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have five sons, and each of them go by the name of his farm, which he gave them for their portion, and so the name of the family is lost; but here in England, give what landed estate you will to your sons, they still retain the name of the family.
“ Amongst the commoners there is a degree in the country called yeomen and freeholders, who have votes in electing members of parliament, and are reckoned a degree much above the daylabourer.
“ The dress of the English is like the French, but not so gaudy; they generally go plain, but in the best cloths and stuffs, and wear the best linen of any nation in the world ; not but they wear embroideries and lace on their clothes on solemn days, but they do not make it their daily wear as the French do.
“ Their diet is more substantial, though plainer, than that of any nation whatsoever: they do not so much affect soups, ragouts, and fricassees, as the French; but from the baronet down to the yeoman, you have always two substantial dishes, one boiled, and the other roasted ; and what Don Pedro de Ronquillo, the Spanish ambassador, said of Leadenhall market in London, that there was more meat sold in it in one week than in all Spain in a year, I believe to be perfectly true; for there
are few tradesmen in London but have a hot joint. every day.”
Tour through England, 1724.
“ As of their markets and fairs, and they be of several kinds, as first, that of Blackwall-hall, is twice a week, is to be seen a sight no where to be seen in all Europe; besides such quantity of cloth brought out of the West and North parts of England. And should a stranger but once see and have a relish of our staple commodity of woollen cloth, he would stand in admiration : and I have wondered very much it hath not been taken much notice of.
« Then in Leadenhall you may see the quantity of wool which is there vented every week, brought in after it hath been sorted by the staplers ; besides, every Tuesday and Friday you have the tanners exposing their tanned leather of all sorts for sale.
“ And likewise the butchers for the sale of their raw hydes, stines, and pelts, every Friday; and then it is, that the shoemaker furnishes himself with leather, lasts, and heels of wood for his
“ And upstairs you have vast quantities of nails of all sorts and uses brought from the country, as Birmingham and other iron-work; whereto the ironmonger resorteth to furnish his shop.
* And in the same Leadenhall you have a market well furnished with all sorts of provision, as beef, veal, mutton, lamb, bacon, fowls of all sorts, butter, cheese, fish of all sorts, herbage, in an abundance for the furnishing of this great city, with all things needful for the sustenance of mankind : and was well worth the sight of a famous inquisitive man, as may be observed, that when the grave and cunning Gundemore, the Spanish ambassador, was here, in the time of King James the First, there were few weeks passed over his head, wherein he did not set a day apart for the viewing of our markets, and other sights which he thought worth his observation; and that it was his opinion, that we have in London spent more meat in a week than was expended in all Spain in a year. And, now we are treating of markets, it may be worth the taking notice of, that the old shambles for furnishing of London before the time of King James the First, who, at his coming to London, mightily immersed in building, through the necessity of the great number of people which came and followed him to London at his assumption of the crown, which induced the Earl of Salisbury to build a market in Westminster, although against the charter and privileges of the city of London; and not only that market, but likewise made an exchange out of that which was the stables belonging formerly to the bishops
of Durham : and this was the first inlet and beginning of those structures for noblemen, and other tenements for meaner people in the adjacent parts of London, although expressly against an act of Parliament made by King Henry the Eighth; and at that time it was thought that London by the court was too rich and populous ; and this was thought by building of markets and the exchange to be in a means to mortify the citizens of London; but this incites me to give you an account of the several markets and shambles in and about London before the dreadful fire of London; as of Leadenhall.
“ Then had you the two East Cheaps much esteemed for their excellent fed beef there sold.
“ Newgate market, Cheapside market, now called Honey-lane market; that in the borough of Southwark hath been much resorted to formerly by them on this side of the water for the cheapness ; Gracious-street, for herbs; Stocks market both for flesh and fish in former times, although now much resorted to by the greengrocers, for the furnishing of their shops or stalls in other markets.
“ Whitechapel and Smithfield bars for carcass of mutton, Field-lane for butchers and tripe-men; and likewise before the fire, a small market was kept at the lower end of Fleet-lane, but now disused.
* And likewise at Holborn bars, within this thirty years, was two days in a week kept a small market by country hagglers for veal, pork, and fowls; but by an agreement between the city and the inhabitants, they being excused from they have consented to the of it, although there remains some butchers, poulterers, and fishmongers.
“The butchers now without Templerbar hath been of great request, and a good market, where was to be had beef, veal, lamb, mutton, &c.; and likewise all sorts of fish and fowls, with several herb-shops, but now much decayed: the butchers, for the most part, remove to other markets; and these are all which come into my memory
in about London, from the year 1657 to the year 1700.
“ The next great market set up and established was that of the Lord Clare's whyley called New Market; and this was begun to be built, and as then designed by the then Earl of Clare for the building of a parochial church, as an addition to the market, but never finished. The city and my lord had a great lawsuit, which lasted many years, to the great expence of the city; but from the inequity or unequity of the times the city and my lord agreed, and gave it up to the lord ; and now it is become one of the greatest markets in the
* Sic in MS.