And this is fully borne out by the less questionable evidence supplied by the names of places and of persons among the Treveri, which equally with other Belgian names betoken their Celtic origin. The country of the Treveri indeed has long been occupied by but sub

sequently a German-speaking population, but history is not silent as to the replaced change. About the close of the third century a colony of Franks


German settled in the waste lands of the Nervii and Treveri'. This was settlers. somewhat more than half a century before Jerome visited the place. The old Celtic language cannot have died out in so short a time. Gradually it was displaced by the German of the Frankish immigrants, reinforced by fresh hordes of their fellow-countrymen; but in the cities especially, where the remnants of the old population were gathered together, it would still continue to be the vulgar tongue; and Jerome's acquaintance with the inhabitants would naturally be confined for the most part to the towns”. Belge are Celtic. Thus we find proper what extent they were leavened by names having well-known Celtio ter. the infusion of a German element. minations, and occasionally even iden- The statement of this question by tical with the names of Gallic places Brandes, p. 80 sq, seems very fair and and heroes : see Zeuss Die Deutschen reasonable. etc. p. 189. This is true even of the Of the two great branches of the Treveri, e.g. Cingetorix (Bell. Gall. Celtic family philologers for the most

3) compared with Vercingetorix (ib. part assign the ancient Belge to the vii. 4); see Brandes, p. 84. (2) Cæsar Cymric (see Diefenbach II. p. 58 sq, relates that the maritime parts of Thierry i. p. 153, 4me ed., Brandes Britain were peopled by the Belge p. 85 sq), and as the tradition seems (v. 12, comp. ii. 4), and the British to connect the Galatians with the on the sea-coasts were certainly Celts. Belgæ, we may, in the absence of any These facts seem decisive. On the direct evidence, look for their modern other hand (3) Cæsar speaks of a affinities rather in the Welsh than in difference of language between the the Irish or the Gael. A careful ex. three divisions of Gaul, the Belgæ, the amination of local words and names Aquitani, and the Celtæ ('hi omnes in Galatia might even now clear up lingua institutis legibus inter se diffe- some difficulties. runt,' i. 1), but this is most naturally 1 Eumen. Paneg, Constantio Cæs. C. explained of various dialects of the 21, “Tuo, Maximiane Auguste, nutu same language, as in fact Strabo re- Nerviorum et Treverorum arva jacentia presents it (who however excepts the laetus postliminio restitutus et receptus Aquitani), ομογλώττους δ' ου πάντας, in leges Francus excoluit,' Paneg. Vet. αλλ' ενίους μικρών παραλλάττοντας ταϊς p. 207 Gruter; comp. ib. Paneg. Con. głóttais, iv. p. 176. (4) Cæsar relates stantino Aug. cc. 5, 6, Gruter p. 181. ‘plei que Belgas esse ortos ab Ger. See Brandes pp. 243, 267, Gibbon's De. manis' (ii. 4, comp. Tac. Germ. 2); cline and Fall c. xiii; comp. ib. c. xix. but this very expression implies that ? Perrot (De la Disparition de la the staple of the population was Celtio, Langue Gauloise en Galatie, p. 180 sq and it becomes simply a question to in the Revue Celtique, no. 2, Août

Evidence But the evidence for the Celtic parentage of the Galatians is not afforded by the

confined to the testimony of ancient writers, however well informed. Galatian The Galatian language itself is a witness free from all suspicion of language.

ignorance or perjury. And considering that & mere handful of words, chiefly proper names, has alone survived, the evidence thence

derived is far fuller than might have been anticipated'. (1) Termi. (1) Several Galatian names of places and persons exhibit Celtic nations of

terminations. These are as follows: proper names of

Of places : places

-BRIGA. Eccobriga (Itin. Ant. p. 203, ed. Wess., Tab. Peut.); Ipetobrigen (Itin. Hieros. p. 574). It signifies 'a hill’; see Zeuss Gr. Celt. p. 101, Glück p. 126.

-IACUM. Rosologiacum (Itin. Ant. p. 143); Acitorihiacum (Tab. Peut.); Teutobodiaci (Plin. V. 42); Timoniacenses ( Plin. v. 42). On this very common Celtic termination see Zeuss G. C. P. 772.

Of persons : cons.

-GNATUS. Eposognatus (Polyb. xxii. 20): compare Critognatus, Boduognatus (Cæsar), and several Celtic names in inscriptions ; (gnath, consuetus'; Zeuss G. C. p. 82, and compare ib. p. 19).

-MARUS. Combolomarus (Liv. xxxviii. 19); Chiomara (Polyb. xxii. 21); compare Virdumarus, Indutiomarus (Cæsar), and other names in Gallic inscriptions ; (mar, 'magnus'; see Zeuss G. C. p. 19, Glück p. 77).

-ORIUS. Acichorius (Paus. X. 19. 4): Orestorius (Paus. X. 22. 2); Comontorius (Polyb. iv. 46. 3); see Zeuss G. C. p. 741.

-RIX. Adiatorix' (Cic. Fam. ii. 12, Strabo xii. p. 534); Albiorix,

and per

1870) seeks to invalidate Jerome's teg.
timony altogether, but his arguments
do not seem to me to be substantial.
He believes that the Celtic language had
died out in Galatia itself some centu.
ries before ; and he therefore supposes
that this father thoughtlessly copies a
statement of some earlier writer, and
applies it to his own time, regardless
of the anachronism, Jerome's asser.
tion however has every appearance of
being founded on personal knowledge.

1 The account which follows perhaps

needs some apology from one who has no pretensions to Celtic scholarship and may possibly betray great ignorance. But the investigation could not well be avoided, while the facts seemed to lie very much on the surface. At all events the general results will not, I think, be invalidated by any inaccuracy or weakness that there may be in the details.

9 The first element in this word also occurs in several Celtio names, Adia. tunnus, Adiatumarus, etc., Glück p. I. i Venant. Fortun. i. 9.


Ateporix (Boeckh Inscr. 4039); a very common Celtic termination, e.g. Dumnorix, Ambiorix, Vercingetorix, etc.; (“rex,' 'princeps,' Zeuss G. C. p. 25, where instances are given).

-TARUS, TORUS; Bogodiatorus (Strabo xii. p. 567); Brogitarus (Cic. Harusp. Resp. 28); Deiotarus (Cic. pro Reg. Deiot., comp. Boeckh Inscr. 4072). See Zeuss G. C. p. 823. (2) But it is not only in the terminations that the Celtic origin (2) Gala

tian of the language is seen. It appears unmistakeably also in a large names and

words. proportion of the Galatian names and words which have been preserved.

Strabo tells us (xii. p. 567) that the great council of the Galatian Drynæmepeople met at a place called DRYNÆMETUM (Apuvaijetov). Now nemetum ('nemed') is a good Celtic word for a temple : we meet with it for instance in Augustonemetum, 'the temple of Augustus,' at Clermont in the Auvergne; in Vernemetum, the great temple,' in the province of Bordeaux, of which it is said

Nomine Vernemetis voluit vocitare vetustas,

Quod quasi fanum ingens Gallica lingua refert'; in another Vernemetum also in Britain (Itin. Ant. p. 479); and in several other names : comp. Diefenb. Celt. 1. p. 83, 11. p. 329, Zeuss G. C. pp. 11, 186, Glück p. 75. The first syllable of Drynæmetum again represents the Celtic (Welsh) derw, 'quercus,' whence Druid (derwydd'), Derwent, etc.: see Zeuss G. C. pp. 8, 16, and Diefenb. I. p. 160. Thus Drynæmetum' is the 'oak-shrine' or the 'grove temple,' recalling a characteristic feature of the old Celtic worship which prevailed in Britain and Gaul. Again the names of several of the Galatian chieftains betray Galatian

chieftains, their Celtic extraction. The leader of the expedition against Greece, of which the Galatian immigration was an offshoot, bears the same name with the Gaulish captain who sacked Rome; he too, like his predecessor, is a BRENNUS—no proper name but a good Celtic word signifying a 'prince' or 'chieftain' (Thierry Hist. des Gaul. 1. p. 160, Zeuss G. C. p. 101). A second name assigned to this same king was

and others.

PRAUSUS, the terrible' (Strab. iv. p. 187; see Thierry I. p. 218, and especially Diefenb. II. P. 252). Again, another commander in this expedition is called CERETHRIUS, 'the famous, the glorious' (Pausan. X. 19. 4; certh, 'celebrated,' certhrwyz, 'glory'; Thierry 1. p. 219, from Owen's Welsh Dict.). Borgius again (Pausan. ib.), also written Belgius (Justin, xxiv. 5), presents the same Celtic root which

appears in Belge' (comp. Diefenb. I. p. 200, II. pp. 61 sq, 267). The name of ACICHORIUS too (Pausan. 1. c.) or Cichorius (Diod. xxii. fragm.), who is associated with Brennus in the command, taken as a Celtic word, describes his office (cyswiawr, colleague,' Thierry 1. p. 225).

Among later Galatian names of persons we meet with GÆZATODIASTUS (Boeckh Inscr. 4039), doubtless to be connected with the • Gesatæ' of whom we read among the western Gauls, and whose name, signifying 'warriors,' is derived from the Gallic word gesum, a spear' (Cæs. B. G. iii. 4; comp. Serv. in Virg. Æn. viii. 662, Diefenb. I. p. 126); and BrogoRIS (Boeckh Inscr. 4118), the root of which appears in Brogitarus, Allobroges, etc.; Zeuss G. C. p. 106; Glück p. 27. Again the name Bituitus, Bitovitus, or Bitætus, seems to occur both in Asiatic (Appian Mithr. 111) and in European Gaul (ib. Celt. 12, Liv. Epit. lxi); for the reasons given (Wernsdorff p. 164) for assigning the first of these, who slew Mithridates, to the western nation seem insufficient. Nor is this the only proper name which links the two countries together. Strabo (xüï. p. 625) mentions one ADOBOGION, a Galatian;

the name Adbogius appears on an inscription relating to Rhenish Gaul (Steiner Cod. Inscr. Rom. Rhen, no. 440).

Again, of the three tribes which composed the Galatian people two at least proclaim their Celtic descent in their names. The TECTOSAG Æ or Tectosages bear identically the same name with a tribe of western Gauls (Cæs. B. G. vi. 24) whom we find moving eastward and occupying a district which was properly German (see Diefenb. II. p. 264 sq). Similarly both the component parts of TOLISTOBOGII, the name of the second of these tribes, claim a Celtic affinity. The word is variously written, but its original Celtic form would seem to

Galatian tribes.

be represented by Tolosatobogii. Tolosa was a common Gallic name for places (Diefenb. II. p. 339), and has survived both in the French Toulouse and in the Spanish Tolosa. It is connected moreover with the name and history of the other Galatian tribe already discussed. • Tolosa Tectosagum 'is especially mentioned (Mela ii. 5; comp. Plin. iii. 5); and according to the ancient legend a portion of the Tectosages returning from the Delphic expedition to their ancient country Tolosa,' and being afflicted by a pestilence, bethought them of averting the wrath of heaven by sinking their ill-gotten gains in the neighbouring lake (Justin. xxxii. 3; comp. Strab. iv. p. 188, Dion. Cass. Exc. I. p. 133, ed. L. Dind.). The riddle of this legend I shall not attempt to read; I simply quote it to show the connexion of the Gallic Tolosa with the Asiatic settlement. Indeed this name occurs in Galatia itself under the form Tolosocorium (Tab. Peut.), and Tólaota xwplov (Ptol. v. 4). The second element in the composition of Tolostobogii or Tolostoboii is no less Celtic. It is the name borne by the tribe of the Boii which plays so prominent a part in early Gallic history, and is not uncommon as a termination of other Celtic names (see instances in Zeuss G. C. p. 69, comp. p. 58, and compare the proper name Adobogius already referred to). Even in the third and remaining tribe the TROCMI Celtic affinities have been pointed out (Diefenb. I. p. 256, Zeuss G. C. p. 28), but these are obscure and far from convincing'. Of Galatian words besides proper names very few indeed have Other

Galatian been recorded. The explanations given of these may be found in words. Diefenbach (see his references 11. p. 251). Among others which are less patent, one is certainly a good Celtic word wapka, mentioned

1 Diefenbach, Celt. II. p. 248, quotes sent some variations, there seems to be Solinus (c.42) as mentioning a Galatian no authority for Ambiani. tribe 'Ambiani,' this being the ancient I notice also that the names of seve. Gaulish name for the modern ·Amiens.' ral Galatian places begin with Reg-, as But there seems to be an accidental Reganagalla, Regemnezus, Regemau. error here. In the most recent and recium, Regetmocata, Regomori; see most critical edition of Solinus (c. 41, Wernsdorff pp. 232, 3. This may be ed. Mommsen, 1864) the word is ‘Am- the same word which appears in many bitoti'; and in the corresponding pas. Gallic names, as Rigodulum, Rigomasage of Pliny (v. 42), from which Soli. gus, etc. ; see Diefenbach 1. p. 53, 11. nus borrowed, Sillig reads · Ambitouti.' p. 331, Zeuss G. C. p. 25. Though the mss in both authors pre

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