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“He that soweth sparingly shall reap sparingly'.” Again, the two epistles have in common the peculiar phrases, ‘another gospel,’ ‘a new creature,' ‘zealously affect you,' ‘persuade men”.' And other instances might be brought". On these special coincidences however I do not lay any great stress. The resemblance to the Epistle to the Romans is much Romans. more striking and definite. Setting aside the personal matter and the practical lessons, and excepting here and there a digressive illustration, almost every thought and argument in Close rethe Epistle to the Galatians may be matched from the other o epistle. The following table of parallels will show how remark- * able this coincidence is. In the first instance I have taken an
almost continuous passage, in order better to exhibit the nature
of this resemblance.
(1) iii. 6. Even as Abraham believed God, and it was accounted to him for righteousness.
iii. 7. Know ye therefore that they which are of faith, the same are the children of Abraham.
iii. 8. And the Scripture foreseeing...preached before the Gospel unto Abraham, saying, “In thee shall all nations be blessed.’
iii. 9. So then they which are of faith, are blessed with faithful Abraham...
iii. Io. For as many as are of the works of the law are under a curse.
* 2 Cor. ix. 6.
* Gal. i. 6, 2 Cor. xi. 4; Gal. vi. 15, 2 Cor. v. 17; Gal. iv. 17, 2 Cor. xi. 2; Gal. i. 10, 2 Cor. v. 11.
* Compare Gal. i. 9, v. 21, with 2 Cor. xiii. 2, and Gal. iii. 3 with 2 Cor. viii. 6. Again, the expressions dropeta flat, kavdov, kvpów, roëvavrlov, pogoûual Airws, and the metaphor xarea.0iety,
iv. 3. What saith the Scrip-Parallel ture? Abraham believed God, passages.
and it was accounted to him for
iv. 17. As it is written, ‘I have made thee a father of many nations." iv. 18. “So shall thy seed be.’
iv. 23. It was not written for his sake alone...but for us also to whom it shall be accounted, who believe, etc. Comp. iv. 12.
iv. 15. Because the law worketh wrath.
Gal. v. 15, 2 Cor. xi. 20, are peculiar
iii. 21. But now the righteousness of God without the law is manifested, being witnessed by the law and the prophets. i. 17. As it is written, ‘The just shall live by faith.” x. 5. Moses describeth the righteousness which is of the law : that “The man that doeth them shall live in them.’ [iv. 23, 24. The same thought expressed in other language.] iv. 13, 14, 16. For the promise that he should be the heir of the world was not made to Abraham...through the law...for if they which are of the law be heirs, faith is made void, and the promise made of none effect... therefore it is of faith, that it might be by grace (xãpts). |Comp. Rom. viii. 3, 4.]
xi. 32. God hath concluded them all in unbelief, that he might have mercy upon all. iii. 9, 10. They are all under sin, as it is written. Comp. iii. 25; v. 20, 21.
[The same thought illustrated differently. Rom. vii. 1–3.]
vi. 3. As many of us as have been baptized into Christ.
xiii. 14. Put ye on the Lord Jesus Christ.
ix. 8. The children of the promise are counted for the seed. (See the passage cited next.)
viii. 14—17. For as many as are led by the Spirit of God, they are the sons of God. For ye have
In both passages the quotation is oblique: in both the clause ‘by the works of the law' is inserted by way of explanation: in both ‘flesh” is substituted for ‘living man’ (träga aap: for träs ov of the LXX, which agrees also with the Hebrew): and in both the application of the text is the same.
The resemblance is manifold.
Galatians written about the same time with,
It will be unnecessary to add many words on a similarity so great as these passages exhibit. Observe only that it is manifold and various. Sometimes it is found in a train of argument more or less extended, and certainly not obvious: sometimes in close verbal coincidences where the language and thoughts are unusual, or where a quotation is freely given, and where the coincidence therefore was less to be expected: sometimes in the same application of a text, and the same comment upon it, where that application and comment have no obvious reference to the main subject of discussion. There is no parallel to this close resemblance in St Paul's Epistles, except in the case of the letters to the Colossians and Ephesians. Those letters were written about the same time and sent by the same messenger; and I cannot but think that we should be doing violence to historic probability by separating the Epistles to the Galatians and Romans from each other by an interval of more than a few months, though in this instance the similarity is not quite so great as in the other.
But the comparison advances us yet another stage towards the solution of our problem. There can be no reasonable doubt which of the two epistles contains the earlier expression of the thoughts common to both. The Epistle to the Galatians stands in relation to the Roman letter, as the rough model to the finished statue; or rather, if I may press the metaphor without misapprehension, it is the first study of a single figure, which is worked into a group in the latter writing. To the but before Galatians the Apostle flashes out in indignant remonstrance the Romans. first eager thoughts kindled by his zeal for the Gospel striking suddenly against a stubborn form of Judaism. To the Romans he writes at leisure, under no pressure of circumstances, in the face of no direct antagonism, explaining, completing, extending the teaching of the earlier letter, by giving it a double edge directed against Jew and Gentile alike. The matter, which in the one epistle is personal and fragmentary, elicited by the special needs of Ån individual church, is in the other generalised and arranged so as to form a comprehensive and systematic treatise. Very few critics of name have assigned a priority of date to the Roman Epistle.
Thus connected by striking affinities with these two epistles, A connect. the letter to the Galatians seems naturally to claim an inter- ing link
between mediate position, as a chronological link between them. Its 3.9."
claim, I think, is well illustrated, if it is not vindicated, by a Romans. comparison of the lists of sins in the three epistles, with which I shall close this attempt to trace their common features.
2 CorinTHIANs. GALATIANs. Romans. Strife, emulation, wraths, Fornications, uncleanness, Unrighteousness, wickfactions, backbitings, lasciviousness, idolatry, edness, covetousness, whisperings, swellings, witchcraft, hatred, strife, maliciousness, full of entumults...... uncleanness emulations, wraths, fac- vy, murder, strife, deceit,
and fornication and lasciviousness. Xii. 20, 21.
tions, seditions, heresies,
But if on the other hand this sequence is altered by inter