A.D. 1402." or on our part commenced, 1 but as you have thus "commenced in your person against us, we pray you "and would have you to know that the like letter "of alliance which you have received from us and which "we would have kept if you had kept yours, we do "quash, annul, and reject as far as in us lies, and "do hold as nothing this amity, love, or alliance "henceforth, and this by your default and acquittance, "for it seems to us that no prince, lord, knight, or "any other, of whatever estate he be, ought to ask for "a passage of arms under any alliance or friendship. "Now, therefore, we set aside all our alliance and "friendship, and answer your letter of request, "although considering the dignity which God has "given us, and where God hath placed us of his "good grace, we ought not to answer on any such "affairs except to one who is of like estate or dignity "as ourselves, and we would have you know that "where it is contained in your letter that the enter"prise which you think we ought to find agreeable to "achieve feats of valour considering the idleness, &c.; '' it is true that we have not employed ourselves in arms "and deeds of honour like our noble progenitors, but "God is all powerful to set us to follow their deeds "when it pleases him, who for all the idleness that by "His good grace we have had, hath always guarded "our honour. And as to your wish, to be in a place "and at a day to be settled as well by us as you, at a spot where we should both be accompanied "each one on his side by a hundred knights and "esquires of good name and of arms without reproach, "to fight till one or other gives up, we let you know "that it has never been known before this time for any "of our noble ancestors being kings to be so challenged


"by persons of a lesser estate than the challenged,

i The MS. is defective here ; the the text of the letter given in necessary words are supplied from Monstrelet.

'nor that he ever employed his body in such deeds A.D. i-»02.

"with a hundred persons or any other number for

"such a cause, for it seems to us that a prince and

"king ought to do all that ho doth for the honour

"of God and for the common profit of the whole of

"Christendom or of his realm, and not for vain glory,

"nor for any temporal covetousness, and we wish

"everywhere and in all things to preserve the estate

"which God hath given to us. We have taken a

"resolution that at such time- as shall please us and

"seem most expedient for the honour of God, of ourself,

"and our kingdom, we will come in person across the

"sea accompanied by so many and such men as may

"seem good to us whom we hold to be our loyal

"servants, subjects, and friends, in order there to

"preserve our right, when if you think it reasonable

"to do so, you can put yourself forward with such

"number of men as best may please you, the better

"to acquire honour in the accomplishment of your

"courageous wish, and if it please God and our Lady

"you shall not go away without being answered in

"such wise, St. George being our help, be it by

"fighting between ourselves body to body 1 so long as

"God will suffer, which thing we desire more than

"anything else to avoid shedding Christian blood; or

"in any greater numbers. And God knows, and we

"wish all the world to know, that this our answer

"does proceed, not from pride or presumption of

"heart, nor to put to reproach any valiant man who

"holds dear his honour, but solely to lower the

"haughtiness of heart and arrogance of him whoever

"he may be who doth not know how to discern in

"what a state he is himself. Now if you wish that

"those on your side be all without a reproach, take

"better care of your letter, your seal, and your

i This is the reading of S.

A.D. 1402." promises henceforth than you have done before this "time. And because we wish you to know that this "our answer, which we write and now send to you, "proceeds from our certain knowledge, and that we "will fulfil it in our right if it please God, we have "sealed these present letters with the seal of our "arms.

"Given at our Court of London the fifth day of "the month of December, in the year of grace 1402, "and the fourth year of our reign." 1

Copy of the letter of alliance which the Duke of Orleans had made with King Henry of England at the time that he was in France. Chapter V.

"Louis Duke of Orleans, Count of Valois, Blois, and "Beaumont, to all who shall see or hear these present "letters greeting and love. Know ye by these pre

i The following passage does not occur in A., but is found in S. These letters being seen and read at length by the Duke of Orleans and his Council, many things were said and advanced, and it was taken in bad part, but it could not be helped, and thus it was expedient to make answer in such wise that honour should remain to him who had the right, and Lancaster was told to return to his master, and that soon an answer would be given to the letter which he had brought. The herald answered, God so will it. His expenses were all paid, and he had fifty crowns given to him, and then departing from Paris, he ceased not to ride till he came to Calais, whence he took passage across to Dover.

Thence he went on to London, where he found King Henry to whom he reported what he had been able to do, and told the king that in a short time he would have an answer to the contents of the letter which had been taken by him to the Duke of Orleans. The king replied, all in good time. Now, then, that you may know what alliance or promises had been made between the Duke of Orleans and King Henry during the time the latter was banished from the kingdom of England, and when he was called the Earl of Derby, he being in Paris, I will relate it to you at length, that is to say, the letter of alliance and the promises made between them which were sealed with their seals and said as follows :—

"sents that albeit there be love and affection between A.D. 1402.

"the high and puissant lord and prince our most

"dear cousin Henry Duke of Lancaster and Hereford,

"Earl of Derby, Lincoln, Leicester, and Northampton,

"and ourselves, nevertheless, we both desiring to have

"firmer friendship and alliance together, since hardly

"anything in this world can be found better, more

"pleasant, or profitable than this, in the name of God

"and of the Holy Trinity, which is a noble exemplar

"and also firm and stable foundation and perfect

"charity and friendship (nor indeed can anything

"without their grace in anywise profitably be brought

"to an end), will in form and manner that this our

"friendship be reputed honest and honourable, have

"come and do come together to make an alliance and

"confederacy in manner following:—First, each of us

"holds it right to approve that in this alliance shall

"be excepted all those who it may seem to us in all

"regard and honesty are to be excepted, and there

"fore on our part we do except those who follow;

"first, our most high and puissant prince, my most

"dread lord Charles, by the grace of God King of

"France, his highness the Dauphin his eldest son,

"and all the other children of my said lord, my lady

"the Queen of France, my most dear uncles the

"Dukes of Berry, Burgundy, and Bourbon, the most

"noble princes my most dear cousins the King of

"the Romans and of Bohemia, the King of Hungary,

"his brother, and their uncles, and Percer Marquis of

"Moriane, and also all my nearest cousins and all

"others of my blood present and to come ns well

"male as female, and our most dear father the Duke

"of Milan, whose daughter we have married, for which

'* relationship it behoves us to be favourable to his

"welfare and honour, and the most noble princes and

"our dearest cousins the King of Castile and the King

"of Scotland, and all other allies of our said lord to

A.D. 1402." whom we must adhere with him, and our most "dear cousin the Duke of Lorraine, the Count of "Cleves, and the Lord of Clichon, and all our vassals "and bondsmen by fealty and oath who we consider "ought to be protected from ill for that they have "given themselves up to our service and commands, "and lastly all those our allies with whom it is "expedient and behoveth us to keep and preserve "agreements. Also there shall always be [without] "intermission between the Duke of Lancaster and "ourselves the good bond of true affection and pure "love that ought to exist between true and honest "friends. Each of us shall always and in all places "be friends and well-wishers one to another, and "enemy to his enemies, so as it is expedient for the "honour and praise of both in all times and in all '-' places and in all cases, matters, and affairs each of "us shall love, protect, seek, and defend the safety, "welfare, honour, and estate of the other as well "by word as by deed, diligently and carefully so far "as can be done, honestly and honourably, and in "time and in case of discord, quarrel, or war we "will aid and defend each other with every desire, "pure will, and perfect work against all princes, lords, "and barons and all other individual persons, com"munity, college, or university of whatever lordship, "dignity, and estate, degree and condition they be, "by all ways, remedies, means, counsels, forces, aids, "men-at-arms, armies, and other subsidies that we "can; and each of us shall rise up against, resist, and "combat all the adversaries, warriors, and enemies of "the other, and to this end shall strive with all "thought, counsel, and work, free-will and honour, ex"cept always as is said the above named. The things "abovo said shall be done, holden, kept, and endure "so long as the present truce made between my said "lord the King of France and the King of England

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