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as history emerges into broad daylight, the tide of Celtic migration is seen rolling ever eastward. In the beginning of Sacking of the fourth century before Christ a lateral wave sweeps over the i.e. Italian peninsula, deluging Rome herself and obliterating the landmarks of her earlier history. Three or four generations later another wave of the advancing tide, again diverted southward, pours into Macedonia and Thessaly, for a time carrying everything before it. The fatal repulse from Delphi, invested Attack on by Greek patriotism with a halo of legendary glory, terminated o, the Celtic invasion of Greece. The Gaulish settlement in Asia Minor is directly connected with this invasion'. A considerable force had detached The Gauls themselves from the main body, refusing to take part in #. the expedition. Afterwards reinforced by a remnant of the repulsed army they advanced under the command of the chiefs Leonnorius and Lutarius, and forcing their way through Thrace arrived at the coast of the Hellespont. They did not long remain here, but gladly availing themselves of the first means of transport that came to hand, crossed over to the opposite shores, whose fertility held out a rich promise of booty. Thence they overran the greater part of Asia Minor. They laid the
whole continent west of Taurus under tribute, and even the
relates to the subject. See also Le Bas
Robiou Histoire des Gaulois d'Orient
Syrian kings, it is said, were forced to submit to these humi-
* Livy xxxviii. 16.
* The chronology is somewhat uncertain. See Niebuhr Kl. Schrift. p. 286. The date given is an approximation.
* So Strabo xii. p. 567, Pliny H. N. v. 42, in accordance with ancient authorities generally and confirmed by the
inscriptions, Boeckh III.nos. 4oio, 4or 1, 4085. Memnon is therefore in error (c. 19), when he assigns the chief towns differently. The names of the three tribesarevariously written(see Contzen, p. 221), but the orthography adopted in the text is the best supported.
From that time forward they lived as peaceably as their restless spirit allowed them under Roman patronage. No humiliating conditions however were imposed upon them. They were permitted to retain their independence, and continued to be governed by their own princes. The conquerors even granted accessions of territory from time to time to those Galatian sovereigns who had been faithful to their allegiance. It was not the policy of the Romans to crush a race which had acted and might still act as a powerful check on its neighbours, thus preserving the balance of power or rather of weakness among the peoples of Asia Minor. At length, after becomes a more than a century and a half of native rule, on the death of so Amyntas one of their princes, Galatia was formed by Augustus into a Roman province.
The limits of the province are not unimportant in their bearing on some questions relating to the early history of the Gospel. It corresponded roughly to the kingdom of Amyntas, .* though some districts of the latter were assigned to a different province. government. Thus Galatia, as a Roman province, would include, besides the country properly so called, Lycaonia, Isauria, the south-eastern district of Phrygia, and a portion of Pisidia". Lycaonia is especially mentioned as belonging to it, and there is evidence that the cities of Derbe and Lystra in particular” were included within its boundaries. When the province was
formed, the three chief towns of Galatia proper, Ancyra,
42. That Derbe also belonged to Ga- Alterth. III. I. p. 156.
master of the country’. The great work of the Roman conquest was the fusion of the dominant with the conquered race—the Fusion of - - - Gauls and result chiefly, it would appear, of that natural process by which Phry. all minor distinctions are levelled in the presence of a superior * power. From this time forward the amalgamation began, and it was not long before the Gauls adopted even the religion of their Phrygian subjects”. The Galatia of Manlius then was peopled by a mixed race of Phrygians, Gauls, and Greeks. But before St Paul visited the Romans. country two new elements had been added to this already heterogeneous population. The establishment of the province must have drawn thither a considerable number of Romans, not very widely spread in all probability, but gathered about the centres of government, either holding official positions themselves, or connected more or less directly with those who did. From the prominence of the ruling race in the Galatian monuments" we might even infer that the whole nation had been romanized. Such an impression however would certainly be incorrect. I cannot find in St Paul's epistle any distinct trace of the influence, or even of the presence, of the masters of the world, though the flaunting inscriptions of the Sebasteum still proclaim the devotion of the Galatian people to the worship of Augustus and Rome. More important is it to remark on the large influx of Jews Jews. which must have invaded Galatia in the interval". Antiochus
* Polyb. xxii. 20, Livy xxxviii. 18. * A Brogitarus is mentioned as priest of the mother of the gods at Pessinus; Cicero de Arusp. Resp. 28, pro Sert. 26. A Dyteutus son of Adiatorix held the same office in the temple of the goddess worshipped at Comana, Strabo xii. p. 558. Other instances are given in Thierry 1. p. 411, Perrot Erpl. Arch. p. 185. * Boeckh Corp. Inscr. III. pp. 73– 115. * The direct connexion of the Galatians with Jewish history is very slight.
In 2 Macc. viii. 20 there is an obscure