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the eye of the prince, as generally the metropolis is; or else under some governor, who, by his iewards from the crown, is engaged to be very watchful in preserving the peace; so that if they should grow factious, they are more easily corrected. Thus the Ottoman power governs him conquest by destroying villages and lesser towns, and driving the people into capital cities, which by the presence of some Basha are governed. Thus the King of France, in his late conquest in Flanders and Alsatia, burnt some hundreds of villages ; but Luxembourg, Strasbourg, and other great towns, are preserved. And the bigger the city, the more advantageous to the government; for from thence they are on a sudden the better supplied with men and ammunition, to suppress any rebellion, or oppose a foreign enemy.
Lastly, new buildings increase their Majesties revenues, by the customs paid for the materials to build and furnish the houses. Besides they being the cause of the increase of the city, all the increase of the revenues from the excise and customs (since the cities increase) must be ascribed to them; which are a fourth part more than they were five-and-twenty years ago. And the excise is not only increased in the city, but it is so in the country ; which must not be ascribed solely to the good management, but chiefly to the natural increase of the people. For if there be a third
part more people in the city than there were fiveand-twenty years ago, there must be a proportionable increase in the country to provide food and clothes for them.
“ To conclude, It was upon these considerations, that by the building and enlarging of a city the people are made great, rich, and easily governed; that those ancient and famous governments, Thebes, Athens, Sparta, Carthage, and Rome, began their dominions, and enlarged them with their cities; and of late the states of Holland have followed these examples.
“ The citizens of Amsterdam have thrice flung down their walls to enlarge it; so that from a little fisher-town, within less than two hundred years, it is become the third or fourth city of Europe; and the rest of their cities have followed their pattern, and made grafts and streets at the charge of the government; endeavouring to outvie one another by giving privileges to encourage the builders and inhabitants. And these States have found the effects of it; for by this means they have changed their style from the poor distressed States (as they wrote to Queen Elizabeth) to the high and mighty States of the United Provinces.
“ And if the city of London hath made such a progress within this five-and-twenty years, as to have grown one-third bigger, and become already the metropolis of Europe, notwithstanding the
popular error the nation have been infected with, and the ill censures and discouragements the builders have met with, had they been for this last hundred years encouraged by the government, the city of London might probably have easily grown three times bigger than now it is.
6 And if we consider what the natural effects of so great a city must have been; to be furnished with such large provisions for war suitable to its greatness ; such a vast number of ships; being situate on an island and navigable river ; filled with innumerable inhabitants, of such natural courage as the English are; and to be so easily transported on a sudden, with all things necessary for war, --it would, long before this time, have been a terror to all Europe; and now would have had the opportunity, with much ease, to give a check to the growth of France, might be made the metropolis of the world, and cause England's monarch to be acknowledged lord of all the navigable cities and sea-port towns in the world; might make an universal monarchy over the seas : an empire no less glorious, and of much more pro'fit, than of the land; and of larger extent than either Cæsar's or Alexander's."
THE END OF PART I.
IN D E X.
ABEL, Mr. aquatic concert given by, iii. 51.
II. üi. 71.
Reginald Scot's account of, i. 209.
Tricks of Burcot and Peates in, i. 210. Alençon, Duc d', resolution and death of, i. 147. Almanacks, prognostications of, exposed, ii. 247. Amusements, antient youthful, iii. 2.
Roman, introduced, iii. 3.
- Various, mentioned by Sir T. Elyot, iii, 14. Anglesey, attacked by S. Paulinus, i. 21. Annals, Camden's, described, iii. 159. Annulets, particulars of, ii. 271. Apology for Builders, extracts from, iii. 280. Apprentices entertained at Merchant Taylor's hall, i. 361. Apsley, Lady, her kindness to Sir W. Raleigh and Mr. Ruthin, i. 228.