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δι' επαγγελίας κεχάρισται ο θεός. 19τί ούν ο νόμος; των παραβάσεων χάριν προσετέθη, άχρις ου έλθη το σπέρμα ώ επήγγελται, διαταγείς δι' αγγέλων εν

ciently wide to admit either meaning. But the latter is to be preferred here; for (1) The language of the Epistle to the Romans shows this to be St Paul's leading conception of the purposes and functions of the law; and (2) This sense seems to be required by the expressions in the oontext, "able to give life' (ver. 21), ‘included all under sin' (ver. 22). Comp. ii. 19.

TT pooetéOn] This reading, which is much better supported than étéon, expresses more strongly the adren. titious character of the law; comp. ÉTTI LATÁO Cerai ver. 15, and Rom. v. 20 νόμος δε παρεισήλθαν ένα πλεονάση το παράπτωμα.

2209] For the omission of âv see A. Buttmann $ 33, p. 198; for the conjunctive, the note on tpéxw ii. 2.

Otrépua k.t.1.]the seed to whom the promise has been given,' i.e. Christ. étnyyetai is probably a passive, as 2 Macc. iv. 27.

διαταγείς δι' αγγέλων] ordered, or administered by the medium of angels. The first mention of angels in connexion with the giving of the law is in the benediction of Moses, Deut. xxxiii. 2 wop naano naki, literally, 'and He came from (amidst) myriads of holiness,' i.e. countless angels who attend Him. Some modern commentators (see Knobel in loc.) obliterate the mention of angels by translating, 'He came from the heights of Kadesh, pointing the word vop with the Lxx; but though the parallelism gains by this, the sense thus assigned to naay is unsupported: and Ewald, Gesch. des V. Isr. II. 257, still

. The LΧΧ render the words συν μυριάσι Kaons, but introduce the angels in the following clause εκ δεξιών αυτού άγγελοι μετ' αυτού, where they must have had

GAL.

a different reading from our present Hebrew text (see Gesen. Thes. p. 358). Aquila, Symmachus, the Targ ims, and Jewish expositors generally, agree in the common rendering of naar wip. Other allusions in the New Testament to the angels as administering the law are Acts vii. 53 Ráβετε τον νόμον εις διαταγάς αγγέλων (comp. v. 35, 38), Heb. ii. 2. Sec also Joseph. Ant. xv. 5. 3 iuwv ta κάλλιστα των δογμάτων και τα όσιώτατα των εν τοις νόμοις διαγγέλων παρά του θεου μαθόντων, Philo de Somn. p. 642 m, and the Book of Jubilees c. 1 (Ewald's Jahrb. II. p. 233, III. p. 74). The angels who assisted in the giving of the law hold a very important place in the later rabbinical speculations. See the interpretation of Deut. xxxiii. 2 in the Jerusalem Targum, and the passages cited by Gfrörer Jahrh. des Heils I. p. 226, p. 357 sq, and by Wetstein here. The theology of the schools having thus enlarged upon the casual notices in the Old Testament, a prominence was given to the mediation of angels, which would render St Paul's allusion the more significant.

In St Stephen's speech (Acts vii. 53), as in the passage of Josephus, the angels are mentioned to glorify the law, being opposed to mere human ministers. Here the motive is different. The interposition of created beings is contrasted with the direct agency of God himself. So also in Heb. ii. 2, where an a fortiori argument is drawn from the superiority of the salvation spoken by the Lord over the word spoken by angels (

8áyyêwr). Paul's contrast here between the directness of the one ministration and the indirectness of the other has a parallel in 2 Cor. iii. 12 sq.

,מריבת into רבבות furtlier changes

10

χειρί μεσίτου 19ο δε μεσίτης ενός ουκ έστιν, ο δε Θεός εις εστίν. . 21 ο ούν νόμος κατά των επαγγε

év xelpl] A Hebraism or Aramaism, nearly equivalent to dia: comp. Acts vii. 35. It is a frequent Lxx translation of 73, occurring especially in the expression év xelpi Mwūon, e.g. Num. iv. 37, 41, 45, etc. In Syriac we meet with such phrases as Loja (i.e. év xelpi aveíuatos, Acts iv. 25, Pesh.), 12011201 (i.e. év yeupe miotews, Hab. ii. 4, Hexapl.).

peoirov] The mediator is Moses. This is his common title in Jewish writers. In the apocryphal aváßaois Or ανάληψις Moscs says to Joshua προεθεάσατό

ре

ο θεός πρό καταβολής κόσμου

eivai με της διαθήκης αυτού μεσίtny, Fabric. Cod. Pseud. V.T. 1. p. 845. See the rabbinical passages in Wetstein, and Philo Vit. Moys. iii. 19, p. 16ο Μ οία μεσίτης και διαλλακτής. There would appear to be an allusion to this recognised title of Moses also in Heb. viii. 6 (comp. ix. 15, xii. 24), where our Lord is styled 'a mediator of a better covenant.' Though the word itself does not occur in the Mosaic narrative, the mediatorial functions of Moscs appear clearly, e.g. Exod. xx. 19, and Deut. v. 2, 5, Kúριος ο Θεός υμών διέθετο προς υμάς διαθήκην...κάγώ είστηκειν ανά μέσον Κυρίου και υμών κ.τ.λ. The reference in St Paul seems to be to the first giving of the law: if extended to its after administration, the perims would then be the high priest; see Philo Mon. ii. 12, p. 230 M μεθόριον αμφοίν ένα διά μέσου τινός άνθρωποι ιλάσκωνται θεόν:

: but this extension does not seem to be contemplated here.

On the other hand Origen (IV. p. 692, ed. Delarue), misled by 1 Tim. ii. 5, un. derstood the mediator of Christ, and, as usual, carried a vast number of later commentators with him. Thus it is taken by Victorinus, Hilary, Jerome, Augustine, and Chrysostom. So

also Concil. Antioch. (Routh Rel. Sacr. III. p. 295), Euseb. Eccl. Th. i. 20. II, Athan. C. Apoll. i. 12. Much earlier than Origen, Marcion would seem to have entertained this view, Hippol. Haer. vii. 31, p. 254. Basil however clearly showed that Moses was meant, referring to Exod. xx. 19, de Spir. Sanct. xiv. 33 (III. p. 27, Garnier), and it was perhaps owing to his influence that the correct interpretation was reinstated. So Theodore Mops., Theo doret, Gennadius; and comp. Didym.in Ps. pp. 1571, 1665 (Migne). Pelagius gives the alternative.

It will be seen that St Paul's argument here rests in effect on our Lord's divinity as its foundation. Otherwise He would have been a mediator in the same sense in which Moses was a mediator. In another and a higher sense St Paul himself so speaks of our Lord (1 Tim. ii. 5).

20. The number of interpretations of this passage is said to mount up to 250 or 300. Many of these arise out of an error as to the mediator, many more disregard the context, and not a few are quite arbitrary. Without attempting to discuss others which are not open to any of these objections, I shall give that which appears to me the most probable. The meaning of the first clause seems tolerably clear, and the range of possibility with regard to the second is not very great.

και δε μεσίτης ενός ουκ έστιν] no mediator can be a mediator of one.' The very idea of mediation supposes two persons at least, between whom the mediation is carried on. The law then is of the nature of a contract between two parties, God on the one hand, and the Jewish people on the other. It is only valid so long as both parties fulfil the terms of the contract. It is therefore contingent

λιών [του θεού]; μη γένοιτο.

μη γένοιτο. ει γαρ εδόθη νόμος ο δυνάμενος ζωοποιήσαι, όντως εκ νόμου [αν] ήν η δικαιοσύνη: 23άλλα συνέκλεισεν η γραφή τα πάντα

in ver. 23.

and not absolute. The definite article describes the position of the Jews with ueritns expresses the idea, the before Christ, two ideas are involved. specific type, as 2 Cor. xii. 12 tà on- First, that of constraint or oppresμεία του αποστόλου, Joh. Χ. ΙΙ ο ποιμήν sion. They were brought under the ó kalós: see Winer & xviii. p. 132. dominion of sin, were locked up in

ó de Ocòs els éotiv] but God (the its prison-house, and so were made giver of the promise) is one.' Unlike to feel its power. Secondly, that of the law, the promise is absolute and watchful care. They were fenced unconditional. It depends on the sole about as a peculiar people, that in decree of God. There are not two due time they might become the decontracting parties. There is nothing pository of the Gospel and the centre of the nature of a stipulation. The

of its diffusion. The first idea is progiver is everything, the recipient no

minent in ver. 22, the second appears thing. Thus the primary sense of 'one' here is numerical. The further 22. 'On the contrary, as the pasidea of unchangeableness may per- sage of Scripture testifies, the law conhaps be suggested; but if so, it is demned all alike, yet not finally and rather accidental than inherent. On irrevocably, but only as leading the the other hand this proposition is way for the dispensation of faith, the quite uncounected with the funda

fullment of the promise.' mental statement of the Mosaic law, συνέκλεισεν η γραφή] The Scripture • The Lord thy God is one God,' though is here represented as doing that resembling it in form.

which it declares to be done. 21. Thus the law differs widely The passage which St Paul has in from the promise. But does this dif- mind is probably either Ps. cxliii. 2, ference imply antagonism ? Did the quoted above ii. 16, or Deut. xxvii. law interfere with the promise ? Far 26, quoted iii. 10. In Rom. iii. 10otherwise. Indeed we might imagine

18 indeed the Apostle gathers togesuch a law, that it would take the ther several passages to this same place of the promise, would justify purport, and it might therefore be and give life. This was not the effect supposed that he is alluding here of the law of Moses.'

rather to the general tenour of ScripTv émayyeder] The plural. See the ture than to any special texto But note on ver. 16.

the following facts seem to shew that vóuos ó duvápevos] 'a law, such as the singular ypan in the N.T. always could. For the position of the arti- means a particular passage of Scripcle see note i. 7, and comp. Acts iv. 12. ture; (1) where the reforence is clearly

Sworonoai] including alike the spi- to the sacred writings as a whole, as ritual life in the present and the glo- in the expressions, 'searching the rified life in the future, for in the scriptures,' 'learned in the scriptures,' Apostle's conception the two are etc., the plural ypapai is universally blended together and inseparable. found, e.g. Acts xvii

. 11, xviii. 24, 28. Tbo 'inheritance' applies to both. (2) We meet with such expressions Compare the scriptural use of salva- as 'another scripture' (Joh. xix. 37), tion,'t

the kingdom of heaven,' etc. this scripture' (Luke iv. 21), 'every 22, 23. In this metaphor, which scripture' (2 Tim. iii. 16).

(3) 'H

υπό αμαρτίαν, ίνα ή επαγγελία εκ πίστεως Ιησού Χριστού δοθή τοίς πιστεύουσιν. 23 προ του δε έλθείν την πίστιν, υπό νόμον έφρουρούμεθα συνκλειόμενοι εις την μέλλουσαν πίστιν αποκαλυφθήναι. 24 ώστε ο νόμος παιδαγωγός ημών γέγονεν εις Χριστόν, ίνα εκ πίστεως δικαιωθώμεν. 25 έλθούσης δε της πίστεως ουκέτι υπό παιδαγωγόν εσμεν. πάντες γαρ υιοι θεού εστε δια της πίστεως εν Χριστώ Ιησού: 27όσοι γαρ εις Χριστον εβαπτίσθητε, Χριστόν ενεδύσασθε.

γραφή is most frequently used in introducing a particular quotation, and in the very few instances where the quotation is not actually given, it is for the most part easy to fix the passage referred to. These instances are Joh. ii. 22 (Ps. xvi. 10; see Acts ii. 27), Joh. Σvii. 12 (Ps. sli. 10; see Joh. xiii, 18), Joh. xix. 28 (Ps. lxix. 22), Joh. ΧΧ. 9 (Pa. xvi. 1ο). The biblical usage is followed also by the earliest fathers. The transition from the 'Scriptures' to the 'Scripture' is analogous to the transition from tà Biblia to the ‘Bible.'

συνέκλεισεν υπό αμαρτίαν] i.e. subjected to the dominion of sin without means of escape, a pregnant expression: comp. Rom. xi. 32 συνέκλεισεν γάρ ο θεός τους πάντας είς απείθειαν ίνα τους πάντας ελεήση. The word συγκλείειν seems never to mean simply to include.' The A.V. has the more correct but somewhat ambiguous rendering conclude' here. Συγκλείειν είς 18 a common construction; see Fritzsche Rom. ΙΙ. p. 545.

τα πάντα] The neuter is naturally used where the most comprehensive term is wanted: comp. I Cor. i. 27, Col. i. 20, Ephes. i. 10.

iva] The consciousness of sin is a necessary step towards justification. See note ii. 19, and comp. Rom. l.c.

εκ πίστεως κ.τ.λ.] Not a mere tautology after τοίς πιστεύουσιν. St Paul's opponents agreed with him that only a believer could obtain the promise. They differed in holding that he ob tained it not by his faith but by his works.

23—25. 'Before the dispensation of faith came, we were carefully

guarded, that we might be ready for it, when at length it was revealed. Thus we see that the law was 'our tutor, who watched over us as chil. dren till we should attain our manhood in Christ and be justified by faith. But, when this new dispensation came, we were liberated from the restraints of the law.'

23. εφρουρούμεθα συνκλειόμενοι) were shut up and kept in ward': comp. Wisd. xvii. 15 έφρουρείτο είς την ασίδηρον ειρκτήν κατακλεισθείς, Plut. de Def. Orac. p. 426 B ovde φρουρείν συγκλείσαντας τη ύλη.

The use of mioris in these verses (vv. 22, 23, 25) links together its extreme senses, passing from the one to the other, (1) Faith, the subjective state of the Christian, (2) The faith, the Gospel, the objective teaching, the system of which ‘faith' is the leading feature. See the note i. 23, and p. 157.

24. παιδαγωγός]Comp. 1 Cor. iv. 15. The pædagogus or tutor, frequently a superior slave, was entrusted with the moral supervision of the child. Thus his office was quite distinct from that of the διδάσκαλος, 80 that the English rendering, schoolmaster,' conveys a wrong idea. The following passage of Plato (Lysis'p. 208 C) is a very complete illustration of the use which St Paul makes of the metaphor; Σε αυτόν εώσιν άρχειν σεαυτού, ή ουδε τούτο επιτρέπουσί σοι; Πώς γάρ, έφη, επιτρέπουσιν; Αλλ' άρχει τίς σου; Οδε παιδαγωγός, έφη. Μών δούλος ών; Αλλά τι μήν; ημέτερός γε, έφη. Η δεινόν, ήν δ εγώ, ελεύθερον όντα υπό δούλου άρχεσθαι τί δε ποιών αυ ούτος και παιδαγωγός σου άρχει; "Aγων δήπου, έφη, εις διδασ. κάλου. Μών μή και ουτοί σου άρχουσιν,

τους.

οι διδάσκαλοι; Πάντως δήπου. Παμπόλ. instance of the interchange of the first λους άρα σοι δεσπότας και άρχοντας εκών and second persons in 1 Thess. v. 5 ο πατήρ έφίστησιν. On the pedago- πάντες γαρ υμείς υιοί φωτός εστε και gus' see Becker and Marquardt Röm. υιοι ημέρας ουκ εσμέν νυκτός ουδε σκόAlt. V. I, p. 114, and Smith's Dict. of Antig. 8. ν. As well in his inferior 26. πάντες γάρ κ.τλ.] for yo all rank, as in his recognised duty of en- are sons of God by your faith, sons of forcing discipline, this person was a fit

God in Christ Jesus.' The stress of emblem of the Mosaic law. The rabbin- the sentence lies on távtes and viol; ical writers naturalised the word mai- all; Jews and Gentiles alike, those δαγωγός, 25575 (see Schöttgen here), under the law and those without the and in the Jerusalem Targum it is law; 'sons' (vioi), claiming therefore used to translate jos (A.V. a nursing the privileges, the liberty of sons, so father') Numb. xi. 12.

that the rigorous supervision of the The tempting explanation of παιδα- tutor (παιδαγωγός) ceases when you γωγός εις Χριστόν, “one to conduct us cease to be children (παίδες). to the school of Christ,' ought pro- viol coû] In St Paul the expresbably to be abandoned. Even if this sions, ‘sons of God,''children of God,' sense did not require προς Χριστόν or mostly convey the idea of liberty, as eis Xplotou, the context is unfavour- iv. 6, 7, Rom. viii. 14 sq (see howable to it. There is no reference here ever Phil. ii, 15), in St John of guileto our Lord as a teacher. Christ' lessness and love, e.g. i Joh. iii. 1, 2, represents the freedom of mature age, In accordance with this distincfor which the constraints of childhood tion St Paul uses vioi as well as tékva, are a preparation; compare Ephes. iv. St John tékva only. 13 είς άνδρα τέλειον (“ full grown”), είς εν Χριστώ Ιησού] The context shows μέτρον ηλικίας του πληρώματος του that these words must be separated Χριστού. The metaphor of the peda- from διά της πίστεως. They are thrown gogus seems to have grown out of to the end of the sentence so as to εφρουρούμεθα and thus the main idea form in a manner a distinct proposiis that of strict supervision. The trat- tion, on which the Apostle enlarges in daywyös had the whole moral direction the following verses: “You are sons of the child, so that raidaywyia became by your union with, your existence in equivalent to‘moral training,' and the Christ Jesus.' idea conveyed by the term need not 27. 'In Christ Jesus, I say, for all be restricted to any one function. ye, who were baptized into Christ, did Compare Plut. Num. 15 εκ δε τοιαύτης put on Christ: γάρ introduces the παιδαγωγίας προς το θείον ούτως ή πόλις explanation of the foregoing εν Χριστώ εγεγόνει χειροήθης κ.τ.λ., and Liban. IV. 'Ιησού. 437 ed. Reiske (quoted in Wetstein) ενεδύσασθε] The metaphor has been πρώτον μεν νόμω παιδαγωγήσομεν αυτών supposed to be taken from the white την προαίρεσιν, ώς αν την από του νόμου garments in which the newly baptized ζημίαν αναδυόμεναι σωφρονείν αναγκά- were clothed; see Bingham Christ. ζωνται.

Antiq. xi. 11, § 1. It is scarcely pro25, 26. εσμέν, εστί] Bee a similar bable however that the ceremonial of

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