ούντες μη εγκακώμεν καιρώ γαρ ιδίω θερίσομεν μη εκλυόμενοι. °άρα ούν ως καιρόν έχομεν, εργαζώμεθα το αγαθόν προς πάντας, μάλιστα δε προς τους οικείους της πίστεως.

dykaker] "turn cowards, lose heart'; éykareiv or évkakeiv is the correct word in the New Testament, not ékkareiv. It is read persistently in a few of the best ass, though in all six passages where it occurs éKKAKELV is found as a various reading; see the note on 2 Thess. iii. 13.

Kaip idio] 'at its proper season,' i.e. the regular time for harvest; comp. 1 Tim. ii. 6, vi. 15, Tit. i. 3.

un éxlvóuevou] if we faint not,' as husbandmen overcome with heat and fatigue. Comp. James v.7. For ékAveola compare i Macc. iii. 17, Matt. xv. 32, Mark viii. 3. On the synonymes here used Bengel remarks: ' ¢KKAKEIV [rather έγκακείν] est in relle, εκλύεσθαι est in posse.' To this it may be added that éklúeodai is a consequence of éyo kareiv; the prostration of the powers following on the submission of the will.

10. Ws kalpov ēxouev] 'as we find a seasonable time, as opportunity presents. The kaipòs here answers to the kaipòs of the former verse. There is a time for sowing as there is a time for barvest. 'Os is perhaps best translated as above. There is however no objection to rendering it while we have time'; comp. Joh. xii. 35 WS Tò pós exete (as it is read in the best uss), Ignat. Smyrn. 9 ws ēti kalpor έχομεν, [Clem. Rom.] ii. 8 ως ουν εσμεν επί γης, ιδ. 8 9 ως έχομεν καιρόν. The distinction is introduced by translation; the original ws covers both meanings.

τους οικείους κ.τ.λ.] the members of the household of the faith': compare Ephes. ii. 19 συνπολίται των αγίων και οικείοι του Θεού. Similarly the Church is elsewhere spoken of as the house of God, 1 Tim. iii. 15, 1 Pet. iv. 17; comp. 1 Pet. ii. 5, Heb. iii. 6. We need not therefore hesitate to assign this meaning to oincio. here. Comp. Clem. Rec.

p. 45, l. 31 (Syr.). In this case this Fiorews will probably be nearly equivalent to roll evayyeliov; see above, p. 157. On the other hand, oikciós Tlvos is not an uncommon phrase in pro fane writers for 'acquainted with,' e.g. φιλοσοφίας, γεωγραφίας, ολιγαρχίας, τυραννίδος, τρυφής; see the passages in Wetstein: but this sense would be insipid here.

II. At this point the Apostle takes the pen from his amanuensis, and the concluding paragraph is written with his own hand. From the time when letters began to be forged in his name (2 Thess. ii. 2, iii. 17), it seems to have been his practice to close with a few words in his own handwriting as a precaution against such forgeries. Frequently he confined himself to adding the final benediction (2 Thess. iii. 17,18), with perhaps a single sentence of exhortation, as ‘If any one lore not the Lord Jesus Christ, etc.' (1 Cor. xvi. 21—24), or ‘Remember my bonds' (Col. iv. 18). In the present case he writes a whole paragraph, summing up the main lessons of the epistle in terse eager disjointed sentences. He writes it too in large bold characters, that his handwriting may reflect the energy and determination of his soul (see above, p. 65). To this feature he calls attention in the words which follow.

*18€T€ K.T.N.] 'Look you in what large letters I write with mine own hand. In the English version the words are translated 'How large a letter I have written with mine own hand.' It is true indeed that ypáxpara sometimes signifies 'a letter' (Acts xxviii. 21, 1 Macc. v. 10, comp. Ignat. Polyc. 7, Clem. Hom. xii. 10), and therefore πηλίκα γράμματα might mean 'how long a letter'; but on the other hand, it seems equally clear that

11"Ιδετε πηλίκοις υμίν γράμμασιν έγραψα τη εμή

ypáupaow ypápeu 'to write with let

which it emphasizes, 'how large, mark ters' cannot be used for ypámpara you'; see e.g. Plat. Theaet. p. 143 E ypápety 'to write a letter.' On this ακούσαι πάνυ άξιον οίω υμίν των πολιaccount the other interpretation must των μειρακίω εντετύχηκα. . be preferred. But what is the Apo- @ypaya] 'I write,' the epistolary stle's object in calling attention to the aorist, conveniently translated by a handwriting? Does he, as Chryso- present. According to the view here stom and others have supposed, point adopted, it marks the point at which to the rude ill-formed characters in St Paul takes the pen into his own which the letter was written, as though hand. For other instances of this he gloried in his imperfect knowledge epistolary ypaya see Philem. 19, 21, of Greek? But where is there any 1 Pet. v. 12, 1 Joh. ii. 14, 21, 26, v. 13; mention of rudeness of form? and is comp. étéorelha, Heb. xiii. 22. The it at all probable that St Paul who objection, that the aorist cannot be had received a careful education at so used except at the close of a letter Jerusalem and at Tarsus, the great and in reference to what goes before, centres of Jewish and of Greek learn- seems to be groundless; for (1) it fails ing, slould have betrayed this child. to recognise the significance of the like ignorance and even gloried in it? epistolary aorist, the explanation of Or again does he, as others imagine, the past tense being that events are refer to the physical difficulties under referred to the time at which the letter which he was labouring, the irregu- is received: (2) There are clear inlarity of the handwriting being ex- stances of the past tense used as here, plained by his defective eyesight or e.g. in Mart. Polyc. § i dypápaper by his bodily suffering? But here υμίν, αδελφοί, τα κατά τους μαρτυρήσανagain andíxols denotes size only, not Tas, these words occurring immediirregularity; and altogether this ex- ately after the opening salutation; planation is forted into the passage comp. &TeuYa, Acts xxiii. 30, 2 Cor. ix. from without, nor does the sentence 3, Ephes. vi. 22, Col. iv. 8. The usage in this case contain the key to its own of the epistolary past (the imperfect meaning "heodore of Mopsuestia and pluperfect) is still more marked has caught the point of the expression, in Latin, and is clearly explained explaining it άγαν μείζοσιν έχρήσατο by Madwig Gr. 8 345. Thus έγραψα γράμμασιν εμφαίνων ότι ούτε αυτός ερυ- in no way prejudices the question θρια ούτε αρνείται τα λεγόμενα. The whether the whole letter or the last boldnes.s of the handwriting answers paragraph only was written by St to the force of the Apostle's convic

Paul. tions. The size of the characters will 12, 13. "Certain men have an obarrest the attention of his readers in ject in displaying their zeal for carnal spite cyf themselves.

ordinances. These are they, who would úpid] Its right place is after and force circumcision upon you. They Kous, though a few mss have transposed have no sincere belief in its value. the vyords. Standing therefore in this Their motive is far different. They position, it cannot well be taken with hope thereby to save themselves from eypa pa, 'I write' or 'I wrote to you'; persecution for professing the cross of but is connected rather with anaixois, Christ. For only look at their incon

χειρί. 12όσοι θέλουσιν ευπροσωπήσαι εν σαρκί, ούτοι αναγκάζουσιν υμάς περιτέμνεσθαι, μόνον ίνα το σταυρό του Χριστού μη διώκωνται. 13 ουδε γαρ οι περιτεμνόμενοι αυτοι νόμον φυλάσσουσιν, αλλά θέλουσιν υμάς

sistency. They advocate circumcision, but, besides that this interpretation and yet they themselves neglect the is harsh in itself, ev capki here cannot ordinances of the law. They would well be separated from εν τη υμετέρα make capital out of your compliance; capki of the following verse. they would fain boast of having won uovov iva) seemingly elliptical; 'only you over to these carnal rites.'

(their object in doing so is) that they It was not against bigotry alone may not etc.' See the note on ii. 10. that St Paul had to contend; his op- το σταυρό του Χριστου] not as it is ponents were selfish and worldly also; sometimes taken, 'with the sufferings they could not face the obloquy to of Christ,' but for professing the cross which their abandonment of the Mo- of Christ.' A comparison with ver. 14 saic ordinances would expose them; and v. 11 seems to place this beyond a they were not bold enough to defy the doubt. The cross of Christ and the prejudices of their unconverted fellow. flesh are opposed, as faith and works. countrymen. And so they attempted They are two antagonistic principles, to keep on good terms with them by either of which is a denial of the other. imposing circumcision on the Gentile For the dative of the occasion comconverts also, and thus getting the pare Rom. xi. 20, 30, 2 Cor. ii. 13. credit of zeal for the law. Even the διώκωνται] The reading διώκονται, profession of Jesus as Messiah by the howerer well supported, can only be Christians was a less formidable obsta- regarded as a careless way of writing cle to their intercourse with the Jews diákwitan. In the same way in ver. 10 than their abandonment of the law. many texts read εργαζόμεθα for έργα

12. ευπροσωπήσαι κ.τ.λ.] to show ζώμεθα ; comparo Rona. ν. 1, έχομεν fair in the flesh,' i.e. 'to make a pre- and έχωμεν. . tentious display of their religion in 13. oủðè yap k.7.1.] for even the outward ordinances.' The emphasis advocates of circumcision themselves seems to lie as much on ευπροσωπήσαι do not keep the law. The allusion as on év gapki, so that the idea of in- here is not to the impossibility of sincerity is prominent in the rebuke. observing the law, the distance from Thus the expression is a parallel to Jerusalem for instance preventing the our Lord's comparison of the whited due sacrifices, for this would argue no sepulchres, oirives č EwDev Paivovrai moral blame; but to the insincerity wpaiou (Matt. xxiii. 27). The adjec- of the men themselves, who were not tive eútpoo wnos is not uncommon in enough in earnest to observe it rigorclassical Greek, and generally has this ously. sense, “specious, plausible,' e.g. De- οι περιτεμνόμενοι] the circumcision mosth. p. 277 λόγους ευπροσώπους και party, the advocates of circumcţision.' μύθους συνθείς και διεξελθών. The verb See the apt quotation from the apoEUTT POOWTitelv (?) occursiu Symmachus, cryphal book Act. Petr. et Paul.\$ 63 Ps. cxli. 6.

(p. 28, ed. Tisch.), where Simon {says év capkl] 'in the flesh,' i.e. in ex- of the two Apostles, ottoi oi tepiternal rites. It has been taken by reuvóue voi Tavoūpyoi ciow, to w.pich Some as equivalent to σαρκικοί όντες, St Paul replies, πρό του ημάς επιγνιδναι

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περιτέμνεσθαι, ίνα εν τη υμετέρα σαρκί καυχήσωνται. 14έμοί δε μη γένοιτο καυχάσθαι, ει μη εν τω σταυρώ του κυρίου ημών Ιησού Χριστού, δι' ου έμοί κόσμος έσταύρωται κάτω κόσμω. 15 ούτε γάρ περιτομή τι εστιν

την αλήθειαν σαρκός έσχομεν περιτομής the world has been crucified to me. ότε δε εφάνη η αλήθεια, εν τη καρδίας Henceforth we are dead each to the περιτομή και περιτεμνόμεθα και πε- other. In Christ Jesus old things have ριτέμνομεν: and compare the some- passed away. Circumcision is not and what similar classical usage in the ex- uncircumcision is not. All external pression opéorres Plat. Thenet.p.181 A. distinctions have vanished. The new See the note i. 23. If this interpre- spiritual creation is all in all.' tation be correct, the present tense μη γένοιτο] with the infinitive. This leaves the question open whether the is the common construction in the Lxx, agitators were converted Jews or con- Gen. xliv.7, 17, Josh. xxii. 29, xxiv. 16, verted proselytes. The former is more 1 Kings xxi. 3, 1 Μacc. ix. Io, xiii. 5. probable; for proselytes would not be εν τω σταυρώ] Again not in my so dependent on the good opinion of sufferings for Christ' (2 Cor. xii. 9, 10), the unconverted Jews. The balance but 'in His sufferings for me' (Phil. of authority is perhaps in favour of iii. 3). The offence of the cross shall reading περιτεμνόμενοι rather than be my proudest boast. περιτετμημένοι, as the versions which δι' ου] probably refers to σταυρώ; have a present tense may safely be “ "The cross of Christ is the instrument urged in favour of the former, while of my crucifixion as of His; for I am those which have a past cannot with the crucified with Him' (ii. 20). If the same confidence be alleged to support relative bad referred to Xplotow, we the latter; but independently of ex- should have expected rather év a or ternal authority, a preference must be oùv q. For the same image as here given to περιτεμνόμενοι, as probably compare Col. ii. 14 αυτό ήρκεν εκ του the original reading, of which περιτε- μέσου προσηλώσας αυτό το σταυρώ (i.e. Tunuévou is so obvious a correction. it was nailed with Christ to the cross,

νόμον] “They are no rigorous ob- and rent as His body was rent); and servers of law, regarded as a prin- for the general purport of the passage, ciple. On the absence of the article, Col. ii. 20, “If yo died with Christ from see the references in the note on the rudiments of the world, why as if

living in the world are ye subject to υμάς, υμετέρα] opposed to αυτοί ; ordinances ?? Tlis κόσμος, the material 'Indifferent themselves, they make universo, is the sphere of external orcapital out of you.'

dinances. εν τη υμετέρα κ.τ.λ.] i.e. that they Some texts insert the article before may vaunt your submission to this κόσμος and κόσμω-before either or carnal rite and so gain credit with the both. It should be expunged in both Jews for proselytizing. Comp. Phil. places with the best m89. The seniii. 3 καυχώμενοι εν Χριστώ Ιησού και tence thus gains in terseness. ουκ εν σαρκί πεποιθότες.

15. This verse has been variously 14. 'For myself-God forbid I lengthened out and interpolated from should glory in anything save in the the parallel passage, v. 6. Some of cross of Christ.

On that cross I these interpolations have very consihave been crucified to the world and derable as authority. The reading

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ούτε ακροβυστία, αλλά καινή κτίσις. 18 και όσοι τω κανόνι τούτω στοιχήσουσιν, ειρήνη επ' αυτούς και έλεος, adopted is the shortest form, and mercy abide ; for they are the true doubtless represents the genuine text. Israel of God.'

oŰte gåp K.t.n.] In this annibilation ooo1] .as many as; no matter of the world all external distinctions whether they are of the circumcision have ceased to be. This sentence oc- or of the uncircumcision.' curs again, v. 6 and 1 Cor. vii. 19, in OTOIXýcovoiv] 'shall walk.' This substantially the same words.

reading is to be preferred to OTOLNevertheless this passage is said by youow, both as having somewhat higher several ancient authors (Photius Am- support and as being slightly more phil. Qu. 183, G. Syncellus Chronogr. difficult. It is at the same time more p. 27; see also Cotel on Apost. Const. expressive as implying the continuvi. 16, Cod. Bodl. Æthiop. p. 24) to ance of this order. Compare ii. 16, be a quotation from the 'Revelation Rom. iii. 30, and see Winer & xl. p. 350. of Moses. A sentiment however, roo kayón tourq] by this line, corwhich is the very foundation of St responding to the meaning of otoixeiv. Paul's teaching, was most unlikely to Kavor is the carpenter's or surveyor's have been expressed in any earlier line by which a direction is taken. In Jewish writing; and, if it really oc- 2 Cor. 1. 13, 16, it is used metaphoricurred in the apocryphal work in ques- cally, where the image is taken from tion, this work must have been either surveying and mapping out a district, written or interpolated after St Paul's 80 as to assign to different persons time; see Lücke Offenb. d. Johann. their respective parcels of ground. 1. p. 232. Cedrenus (Hist. Comp. p. 4) For the several senses through which states that the Revelation of Moses this word has passed, and for its ecclewas identified by some persons (faoi siastical meaning especially, see WestTlves) with the 'Little Genesis.' This cott On the Canon, App. A, p. 541 sq. latter title is another name for the On the dative see the notes, v. 16, 25; Book of Jubilees, which of late years Comp. Phil. iii. τ6 το αυτω στοιχείν, has been discovered in an Æthiopio where kavóvı is interpolated in some translation. In the Book of Jubilees texts from this passage. however the words in question do not και επί τον Ισραήλ κ.τ.λ.] yea upon occur; see Ewald's Jarhb. III. p. 74. the Israel of God! Israel is the sa

KALVY, KTious]' a now creature. Com- cred name for the Jews, as the nation pare the parallel passage, 2 Cor. V. 17 of the Theocracy, the people under εί τις εν Χριστώ καινή κτίσις. This God's covenant: see Trench's N. T.

kalv , , a Syn. S xxxix. p. 129 sq, and compare common expression in Jewish writers Ephes. ii. 12 απηλλοτριωμένοι της πολιfor one brought to the knowledge of τείας του Ισραήλ, Rom. ix. 4 οίτινές the true God. See the passages in εισιν Ισραηλίται, ων η υιοθεσία κ.τ.λ. Schöttgen I. p. 704. The idea of spi- (comp. 2 Cor. xi. 22, Phil. iji. 5), John ritual enlightenment as a creating i. 48 ίδε αληθώς Ισραηλίτης, compared anew appears also in παλιγγενεσία “re- with ver. 5ο συ βασιλεύς είτου Ισραήλ. generation'; see also Ephes. iv. 24 St Paul is perhaps referring here to καινόν άνθρωπον κτισθέντα; Comp. the benediction ειρήνη επί τον Ισραήλ, Ephes. ii, 10, 15, Col. iii. 10; and 2 which closes Psalms cxxv, cxxviii, and or. iv. 16, ανακαινούσθαι.

must have been a familiar sound in 16. "On all those who shall guide the ears of all devout Israelites. their steps by this rule may peace and The Israel of God' is in implied

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