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hope fully in the next part of this work to do) that this Epistle was not the composure of Barnabas, but of some other person under his name, the credit of our Canon cannot thereby be hurt; for the most that can follow from thence is, that the Apocryphal books have been cited by some heretical impoftor of the second century.
It will not be foreign to my purpose to insert here, that the Author of this Epistle under the name of Barnabas faith, ch. v. that when Christ chose his Apostles, he made choice of fuch όντας υπέρ πάσαν αμαρτίαν ανομωτέρες, who were exceeding great finners : which, though it be not asserted in either of our Gospels, yet seems to be collected from thence, viz. where Matthew is said to be a publican, Matt. ix. 9, 10. Peter defres Christ to depart from him, because he was a sinful man, Luke v. 8. and where he is related to have denied Chrift, Matt. xxvi. 70, &c. Paul styles himself a persecutor and blafphemer, and the chief of finners, I Tim. i. 13; 15. This is well observed by Origen against Celsus to have been the meaning of Barnabas in this place a, though Jerome', by mistake, ascribes this to Ignatius, and not to Barnabas. ....
IV. A Saying aferibed to Christ in the second Epistle of Cle
mens to the Corinthians, Chap. IV. He is supposed to have been the same Clemens, who is
mentioned by St. Paul, as his fellow-labourer, Phil. iv. 3. · 1, Aia tõTO TRŪTC Mpwr 1. For this reason, that we meacróvtwy EI TEV ở Kúdios. might do these things, the Εαν ήτε μετ' εμε συνηγμένοι Lord hath faid, Though ye žy tô xómo 2 sai van Jhould be joined to me even in wonte tas futonas pez, amo
my bosom, and do not observe
my commandments, I will reGarão crãs, xai épão especivo
htbject you, and say ta you, Depart
ieet vou “Υπάγετε απ' εμέ, εκ οίδα from me, I know not whence upās, wélev ése, egyéras do ye are, ye workers of iniquity. vojuías.
• Orig. contr. Cell. lib. 1. p. 49.
Lib. 3. adv. Pelag. c. 1.
V. Another Saying ascribed to Christ and Peter, in the same
Epistle, Chap. V. 2. Λέγα γαρ ο Κύριος" 2. For the Lord faith, Ye hall Εσεσθε ως αργία εν μέσω λύ- be as lambs in the mid/d of κων. 'Αποκριθείς δε ο Πέτρος: wolves: but Peter replying, Έαν εν διασπαράξωσιν οι λύ
said, What if the wolves
Jhould tear in pieces the lambs? κοι τα αρνία ; Είπεν ο Ιησες
Jesus said unto Peter, Let not τω Πέτρα: Μη φοβείσθωσαν the lambs fear the wolves after τα αρνία τες λύκες μετα το death, and do not ye fear thofe αποθανείν αυτά και υμείς who (can) kill you, and (afμη φοβείσθε τας αποκτείνονας terwards) can do you no harm; υμάς, και μηδέν υμίν δυνα- but fear him who has power μένες ποιείν, αλλα φοβείσθε after your death, to cart both cóy were to år og ovellu úrãe soul and body into hell fire. έχoντα έξεσίαν ψυχής και σώματος το βαλείν εις γέενναν σορός. VI. Another Saying ascribed to Christ, in the same Epistle,
Chap. VIII. 3. Λέγει γαρ Κύριος εν 3. For the Lord faith in το Ευαγγελία: Ει το μικρόν the Gofpel, Unlefs ye have έκ έτηρήσατε, το μέγα τις kept that which is little, who υμίν δώσει και λέγω γαρ υμίν, .
will give you that which is ότι ο σιςός εν ελαχίσω, και
great ? For I say unto you,
that he who is faithful in that εν πολλώ σιςός εςιν.
which is least, is also faithful
in that which is much. VII. Another Saying ascribed to Christ, in the end of the same
Chapter. Δ. Αρα 3τατο λέγει· 4. This therefore is what Τηρήσατε την σάρκα αγνην, [the Lord]: faith, Keep your και την σφραγίδα άσπιλον, te/h chafte, and your deal (i.e. ίνα την ζωήν αιώνιον απολά
baptism) undefiled, that so ye
may obtain everlasting life. βητε.
VIII. Another Saying ascribed to Christ, in the end of that
. Epiftle. 5. 'ETEOWTnTEis autós ó 5. The Lord himself being Kúpsos útó Tivos, Tóme Es asked by a certain person, aúrž ni Carineía, cimer• "O- when his kingdom should ταν έςαι τα δύο έν, και το
come? replied, When two PIEW us to čow, xai tò å gren
Mall be one, and that which
is without as that which is μετα της θηλείας έτε άρσεν υithin, and the male with the ŠTE Iñau.
female neither male nor female.
The confideration of these, or some of these passages, influenced Mr. Dodwell and Dr. Mill to assert as above, that Cle. mens and the other Apostolical Fathers promiscuously and indifferently made use of ours and other Apocryphal Gospels. “ Clemens, says Dr. Mill a, both in his former Epistle to the “ Corinthians, and the fragment of his second Epistle to them, “ (if it be his) takes some testimonies out of those Gospels, which « were in use among the Christians before the publishing of our « present Gospels, and fome, as it seems, out of ours, but in a « mixed, confused manner, &c.” But as in this latter assertion he and the learned writer, whom he follows, are most apparently mistaken, each of the Apostolical Fathers having plainly made use of our Gospels (as I hope to shew hereafter), so also in the former, as will appear by a particular criticism on the passages here produced, which must be those which he refers to, there being no other in the Epistle that can be supposed to be taken out of Apocryphal books. And whereas the Dr. asserts, that Clemens in his former Epistle to the Corinthians cites Apocryphal Gospels, he is most notoriously mistaken; there being not one passage in that whole Epistle, that with any reason can be supposed, or I believe ever has been supposed to have been alledged out of such books.
But as to the passages in the second Epistle here produced of which I have collected five:
The first, which is in Chap. IV. appears most plainly to
· Prolegom. in Nov. Teft. §. 139.
be taken out of St. Luke's Gospel, ch. xiii. 25, 26, 27. The latter part of the passage is in almost the very fame words, and perfectly the same sense, in ver. 27. and the former part is no less evidently a contraction of ver. 25, 26. and a very common way of citing in the writings of the Fathers. There is no need therefore to suppose this taken out of any Apocryphal Gospel ; and I cannot but observe, that Dr. Mill himself in another part of his work, viz. in his note on this place of Luke (forgetful of what he says in his Prolegomena) produces this passage out of Clemens, and supposes it to have been taken either out of the Gospel of the Nazarenes, or Egyptians, and to have been taken into one of those Gospels out of this place of St. Luke, and by those who took it thence corrupted and interpolated. If we lay his thoughts together, they are these: Clemens Romanus took this passage out of fome Apocryphal Gospel made before any of the present Canonical ones: this Gospel was either that of the Nazarenes, or Egyptians; for these were made before any of ours a, yet this very passage was taken out of St. Luke's Gospel, and inserted into one of these; i. e. in short, St. Luke's Gospel was made before the Gospel of the Egyptians and Nazarenes, and the Gospel of the Egyptians and Nazarenes was made before St. Luke's Gospel. Aliquando bonus dormitat Homerus.
The second passage, viz. that Chap. V. (as to the words of Chrift) is related in the same words by St. Matthew, chap. X. 16, 26, 28. and St. Luke, chap. x. 3. and chap. xii. 49 5. Wherefore we have no need to suppose Clemens to have taken it out of any Apocryphal Gospel : and though indeed there be an insertion in it of a question proposed by Peter to Christ, viz. What if the wolves pould tear in pieces the lambs? To which our Lord is made to reply, Fear not, &c. This seems to have been a groundless tradition (of which there were great numbers in that time), because, by a little reflection on the series of our Lord's discourse, in the places now cited of Matthew and Luke, there will seem to have been no sign of an interruption in it, nor indeed well could be. The learned
a Prolegom. in Nov. Teft. §. 35. 38.
CoteCotelerius a therefore had no ground to suppose this taken by Clemens out of an Apocryphal Gospel.
The third of these pasages is in part also cited by Irenæus thus 6:
Et ideo Dominus dicebat ingratis existentibus in eum; Si in modico fideles non fuiftis, quod magnum est quis dabit vobis ?
Wherefore the Lord said to those, who were ungrateful to him, If ye have not been faithful in that which is little, who will give you that which is great ?
Dr. Grabe in his notes on this place conjectures, that Irenæus transcribed these words out of the Gospel of the Egyptians ; but this is a mere groundless conjecture. Dr. Mill e goes farther, and supposes the passage to have been originally in fome Apocryphal Gospel, which was published before ours, and consequently that Clemens, who lived, according to him, before the settling of the Canon, took it out of that; but as to Irenæus, he supposes indeed he read it in his copy of Luke, chap. xvi. 10. &c. but that it was not any part of St. Luke's writing, but an interpolation or insertion into the copies of that Gospel, taken out of fome Apocryphal one, which had this parable of the unjust steward more at large than it was related by Luke, and being from thence first inserted by some curious person into the margin of St. Luke, was afterwards, by fome careless fcribe, transferred into the text or body of the book. But for all this bold conjecture, there is not the least evidence produced. The case is plain ; the latter part of the passage under consideration is in so many words in our present copies of St. Luke, chap. xvi. 10. and the whole meaning of the former part in the next verse. The words in Clemens are, If ye have not kept that which is little, who will give you that which is great? The words in Luke are, If therefore ye have not been faithful in the unrighteous mammon, who will commit to your trust the true riches ? i. e, as is very plain by the whole design of the pa
a Annot. in loc,
• Prolegom, in Nov. Teftam. §. 374.