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THE GALATIAN PEOPLE.
HEN St Paul carried the Gospel into Galatia, he was The Gala. thrown for the first time among an alien people differing ... widely in character and habits from the surrounding nations. A race whose home was in the far West, they had been torn from their parent rock by some great social convulsion, and after drifting over wide tracts of country, had settled down at length on a strange soil in the very heart of Asia Minor. Without attempting here to establish the Celtic affinities of this boulder people by the fossil remains of its language and institutions, or to trace the path of its migration by the scores imprinted on its passage across the continent of Europe, it will yet be useful, by way of introduction to St Paul's Epistle, to sketch as briefly as possible its previous history and actual condition. There is a certain distinctness of feature in the portrait which the Apostle has left of his Galatian converts. It is clear at once that he is dealing with a type of character strongly contrasted for instance with the vicious refinements of the dissolute and polished Corinthians, perhaps the truest surviving representatives of ancient Greece, or again with the dreamy speculative mysticism which disfigured the halforiental Churches of Ephesus and Colossae. We may expect to have light thrown upon the broad features of national character which thus confront us, by the circumstances of the descent and previous history of the race, while at the same time such a sketch will prepare the way for the solution GAL. I
The names Celtae, Galatae, and Galli.
of some questions of interest, which start up in connexion with
this people Galli. Whether this word exhibits the same root as Celtae and Galatae, omitting however the Celtic suffix", or whether some other account of its origin is more probable, it is needless to enquire. The term Galli is sometimes adopted Usage of by later Greek writers, but, as a general rule, until some time 3.” after the Christian era they prefer Galatae, whether speaking ** of the people of Gaul properly so called or of the Asiatic
colony". The Romans in turn sometimes borrow Galatae from
* See Zeuss Gramm. Celt. p. 758.
* Owing to the bearing of this fact, which has not been sufficiently noticed, on such passages as a Tim. iv. Io, I have thought it worth while to collect the following particulars. (1) Before the Christian era, and for two centuries afterwards, the form Galatia (Galatae) is almost universally used by Greek writers to the exclusion of Gallia (Galli), when they do not employ Celtice (Celtae). It occurson the Monumentum Ancyranum (Boeckh Corp. Inscr. III. pp. 89, 90) erected by Augustus in the capital of Asiatic Gaul, where to avoid confusion the other form would naturally have been preferred, if it had been in use. It is currentin Polybius, Diodorus, Strabo, Josephus, Plutarch, Appian,Pausanias, and Dion Cassius. It appears also in Athen. p. 333 D, Clem. Alex. Strom. I. p. 359 (Potter), and Origen c. Cels. p. 335 B. Even AFlian (Nat. An. xvii. 19, referring however to an earlier writer) when speaking of the Asiatic people is obliged to distinguish them as Taxáras roos éwows. On the other hand St Basil (Op. 1. p. 28, Garnier) describes the European Gauls as roos éortreptovs Taxdras kai Kextot's. In Boeckh C. I. no. 9764 the Asiatic country is called ukpá Taxaria, ‘Little Gaul.” (2) The first instance of Gallia (Galli) which I have found in any Greek author is in Epictetus (or rather Arrian), Dissert. ii. 20. 17, Çarep roës Tax\o's # uavla kal 6 olvos (probably not before A.D. 100). It occurs
the Greeks, but when they do so it is applied exclusively to
See similar notices in Strabo iv. p. 195,
* e.g. in Caesar Bell. Gall. i. 1. See on the main subject of the preceding
Maria of European Gaul still continued
paragraph a good paper by M. D'Arbois