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they did not endeavour to pervert the Gentiles to their opinion, but that those of the Jews who denied Christ, though they lived according to the Mosaick law, could not be saved without repentance in this life ; for, says he, the goodness of God is such, that he will accept those who are truly penitent, as he declares by Ezechiel, but reject those who persist in their wickedness. Then follows the passage we are about, Wherefore the Lord faith ; which also follows in Ezechiel in that place which Justin refers to; see Ezech. xviii. 26–30. And indeed it is remarkable, that this 30th verse is now in the Septuagint Version more like the words of this passage than any of the preceding are to what Justin cites, as will appear by comparing them ("Exacou nata Thin oder autê xpuvã quãsdéve Kúpio). Nor would it be at all strange, if there were a much greater difference, considering how unlike the present copies of the Greek Version are to those in Justin's time, and parti. cularly to Justin's own copy of that translation ; which every one who has read Justin cannot but observe with surprise; and those who have not may see in Vaillant's Dissertation concerning the places in the New Testament cited out of the Old, and Archbishop Usher's Syntagm. de Septuagint. Interp. C. 4. p. 42, &c. But,
Secondly, That which seems to put the matter past all doubt is, that Clemens Alexandrinus a citing the same passage, expressly cites it as the words of God the Father, and not of Christ, having just before also quoted the preceding verses in Ezechiel. This Dr. Grabe has also observed, which makes it somewhat unaccountable that he should in the very fame paragraph suppose it taken out of the Gospel of the Nazarenes.
Thirdly, Considering the series of Justin's discourse, it would have been very absurd for him to have cited a saying of . Christ to stop the mouth of Trypho, who was a few, and therefore would yield no regard to it, especially when he had several passages in the books of the Old Testament, which his adversary owned, to have produced, which were as much to
a In Lib. Quis Dives salvetur, f. 40..
his purpose, and really more particularly expressed his mind, than any words in the New.
XIII. A History of Christ's Baptism, related by Justin Mar.
tyr. Dialog. cum Tryph. Jud. p. 315. Kai róts .JórtG TÔ 'Ingó And when Jesus came to the
tai còn 'lopdovny Totahov, river Jordan, where John was Év J ó 'I wérung Cá TTISE, XQ
raw baptising, as Jesus was deτελθόντG- τα 'Ιησg επί το
scending into the water, a fire
was kindled in Jordan. And üdwp, Hai quę arngun EV FLwhen he came out of the wa'lopova. Kai evaduvt au- ter, the Apostles of this our gã arò ti udat, us wie Christ have wrote, that the pisegar só aysor aveữ C Holy Ghost did alight upon him IT ITTñver ét autóv, fryealar as (or in the form of) a oi 'Amósoder autê táto rõ dove. Xpusã nuwe
That which is peculiar in this relation, and not in our Gofpels, is, that a fire is said to be kindled in Jordan, when Chrift was going down into the river to be baptised; and something of the fame nature we find there was in the Gospel of the Ebionites, or Nazarenes, viz. that at Christ's baptism after the descent of the Holy Ghost, and the voice from heaven, a great light fhone around the place. (See the passage at large out of Epiphanius, in the foregoing Part, Chap. XXV. Numb. 11.) On this account some learned men have imagined this history to have been taken by Justin Martyr out of this Apocryphal Gospel. Thus thought a certain learned friend of Mr. Dodwell, and Dr. Mill b; but herein they are most evidently mistaken, because Justin's account, and that in the Ebionite Gospel do so very much disagree in circumstances. Justin relates, that as Christ was descending into the river, the fire was kindled, and then after that was the descent of the Holy
a Differt. in Iren. ii. $ 9.
Prolegom. §. 269, & 766.
Ghost, Ghost, and the voice from heaven : on the contrary, this Gospel faith, that the light was not till after Christ had ascended out of the water, and the Spirit had defcended, and the voice came down from heaven. Besides, if we look carefully into the passages, we shall easily perceive they are different, not only because of the disagreement, as has been said, in point of time, which there is between them, but because the subjects are quite different. The one speaks of a fire kindled in the river; the other of a great light encircling or shining around all the place; which are two things so different, that I supa pose, if this had been observed, no one would have imagined that Justin took his account out of the Ebionite Gospel. But farther, he who will be at the pains to consider what opinion Justin had of the Ebionites, and their scheme a, will hardly persuade himself that Father made use of their idle and filly Apocryphal books. Nor is there any thing that I have seen to be urged on the other side, besides what Dr. Mill gathers from the words pypastar emósodos, i. e. the Apostles (speaking of feveral of them) wrote this, that Justin referred to the Gospel of the twelve Apostles, which was the same with that of the Ebionites, or Nazarenes. But it is easy to answer, that these words, the Apostles wrote, respect only the latter part of the sense, viz. the Holy Ghost's alighting upon Christ in the form of a dove, and not the former, because the verb $17tñver is in the infinitive mood, but the other verbs are in the third person; and for this reason Dr. Grabe b, from whom Dr. Mill borrowed this argument, rejects it, as not sufficient to prove the point. That therefore which seems most probable upon the whole is, that this circumstance at our Saviour's baptism was related by Justin only as what he had received by tradition; and if I mistake not, this was founded upon that passage in three of our Evangelists, viz. that the heavens were opened ; by which I know not what else can be understood besides fome lucid phænomenon in the air. « Il semble que les
o Spicileg. Patr. tom. 1. p. 19, ( nuages s'écarterent tout d'un coup, et qu'une flamme de« scendit de l'entre-deux. Au moins les hommes ne peu« vent pas voir une autre ouverture du ciel, et l'on disoit « communément, que le ciel s'ouvroit, lors que cela arri« voit a:" It is probable that the clouds divided suddenly, and that a fame of fire descended from between them. Otherwise men could not possibly see any opening of the heaven ; besides, we commonly say, the heavens are opened, when there is such a phanomenon in them. Hence it might easily pass into a common opinion, that there was a fire at our Saviour's baptism; which, with the addition of one circumstance, is the same as Justin says.
6 muages * Cleric. Annot. in Mat. iii. 16.
It is necessary here to add, that this fame history was also in the Apocryphal book, entitled, The Preaching of Paul and Peter, in the passage above produced, Chap. XXX. Numb. 7. and seems to be referred to in the Latin poem of Juvencus upon the Gospels thus ;
Hæc memorans vitreas penetrabat fluminis undas,
Surgenti manifesta Dei præfentia claret. And Dr. Mill informs us also, that it is to be found in a very antient Manuscript at Paris.
XIV. A History of Christ, in his younger years in Justin
Martyr. Dialog, cum Tryph. Jud. p. 316. Και ελθόντG- τε Ιησα επί And when Jefus came to Tòv 'Ioodávny, xai vous concéve Jordan, and was reputed the 'Ιωσήφ τα τέκτονος υια υπάρ
I o son of Joseph the carpenter, Xev, xai diedes, a's ai ypa-
and making a mean figure
(either in respect of his perφαι εκήρυσσον, φαινομένε, και
son or garb) as the Scriptures TÉXTOVOS vou: Souévao TGŪTO have foretold, (fee Ifa. liii. 1.) γαρ τα τεκτονικά έργα ειρ- and himfelf was efteemed a yóČETO Év dvd pcrsons wv, ģeo- carpenter, for he worked, when Tpo nai Suya, dice Týtwv xai be was here on earth, at the Ta tñs dix acrosúvns cún bora carpenter's trade, making didácxwv, xai žvepron Giov. ploughs and yokes (for exen,
carpenter's Contr. Cell.
&c.); thus making a pattern of righteousnets, and a laborious life.
There is at this day extant a Gospel of the Infancy of our Saviour (of which more hereafter), in which we read of the actions and miracles of Christ, during the interval of his minority, and particularly of his working with his father in the carpenter's trade. Accordingly, Chap. XXXVIII. we read, that Joseph took him along with him to all the places where he was sent for to do business, to make gates and milk-pails, and fieves, and trunks, and that when Joseph intended to make any thing longer or shorter, wider or narrower, as soon as Christ put his hand to the work, it was instantly done, according to you seph's intention, so that he had indeed but little occafion to work, not being very dexterous at his trade. It may perhaps be thought, Justin took what he says out of some such Apocryphal books; but inasmuch as this book was a forgery long after Justin's time, and it does not appear, there was any such book in his time, it is much more probable, either that he relates only what he had received by tradition, or else that what he here faith, was his gloss upon those words of Mark, c. vi. 3. in which Christ is called by his own townsmen å tístav, the carpenter. Origen indeed asserts a, that it is no where to be read in the Gospels received by the Churches, that Christ was a carpenter; which he never would lo positively have asserted against Celsus, bantering our Saviour because he was a carpenter by trade, unless he was well assured of the fact. It is probable therefore Christ was not called Téxtwy, the carpenter, in any copies of St. Mark which Origen had seen; and accordingly, I observe, first, That in the parallel place in St. Matthew, c. xiii. 55. he is not called Tértwv, but téxtovos vios, not the carpenter, but the carpenter's fon. Secondly, That
a Oidapou tãr év tais ŝxxandriae