« 前へ次へ »
pressed, the countenance should be
the closing word or syllable to be pronounced with an elevated voice. This, however, is only when the last word is emphatical; as in this question, " Betrayest thou the Son of Man with a kiss ?" Here the subject of enquiry is, whether the common token of love and bene: volence is prostituted to the purpose of treachery; the force of the question depends on the last word, which is therefore pronounced with an elevation of voice: But in this question.“ Where is boasting then ?" The emphatical word is boasting, which of course requires an elevation of voice.
The most natural pitch of voice is that in which we speak in cominon conversation. Whenever the voice is raised above this key, pronunciation is difficult and fatiguing. There is a difference between a loud and a bigb voice. A person may speak much louder than he does in ordinary discourse, without any elevation of voice; and he may be heard distinctly, upon the same key, either in a private room, or in a large assembly.
Rule IV Let the Sentiments you express be accompanied wito
.. proper Tones, Looks, and Gestures.
By tones are meant the various modulations of voice by which we naturally express the emotions and paflions.
By looks we mean the expression of the emotions and pafsions in the countenance.
Gestures are the various motions of the hands or body which correspond to the several sentiments and palions which the speaker designs to expressi
All these should be perfectly natural. They should be the same which we should use in common conversation. A speaker, should endeavour to feel what he speaks; for the perfection of reading and speaking is, to pronounce the words as if the sentimients were our own. i If a person is rehearsing the words of an angry man, he should assume the same furious looks; his eyes should flash with tage, his gestures should be violent, and the tone of his voice threatening. If kindness is to be ex
calm and placid, and wear a sinile; the tone slould be mild, and the motion of the hand inviting. An example of the first, we have in these words: Depart from me ye cursed, into ever
lasting fire, prepared for the devil and his angels." Of the last, in these words, “ Cone, ye blessed of my father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you, from the foundation of the world.” - A man who should repeat these different passages with the same looks, tones and gestures, would pass with his hearers, for a very injudicious speaker.
The whole art of reading and speaking all the rules of eloquence may be comprised in this concise direction; let a reader or a speaker express every word as if tbe sen, timents were bis own.
!!,!' GENERAL DIRECTIONS For expressing certain Passions or Sentiments,
[From the Art of Speaking.) MIRTH or laugbter opens the mouth,crisps the nose, lessens the aperture of the eyes, and shakes the whole frame.
Perplexity draws down the eye brows, hangs the head, casts down the eyes, closes the eyelids, shuts the mouth, and pinches the lips: then suddenly the whole body is agitated, the person walks about busily, stops abruptly, talks to himself, &c.
Vexation adds to the foregoing complaint, fretting and lainenting..
Pity draws down the eyebrows, opens the mouth, and draws together the features..
Grief is expressed by weeping, stamping with the feet, lifting up the eyes to heaven, &c.
Melancboly is gloomy and inotionless, the lower jaw falls, the eyes are cast down and half shut, words few, and interrupted with sighs. "
Fear opens the eyes and mouth, shortens the nose, draws down the eyebrows, gives the countenance an air of wildness; the face becomes pale, the elbows are drawn back parallel with the sides, one foot is drawn back, the heart beats violently, the breath is quick, tlie voice weak and trembling: Sometimes it produces shrieks and fainting.
Sbame turns away the face from the beholders, covers it with blushes, casts down the lead and eyes, draws down the eyebrows, makes the tongue to faulter, or strikes the person dumb,
Remorse casts down the countenance, and clouds i! with anxiety. Sometimes the teeth gnash, and the right hand beats the breast.
Courage, steady and cool, opens the countenance, gives the whole form an erect and graceful air. The voice is firm, and the accents strong and articulate.
Boasting is loud and blustering. The eyes stare, the face is red and bloated, the mouth pouts, the voice is hollow, the arm akimbo, the head nods in a threatening manuer, the right fist sometimescienched and brandished.
Pride'assumes a lofty look, the eyes open, the mouth pouting, the lips pinched, the words slow and stiff, with an air of importance, the arms akimbo, and the legs at a distance, or taking large strides.
Autbority opens the countenance, but draws down the eye brows a little, so as to give the person an air of gravity.
Commanding requires a peremptory tone of voice, and a severe look.
Inviting is expressed with a smile of complacency, the band with the palm upwards, drawn gently towards the body.
Hope brightens the countenance, arches the eyebrows, gives the eyes an eager wishful look, opens the mouth to half a smile, bends the body a little forward.
Love lights up. a smile upon the countenance; the forehead is smoothed, the eyebrows arched, the mouth a little open and smiling, the eyes languishing the countenance assumes an eager wishful look, mixed with an air of satisfaction. The accents are soft and winning, the tone of the voice flattering, &c.
Wonder opens the eyes, and makes them appzar prominent · The body is fixed in a contracted stooping. poşture, the mouth is open, the hands often gaised. Wonder at first strikes a persom dumb; then breaks forth into exclamationís.
? 3.0 Curiosity opens the eyes and mouth, lengthens the neck, bends the body forward, and fixes it in one pos= ture, &c.
Anger is expressed by rapidity, interruption, noise, and trepidation, the neck is stretched out, the head sodding in a threatening manner. The eyes red, staring, rolling, sparkling; the eyebrows drawn down over them, the forehead wrinkled, the nostrils stretched, every voir
swelled, every muscle strained. When anger is violent the mouth is opened, and drawn towards the cars, shews ing the teeth in a grashing posture; the feet stainping, the right hand thrown out, threatening with a clenched fist, and the whole frame agitated.
Peevishness is expressed in nearly the same manner, but with more moderation; the eyes a squint upon the obo ject of displeasure, the upper lip drawn up disdainfully.
Malice sets the jaws, or gnashes with the teeth, sends Bashes from the eyes, draws the inouth down towards the ears, clenches the fist and bends the elbows.
Envy is expressed in the same manner, but more moderately.
Aversion turns the face from the object, the hands spread out to keep it off.
Jealousy shews itself by restlessness, peevishness, th: ughtfulness, anxiety, ab ence of mind. It is a mixture of a variety of passions, and assumes a variety of appearances.
Contempt assumes a haughty air; the lips closed, and pointing.
Modesty or bum lity bends the body foward, casts down the eyes.
The voice is low, the words few, and tone of utterance submissive.
EXAMPLES FOR ILLUSTRATION.
Interrogation, or Questioning. ONE day, when the moon was under an eclipse, she complained thus to she sun of the discontinuance of his favors. My dearest friend, said she, why do you not shine upon me as you used to do? *Do I not shine upon. thee ? said the sun: I am very sure that I intended it. O no l replies the moon; but I now perceive the reasons I see that dirty planet, tlie earth, has got between usa
Dodsley's Fables. Life is short and uncertain; We have not a moment to lose. Is it prudent to throw away any of our time in tormenting ourselves or others, when we have little for honest pleasures ? Forgetting our weakness, we stir up mighty entities, and Ay to wound, as if we were invul. nerable. Wherefore all this bustle and noise ? The best use of a short life is, to make it agreeable to ourselves. and to others. Have you cause of quarrel with your serant; your master, your king, your neighbor ? Forbear a
Dark as the grave
noment; death is at hand, which makes all equal. What has a man to do with wars, tumults, ambushes? You would destroy your enemy? You lose your trouble ; death will do your business whilst you are ai rest. And after all, when you have got your revenge, how short will be your joy or bis pain? While we are among men, let us cultivate humanity: let us not be the cause of fear por pain to one another. Let us despise injury, malice, and detraction : and bear with an equal mind such trans sitory evils. While we speak, while we think, deathe comes up and closes the scence. [Art of Tbinking.
Wonder. Then let us haste towards those piles of wonder That scorn to bow beneath the weight of years-Lo! to my view, the awful mansions rise, The pride of art, the sleep ug place of death! Freneau.
Joy. Let this auspicious day be ever sacred; No mourning, no misfortunes happen on it: Let it be mark'd for triumph and rejoicing; Let happy lovers ever make it holy Choose it to bless their hopes and crown their wishes ; This happy day that gives me my Calista. (Fair Penitent,
Then is Orestes blest!--My griefs are fled ! Fled like a dream! Methinks I tread in air! Surprising happiness! unlook'd for joy! Never let love despair! the prize is mine! Be smooth, ye seas, and ye propitious winds, Blow from Epirus to the Spartan coast ![Distrest Motber.
Grief All dark and comfortless ! Where are those various objects that but now, Employ'd my busy eyes? Where those eyes? Dead are their piercing rays; that lately shot O'er flow'ry vales to distant sunny hills, And drew with joy the vast horizon in. These groping hands are now my only guides ; And feeling, all my sight; O misery! What words can sound my grief? Shut from the living, whilst among the living; No more to view the beauty of the spring, r soe the face of kindred, or of friend. [Trag. of Lear.!