Lycaonia”,' while he no less distinctly assigns Antioch to Pisidia'; a convincing proof that in the language of the day they were not regarded as Galatian towns. Lastly, the expression used in the Acts of St Paul's visit to these parts, 'the Phrygian and Galatian country, shows that the district intended was not Lycaonia and Pisidia, but some region which might be said to belong either to Phrygia or Galatia, or the parts of each

contiguous to the other. Probable It is most probable therefore that we should search for the Churches of Galatia.

Churches of Galatia within narrower limits. In the absence of all direct testimony, we may conjecture that it was at Ancyra, now the capital of the Roman province as formerly of the Gaulish settlement, 'the most illustrious metropolis,' as it is styled in formal documents“; at Pessinus, under the shadow of Mount Dindymus, the cradle of the worship of the great goddess, and one of the principal commercial towns of the district"; at Tavium, at once a strong fortress and a great emporium, situated at the point of convergence of several important roads'; perhaps also at Juliopolis, the ancient Gordium, formerly the capital of Phrygia, almost equidistant from the three seas, and from its central position a busy mart”; at these, or some of these places, that St Paul founded the earliest Churches of Galatia. The ecclesiastical geography of Galatia two or three centuries later is no safe guide in settling questions relating to the apostolic age, but it is worth while to

i Acts xiv. 6.
? Acts xiii. 14.
:: Acts xvi.6. See below, p. 12, note 3.

* Boeckh Corp. Inscr. no. 4015 →
βουλή και ο δήμος της λαμπροτάτης μη-
τροπόλεως 'Αγκύρας. It is frequently
styled the metropolis ' in inscriptions
and on coins.

0 Strabo zii. p. 567.
6 Strabo l. c.

See Hamilton's Asia
Dinor p. 395. Perhaps however Ta-
vium lay too much to the eastward of
St Paul's route, which would take him
more directly to the western parts of


7 Pliny v. 43 'Caputque quondam ejus (i.e. Phrygiae) Gordium.' Comp. Livyxxxviii. 18 'Haud magnum quidem oppidum est, sed plusquam mediter. raneum, celebre et frequens emporium: tria maria pari ferme distantia intervallo habet.' See Ritter Erdkunde XVIII. P. 561. The identity of Gordium and Juliopolis however, though assumed by Ritter, Forbiger, Kiepert, and others, is perhaps a mistake : see Mordtmann in Sitzungsber. der Königl. bayer. Akad. 1860, p. 169 sq.

St Paul


observe that these are among the earliest episcopal sees on record in this country'.

In Galatia the Gospel would find itself in conflict with two distinct types of worship, which then divided the allegiance of civilised heathendom. At Pessinus the service of Cybele, the most widely revered of all pagan deities, represented, perhaps more adequately than any other service, the genuine spirit of the old popular religion. At Ancyra the pile dedicated to the divinities of Augustus and Rome was one of the earliest and most striking embodiments of the new political worship which imperial statecraft had devised to secure the respect of its subject peoples. We should gladly have learnt Silence of how the great Apostle advocated the cause of the truth against and St either form of error. Our curiosity however is here disappointed. It is strange that while we have more or less acquaintance with all the other important Churches of St Paul's founding, with Corinth and Ephesus, with Philippi and Thessalonica, not a single name of a person or place, scarcely a single incident of any kind, connected with the Apostle's preaching in Galatia, should be preserved in either the history or the epistle. The reticence of the Apostle himself indeed may be partly accounted for by the circumstances of the Galatian Church. The same delicacy, which has concealed from us the name of the Corinthian offender, may have led him to avoid all special allusions in addressing a community to which he wrote in a strain of the severest censure.

Yet even the slight knowledge we do possess of the early Galatian Church is gathered from the epistle, with scarcely any aid from the history. Can it be that the historian gladly drew a veil over the infancy of a Church which swerved so soon and so widely from the purity of the Gospel ? St Luke mentions two visits to Galatia, but beyond the bare Two visits

to Galatia. fact he adds nothing to our knowledge. The first occasion was during the Apostle's second missionary journey, probably in the year 51 or 52'. The second visit took place a few years later, , perhaps in the year 54, in the course of his third missionary 1 Le Quien Oriens Christ. 1. p. 456 sq.

Acts xvi. 6.

A.D. 51 or

He now

journey, and immediately before his long residence in Ephesus'. The epistle contains allusions, as will be seen, to both visits; and combining these two sources of information, we arrive at

the following scanty facts. First visit, 1. After the Apostolic congress St Paul starting from

Antioch with Silas revisited the churches he had founded in 32.

Syria, Cilicia, and Lycaonia. At Lystra they fell in with Timo-
theus, who also accompanied them on their journey”. Hitherto
the Apostle had been travelling over old ground.
entered upon a new mission-field, the region of Phrygia and
Galatia®.' The form of the Greek expression implies that
Phrygia and Galatia here are not to be regarded as separate
districts. The country which was now evangelized might be
called indifferently Phrygia or Galatia. It was in fact the land
originally inhabited by Phrygians, but subsequently occupied
by Gauls: or so far as he travelled beyond the limits of the
Gallic settlement, it was still in the neighbouring parts of
Phrygia that he preached, which might fairly be included
under one general expression":

St Paul does not appear to have had any intention of preaching the Gospel here'. He was perhaps anxious at once to bear his message to the more important and promising district of Proconsular Asia. But he was detained by a return

1 Acts xviii. 23.

latia before Phrygia, but it is quite conActs xv. 40-xvi. 5.

sistent with the expression in the first, 3 Acts Xvi. 6 διήλθον δε την Φρυ

where the two districts are not sepaγίαν και [τήν] Γαλατικήν χώραν. The rated. If we retain the received read. second thy of the received reading ought ing, we must suppose that St Paul went to be omitted with the best ass, in from west to east on the first occasion, which case puylay becomes an adjec- and from east to west on the second. tive. This variety of reading has escaped * Colossæ would thus lie beyond the the notice of commentators, though it scene of the Apostle's labours, and the solves more than one difficulty. On the passage correctly read does not present occasion of the second visit the words even a seeming contradiction to Col.i.4, are (xviii. 23), διερχόμενος καθεξής την 6, 7, ii. 1. See on the whole subject Γαλατικήν χώραν και Φρυγίαν. The

Colossians p. 23 sq. general direction of St Paul's route on • I see no reason for departing from both occasions was rather westward the strictly grammatical interpretation than eastward, and this is expressed of Gal. iv. 13, δι' ασθένειαν της σαρκώς. in the second passage by naming Ga- 6 Acts xvi. 6.

the Gala

of his old malady, 'the thorn in the flesh, the messenger of St Paul's

illness and Satan sent to buffet him", some sharp and violent attack, it hearty rewould appear, which humiliated him and prostrated his physical ception in strength. To this the Galatians owed their knowledge of Christ. Though a homeless stricken wanderer might seem but a feeble advocate of a cause so momentous, yet it was the divine order that in the preaching of the Gospel strength should be made perfect in weakness. The zeal of the preacher and the enthusiasm of the hearers triumphed over all impediments. *They did not despise nor loathe the temptation in his flesh. They received him as an angel of God, even as Christ Jesus. They would have plucked out their very eyes, if they could, and have given them to him?' Such was the impression left on his heart by their first affectionate welcome, painfully embittered by contrast with their later apostasy.

It can scarcely have been any predisposing religious sym- Attitude of pathy which attracted them so powerfully, though so transi- tians toently, to the Gospel. They may indeed have held the doctrine wards the

Gospel. of the immortality of the soul, which is said to have formed part of the Druidical teaching in European Gaul'. It is possible too that there lingered, even in Galatia, the old Celtic conviction, so cruelly expressed in their barbarous sacrifices, that only by man's blood can man be redeemed'. But with these doubtful exceptions, the Gospel, as a message of mercy and a spiritual faith, stood in direct contrast to the gross and material religions in which the race had been nurtured, whether the cruel ritualism of their old Celtic creed, or the frightful orgies of their adopted worship of the mother of the gods. Yet though the whole spirit of Christianity was so alien to their habits of thought, we may well imagine how the fervour of the Apostle's preaching may have fired their religious enthusiasm. The very image under which he describes his work brings 1 2 Cor. xii. 7.

4 Bell. Gall. vi. 16 Pro vita homi. ; Gal. iv. 14, 15.

nis nisi hominis vita reddatur, non 8 They believed also in its transmi. posse aliter deorum immortalium nu. gration. See Cæsar Bell. Gall. vi. 14, men placari arbitrantur.' Diod. Sio. v. 28.

Earnest- vividly before us the energy and force with which he delivered ness of the Apostle's his message. He placarded Christ crucified before their eyes', preaching. arresting the gaze of the spiritual loiterer, and riveting it on

this proclamation of his Sovereign. If we picture to ourselves the Apostle as he appeared before the Galatians, a friendless outcast, writhing under the tortures of a painful malady, yet instant in season and out of season, by turns denouncing and entreating, appealing to the agonies of a crucified Saviour, perhaps also, as at Lystra, enforcing this appeal by some striking miracle, we shall be at no loss to conceive how the fervid temperament of the Gaul might have been aroused, while yet only the surface of his spiritual consciousness was rufied. For the time indeed all seemed to be going on well. *Ye were running bravely,' says the Apostle', alluding to his favourite image of the foot-race. But the very eagerness with which they had embraced the Gospel was in itself a dangerous symptom. A material so easily moulded soon loses the impression it has taken. The passionate current of their Celtic blood, which flowed in this direction now, might only too easily be diverted into a fresh channel by some new religious impulse. Their reception of the Gospel was not built on a deeply-rooted conviction of its truth, or a genuine appreciation of its spiritual

power. His de- This visit to Galatia, we may suppose, was not very proparture.

tracted. Having been detained by illness, he would be anxious to continue his journey as soon as he was convalescent. He was pressing forward under a higher guidance towards a new field of missionary labour in the hitherto unexplored continent

of Europe. Second

2. An interval of nearly three years must have elapsed visit,

before his second visit. He was now on his third missionary journey; and according to his wont, before entering upon a new field of labour, his first care was to revisit and confirm' the churches he had already founded. This brought him to the Galatian country and Phrygia. From the language used in

i Gal. iii. 1, a posypáon. See the note.

A.D. 54

3 Gal. v. 7.

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