criticism, the constancyof your support was the cssential prop of the efforts,and a guarantee of the piaus,by which they were effected. Profoundly penetrated with this idea, I shall carry it with me to the grave, as a strongincitement to unceasing vows, that Heaven may continue to you the choicest tokens of its beneficence; that your union and brotherly affection may be perpetual; that the free constitution, which is the work of your hands, may be sacredly maintained; that its administration,in every department,may be stamped with wisdom and virtue; that, in fine,the happiness of the people of these Statcs,under the auspicies of liberty, may be made complete by so careful a preservation and so prudent a use of this blessing, as will acquire to them the glory of recommending it to the applause, the affection, and adoption of every nation which is yet a stranger to it.

“Here, perhaps, I ought to stop; but solicitude for your welfare, which cannot end but with my life, and the apprehension of danger, natural to that solicitude, urge me, on an occasion like the present, to offer to your solemn contemplation, and to recommend to your frequent review, some sentiments, which are the result of much reflection, of no inconsiderable observation, and which appear to me all important to the permanency of your felicity as a people. These will be offered to you with the more freedom, as you can only see in then the disinterested warnings of a parting friend, who can possibly have no personal motives to bias bis counsel. Nor can I forget, as an encouragement to it, your indulgent reception of my sentiments on a former, and not dissimilar occasion."

He recommends the love of liberty; the unity of government to which they were powerfully invited andurged by everyinducement of sympathy and interest; guards them agninst the causes by which this union inay be disturbed; all obstructions to the execution of the laws,ali combinations and associations,under whatever plausible character, with the real design to direct,controul,and counteract,or awe regular deliberation and action of the constituted authorities; the spirit of party,and all encroachments ofonedepartment ofgovernment on another. -"Ofallthedispositionsand babitswhich lead to political prosperity, religion and morality are indispensible supports. In vain


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