beheaded and others held to ransom. After this A.D. 1403. defeat King Henry gave thanks to our Lord for his good fortune, and went off the battlefield with great joy and gladuess, but first he ordered the interment of the dead and the visitation of the wounded, and this done, sent men-at-arms and archers into Wales to besiege a town which held out for the Percies, which town was quickly taken and remitted to his obedience. Having thus done and carried out these things, and set his kingdom in good order and punished the rebels, he took the road to London, where he dismissed all manner of men-at-arms in order that the country should not be oppressed nor eaten up, and retained with him only the princes and his state. When the king was a good English league from London the Mayor of London and some of the more distinguished men of the city came forward and welcomed him. Then he entered the city, where the streets were curtained in his passage, bishops, abbots, and prelates of the church came to meet him in manner of procession, singing the " Te Deum," and the people crying with a loud voice: "Welcome, noble King Henry," and "God bless his highness the prince, his son." And when he had come to the door of the church of St. Paul he dismounted, entered the church, and there devoutly offered up prayers, and having made his offering departed and embarked on the barge which was prepared for him, and landed at the Palace1 of Westminster, where he held a very brilliant and honourable court, and whither embassies often came to him from divers princes which he honourably received and caused to be feasted by his people as is proper to be done in such cases, and at their departure made them fine costly presents. The renown of him, of his good sense, and of his prudence extended into many

Harbour in A.

A.D. 1403. lands and divers countries. He maintained and loved justice above all things, and besides was a very handsome prince, learned and eloquent, courteous, valiant, and brave in arms, and in short was filled with every virtue such as was none of his predecessors before his time. Whereof for the present we will leave off speaking for a little until it is time to return to the subject.

Here follows the copy of the letter which Louis Dukt of Orleans, brother german of King Charles of France, sent to King Henry of England to challenge him to Arms. Chapter III.

A.D. 1402. In the following year, one thousand four hundred and two, Louis Duke of Orleans, brother to the King of France, sent a letter to the King of England to challenge him to arms, of which the tenor follows: "Most high and puissant prince, Henry King of "England, I, Louis, by the grace of God son and "brother of the King of France, Duke of Orleans, "write to you, and give you to know that by the "help of God and the Blessed Trinity, for the desire "that I have to obtain honour, as I believe that you "also have, looking at the indolence into which "many noble men have fallen, descended of royal "line, when they have not employed themselves in "their youth in deeds of arms in which in my "heart I desire to employ myself, I purpose at once "to begin the business of arms, for I could not more "honourably arrive thereat, so I have undertaken to "be at a day and place resolved on as well by you "as by me, each accompanied on his side by a "hundred knights and esquires, noble in name and "arms, all gentlemen without reproach, and there "we to fight fairly, one against the other till one A.D. H02. "surrenders, and the one to -whom God shall give "the grace of victory on the said day shall take his "adversary home as his prisoner, to do his will on "him, and we will not carry anything upon us "which savours of any charm or of invocation what"soever, which is forbidden by the Church, and there "shall be no arrows used in our said fight, but each "shall help himself with his body as God has it given "him, armed as shall seem good to him on either side, "having for security the accustomed weapons, that is "to say: lances, axes, swords, and daggers, and each "one at the best advantage as need and fitness "demand for his defence (without having anelaces or "big spits, bodkins, knives, or needle-pointed irons, "or poison points, or razors) as he shall be advised "by people acquainted with this matter, appointed "on either side together with the securities necessary "in this ; and to bring about this desired combat "above-mentioned I give you to understand, that "by the aid of God, of our Lady, and of St. Michael, "I mean to be at your disposal, accompanied by the *' number abovesaid, in my town and city of Angouleme, "to accomplish by the aid of God what is abovesaid. "And I think that if your disposition is such as I "think it is to fulfil this matter, you can come to "Bordeaux or the Marches thereabout, and we two "will meet to carry out our combat as may be "arranged, as well by your people as by mine, "having full power on both sides as if we were there "present in person. And now, most high and puissant "lord, send me word and let me know your wishes "in this affair to accomplish the things abovesaid, and "be pleased to shorten the time of communicating "your pleasure, for I suppose that you know that in "all deeds of arms the shortest way is the best, "especially between kings, princes, and great lords, u 17967. E

A.D. 1402." warning as well by commands as by writ, that in "this enterprise all hindrances shall be refrained frotn "which may damage this affair, and which may be in "our power; and in order that you may know and '-' understand that what I have written and sent word "to you about I will by the aid of God fulfil, I have "subscribed this letter with my own hand, as a token "thereof, and have thereto set the seal of my arms. "Written at my castle of Coucy the twelfth day of "the month of August, in the year 1402 i.

1 The following is in S., but is not in A. These letters being closed up and sealed, Duke Louis of Orleans sent them to England to King Henry by Orleans the herald, who found the king at his Palace of Westminster in London, where he was engaged in play together with many princes and barons, and there in the presence of all, the herald presented the letters to the king, who, taking them, caused them to be read in public in a room apart before his princes, at which letters they were all much amazed, considering the alliance which was made and sworn between them both, whereof each had letters scaled with their seals. King Henry who was wise and full of invention, had Orleans told that an answer should be given him soon. The king sent for his Council, there had the letter read again at length, and had advice on each point as to the answer, and then caused a letter to be written, and closed up, and sealed with his seal, charged with his arms, and when it was so closed up and sealed, he caused Orleans the herald to be called and the letter delivered to him and forty nobles to be given to him, and to be relieved of all expenses. The

herald joyfully thanked the king and took his leave, and departing thence, went across from Dover to Calais in a short space of time, then set out and took the road to Boulogne, and from there did not stop till he came to Coucy, where he found the Duke of Orleans very eager to know the news. The herald throwing himself on his knees delivered his letters, which stated that in a few days the duke would have an answer to the letter sent by him by Champagne kingat-arms and Orleans the herald. The Duke of Orleans repeatedly inquired and asked if the king bad received it gladly ; they answered yes, and that each of them had had twenty nobles, and then they departed. And about four days afterwards the King of England, after Champagne and Orleans had left London, sent Lancaster his herald to France bearing the answer to the letters sent to him by the Duke of Orleans, whom he found nt Paris in bis hotel at Tournelles, and coming thither presented to the duke the letter which King Henry had sent him. The duke took it and read it at full length, of which the tenor follows.

The answer which King Henry made to Hie letter of ihe Duke of Orleans. Chapter IV.

"Henry, by the grace of God King of England A.D. U02. "and France, and Lord of Ireland, to the high and "puissant prince Louis of Valois, Duke of Orleans, "we write and send word and have you to know that "we have seen your letter of a request of arms, "whereof the tenor follows: 'Most high and puissant "prince Henry, &c.,' by the tenor whereof we are able "to see to whom they are addressed. Nevertheless, "for ourself, it may be understood that at what you "have written we marvel greatly, for the reasons which "follow: First, the truce made and sworn between "our most dear cousin and lord King Richard, our "immediate predecessor, whom God assoil, and your "lord and brother which you yourself have sworn, and "which were affirmed by your said lord and brother "and ourself; secondly, the alliance which was con"ferred about between ourself and yourself at Paris, and "also by the oaths which you delivered into our "hands, and into the hands of our most dear and "beloved knights and esquires, Sir Thomas Erpingham, "Sir Thomas Rapson, and Sir John Montbury, of the "good friendship and alliance which you promised to "keep towards us, of which letters of alliance sealed "with your great seal the tenor follows: 'Louis, &c.' "Now since you have thus unreasonably commenced "against us for the reasons abovesaid, as it seems to "us to be sent to us by you, we will to answer you "in the following manner, that is to say, that we are "very willing that God and all the world know that "it has never been, and is not our intention to go "against or fail in anything that we have promised,

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