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cendo per dilectionem perfici'), and
therefore this passage does not ex-
press the doctrine of “fides caritate
These words & dyámms &vepyovuévn
bridge over the gulf which seems to
separate the language of St Paul and
St James. Both assert a principle
of practical energy, as opposed to a
barren, inactive theory.
Observe in these verses the con-
nexion between the triad of Christian
graces. The same sequence—faith,
love, hope—underlies St Paul's lan-
guage here, which appears on the
surface in I Thess. i. 3, Col. i. 4, 5.
See the note on the former of these
two passages.
7–11. ‘Ye were running a gal-
lant race. Who has checked you in
your mid career? Whence this dis-
loyalty to the truth? Be assured, this
change of opinion comes not of God by
whom ye are called. The deserters
are only few in number? Yes, but the
contagion will spread: for what says
the proverb! A little leaven leaveneth
the whole lump. Do not mistake me:
I do not confound you with them; I
confidently hope in Christ that you
will be true to your principles. But
the ringleader of this sedition—I care
not who he is or what rank he holds
—shall bear a heavy chastisement.
What, brethren? A new charge is
brought against me? I preach cir-
cumcision forsooth } If so, why do
they still persecute me? It is some
mistake surely Nay, we shall work
together henceforth! there is no dif-
ference between us now ! I have
ceased to preach the Cross of Christ!
The stumblingblock in the way of the
Gospel is removed!”
7. "Erpéxere kaAós]*Ye were run-

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passive; “the act of persuading,' re-
ferring to the false teachers; or ‘the
state of one persuaded, referring to
the Galatians themselves. The latter
is perhaps simpler.
rol, KaNoëvros) i.e. God, as always in
St Paul; see Usteri Paul. Lehrbegr.
p.269, and comp. i. 6, 15. The pre-
sent is preferred here to the aorist,
because the stress is laid on the per-
son rather than the act; see the note
on 1 Thess. v. 24, and comp. Winer
$xlv. p. 444.
9. This proverb is quoted also in
I Cor. v. 6. Comp. Hosea vii. 4.
Does it apply here (1) To the doc-
trine? “If you begin by observing
the law in a few points, you will end
by selling yourselves wholly to it’
(comp. v. 3); or (2) To the persons f
“Though the Judaizers may be but few
now, the infection will spread to the
whole body.' The latter is far more
probable: for the prominent idea in
the context is that of a small and
compact body disturbing the peace of
the Church; and the metaphor is thus
applied also in I Cor. v. 7, where again
it refers to the contagious example of
a few evil-doers.
The leaven of Scripture is always
a symbol of evil, with the single ex-
ception of the parable (Matt. xiii. 33,
Luke xiii. 20, 21), as it is for the most
part also in rabbinical writers: see
Lightfoot on Matt. xvi. 6 and Schött-
gen on I Cor. v. 6. Heathen nations
also regarded leaven as unholy. Plu-
tarch, Quaest. IRom. Io9 (p. 289 E), in
answer to the question why the Fia-
men Dialis was not allowed to touch
leaven, explains it, i (tum kai yovey
ék (b0opas adrii kai (bteipel bispapa
utyvvuévn. See Trench On the Para-
bles, p. III.
For the expression (uplody ro pupa-
Ha see Exod. xii. 34.

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am exposed to continual persecution from them, do I preach circumcision?’ £rt knpūooro] For an explanation of this ori, see the note i. Io. Perhaps however it should be explained rather by the form which the slander of his enemies would take; ‘You still preach circumcision, though you have become a Christian: why should not we continue to do the same?’ rt ori) The second ori is probably argumentative, ‘this being the case,' as in Rom. iii. 7, ix. 19. apa] ‘so it appears!' àpa introduces a false statement or inference also in I Cor. v. Io, xv. 14, 15, 18, 2 Cor. i. 17. It is here ironical; ‘So I have adopted their mode of justification; I am silent about the Cross of Christ! no one takes offence at my preaching now; all goes on pleasantly enough!' The oravpès here stands for the atoning death of Christ. The crucifixion of the Messiah was in itself a stumblingblock to the Jews, but preached as the means of atonement, it became doubly so: comp. I Cor. i. 23. orkáv8a)\ov] almost confined, it would appear, to biblical and ecclesiastical Greek. orkavčáAnópov however is a classical word, e.g. Arist. Ach. 687. 12. After this abrupt digression $t Paul returns again to the false brethren: ‘Why do they stop at circumcision?” he asks indignantly, ‘why do they not mutilate themselves, like your priests of Cybele?” The severity of the irony may be compared with 2 Cor. xi. 19, ‘Ye suffer fools gladly, seeing ye yourselves are wise.” Circumcision under the law and to the Jews was the token of a covenant. To the Galatians under the Gospel dispensation it had no such significance. It was merely a bodily mutilation, as such differing rather in degree than in kind from the terrible practices

of the heathen priests. Compare Phil. iii. 2, 38Aérere rov kararop;|v justs yáp é o nev jirepitouff, where the same idea appears, clothed in similar language. &qeMovl Comp. I Cor. iv. 8, 2 Cor. xi. I, in both of which passages the irony is plain. In this construction with the indicative, which appears only in later writers, the original meaning of 34 eXov is lost sight of, and it is treated as a mere particle; see Winer $xli. p. 377, A. Buttmann $139, Io, p. 185. dirokóvovrat) will not admit the rendering of the A. W., ‘I would they were even cut off.' On the other hand the meaning given above is assigned to droxóyovrai by all the Greek commentators, I believe, without exception (the Latin fathers, who read ‘abscindantur’ in their text, had more latitude), and seems alone tenable. See for instance drokekoupiévos, Deut. xxiii. 1, and indeed droków reoréal was the common term for this mutilation. If it seems strange that St Paul should have alluded to such a practice at all, it must be remembered that as this was a recognised form of heathen selfdevotion, it could not possibly be shunned in conversation, and must at times have been mentioned by a Christian preacher. For the juxtaposition of repurépuveuw and dirokówrew see Dion Cassius lxxix. II (quoted by Bentley Crit. Sacr. p. 48), and compare Diod. Sic. iii. 31. The remonstrance is doubly significant as addressed to Galatians, for Pessinus one of their chief towns was the home of the worship of Cybele in honour of whom these mutilations were practised: comp. Justin Apol. i. p. 7o E dirokówrovrai rives kal els unrápa 6edov uvorràpiadvaq'épovoru. See also [Bardesanes] de Fato $ 20, in Cureton's Spic. Syr. p. 32. Thus by “glorying in the flesh' the Galatians were returning in a very marked way

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to the bondage of their former hea-
thenism. See iv. 9, v. 1.
dvaararoovres] stronger than rapdo-
orovres; ‘They not only incite you to
sedition, but they overthrow the whole
framework of your heavenly polity.’
For dwaararoov, a word unknown to
classical writers, who would use dva-
arárovs roteiv instead, see Acts xvii. 6,
xxi. 38. “Well does he say dwaararoov-
res,” remarks Chrysostom, “for aban-
doning their country and their freedom
and their kindred in heaven, they com-
pelled them to seek a foreign and a
strange land; banishing them from the
heavenly Jerusalem and the free, and
forcing them to wander about as cap-
tives and aliens.’
13. This is the justification of the
indignant scorn poured on their of
fence: “They are defeating the very
purpose of your calling: ye were called
not for bondage, but for liberty.”
&m’ &M ev6eptg] For kaxesv in see
1 Thess. iv. 7: comp. Ephes. ii. Io, and
Winer § xlviii. p. 492.
Advov us;] Here he suddenly checks
himself, to avoid misunderstanding;
‘Liberty and not licence.’ It may be
that here, as in the Corinthian Church,
a party opposed to the Judaizers had
shown a tendency to Antinomian ex-
cess. At all events, such an outburst
was ever to be dreaded in a body of
converted heathens, whether as a pro-
test against or a rebound from the
strict formalism which the Judaic
party sought to impose on the Church;
and in this case the passionate tem-
perament of a Celtic people would
increase the Apostle's uneasiness.
Comp. Rom. vi. I sq., Phil. iii. 13 sq
uévov pisi K.T.A..] 'only turn not your
liberty.’ Some MSS supply 83rs, which

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hints that Marcion perverted the meaning of the tense to suit his purpose, “si sic vult intelligi adimpleta est, quasi jam non adimplenda.’ The present mompossrai in the received text enfeebles the sense. The meaning of m\mpoov here is not to ‘sum up, comprehend,' but “to perform, complete,’ as appears from the parallel passage, Rom. xiii. 8 & dyaróv rôv repov, vópov memoripokev ; so that iv. ivi Aéyo’, ‘in one maxim or precept, means “in the observance of one maxim or precept.' du rô) probably neuter, in apposition to the sentence; comp. Rom. xiii. 9, 10. See above on iv. 25. row monariov) In the original text (Lev. xix. 18) the word “neighbour' is apparently restricted to the Jewish people: ‘Thou shalt not bear any grudge against the children of thy people, but thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself? From the question of the lawyer (Luke x. 29) it may be inferred that the meaning of this term was a common theme for discussion. Our Lord extends and spiritualises its meaning; and in this comprehensive sense, as applying to the universal brotherhood of men, St Paul here uses it. See Tholuck Bergpredigt, v. 43. areavrów) The received text has favrów, which some would retain against the authority of the best Mss on the ground that it was altered by scribes ignorant of this usage of tavrot for the first and second persons. The case however with respect to the New Testament seems to stand thus; that whereas (1) in the plural we always find &avröv etc., never juáv atröv, Juáv auröv etc., as mere reflexives, yet (2) in the singular there is not one decisive instance of £avros in the first


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or second person; the authority of the best Mss being mostly against it. See A. Buttmann p. 99; and for the testimony of the Mss in this text (Lev. xix. 18) as quoted in the N.T., Tischendorf on Rom. xiii. 9. 15. 8Aérere k.r.A.] A sort of parenthetic warning; “The contest will not end in a victory to either party, such as you crave. It will lead to the common extinction of both.’ St Paul returns to his main subject again inver. 16. See the introduction, p. 33, note 3. 16–18. “This is my command. Walk by the rule of the Spirit. If you do so, you will not, you cannot, gratify the lusts of the flesh. Between the Spirit and the flesh there is not only no alliance; there is an interminable, deadly feud. (You feel these antagonistic forces working in you: you would fain follow the guidance of your conscience, and you are dragged back by an opposing power.) And if you adopt the rule of the Spirit, youthereby renounce your allegiance to the law.” In this passage the Spirit is doubly contrasted, first, with the flesh, and secondly, with the law. The flesh and the law are closely allied: they both move in the same element, in the sphere of outward and material things. The law is not only no safeguard against the flesh, but rather provokes it; and he who would renounce the flesh, must renounce the law also. We have here germs of the ideas more fully developed in the Epistle to the Romans. 16. rve ouart] the dative of the rule or direction: see the notes v. 25, vi. 16. où uh rexéamre] ‘ye shall in no wise Julfil.” A strong form of the future especially frequent in later Greek; see Lobeck Phryn. p. 724.

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