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movements a part of the world in which we live, or the great universe to which that world itself belongs.
But see it where God placed it, and what a wide and pleasant field of thought it opens before us. The hedge-row—the open meadow-the dim wood—the hill-side-the wide and waste common-each with its peculiar plants and flowers—its own bees—its own blossoms—its own birds. Every motion of the little creature touches a new chord within. Amongst the thousand butterflies with which the district swarms, each has its individuality not only of tint and figure, but of flight, of habit, and of purpose. We can single him out before we see exactly the minute markings, or even the general hue, of his twinkling wings.
An insect in the Cabinet is an insect only—a fossil, a pebble, or a flower taken out of its own place, loses half its interest, and all its integrity. In a peerage case, some years ago, a tombstone was brought forward as evidence of pedigree, but the Court ruled that it could not be received, admitting that it would not have been rejected as proof had it remained in its original place in the churchyard. Its associations stamped it with a value it did not possess in its isolated position. It is just so with all objects of nature—they can only be seen and read aright in the Great Museum where God has placed them. All things are associated with all, and to disconnect one link from another spoils the whole chain. The insect is related to the flower, the flower to the soil, the soil to the history and changes of the earth's surface, from ages immeasurably remote down to our own day; these changes probably to the influence of other worlds on ours, and this influence, to the ever-watchful direction of Him who sitteth on the circle of the universe.
What a magnificent and interesting “ Free Exhibition" then has every one before him in his country rambles. The world is not only a vast theatre for pleasure and relaxation—it is a school in which he may be learning to better purpose often than within the walls of a college. It is an idle age in which we live. We are content to go no farther than the pool or the conduit instead of drinking at the spring-head. We go to books instead of things-to systems instead of facts, forgetting that every fact dwells naturally within its own system. Man is analytical-Nature is synthetical. We separate into classes, and orders, and varieties, what God has combined into one harmonious whole by gradations so easy, so gentle, so imperceptible, that we may well be puzzled to draw the lines of demarcation, only to wipe them out again and again as we get a nearer view and clearer vision.
AUGUSTINE AND LUTHER. LUTHER, while yet a monk, was on his way to Rome. He was on a sick-bed at Bologna, in a foreign land, overwhelmed with the burden of his sins and thinking himself just about to appear before God. It was in this condition that the seventeenth verse of the first chapter of Romans, " The just shall live by
came to irradiate his whole being, as it were, with heavenly light. This single word was twice fastened upon his mind with irresistible power : in the first place at Bologna, where it imparted to him strength and unspeakable joy; and afterwards in Rome itself, to arrest and raise him
while with an idolatrous multitude he was on his knees dragging his body up the fabled staircase of Pilate. This word was the commencement of the Reformation of the West. 56 Creative word both for the Reformer and the Reformation,” emphatically observes D’Aubigné ! “It was by it that God then said · Let there be light, and there was light!” In truth, says the Reformer himself, I felt myself entirely re-born ; and this word was to me the true gate of paradise.
Shall we not here be reminded, further, of the greatest among the learned of Christian antiquity, Augustine, who, lying in his garden near Milan, dejected, without peace, feeling, like Luther, a tempest in his soul, prostrate under a fig-tree, groaning and weeping bitterly, he heard from a neighbouring house, a youthful voice singing and rapidly repeating by way of chorus
Tolle, lege! Tolle, lege ! ”_" Take and read! Take and read!” He went to Alypius to get the scroll of Paul's epistles which he had left there; he seized it, opened it, and read in silence the chapter which first met his eye; and when he came to the thirteenth verse of the thirteenth chapter of the Epistle to the Romans, all was decided by a word. Jesus had conquered, and the great career of the most holy of learned men then commenced. One word, but that a word from God, had kindled that brilliant luminary whose lustre was to extend over ten centuries of the Church's existence, and whose radiance cheers her even now. After thirty-one years of rebellion, conflicts, relapses, and wretchedness, faith, life, and peace had descended into this erring soul ; a new day, an eternal day had arisen upon it. Having read these words he desired no more ; he closed the book ; all doubt, he declares, was dispelled ; for “ with the close of this sentence a stream of light and security was poured upon his mind, and his long night of doubts and fears had passed away.”—Gaussen's “ It is written.”
THE PENNY CYCLOPÆDIA. On the 1st January, 1833, says Mr. Knight in his "Struggles of a.Book,” I commenced the publication of The Penny Cyclopædia, in numbers and monthly parts.
This work was entirely original. It was projected by myself, and published under the superintendence of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. But the entire cost and risk were borne by me. The total cost for literature and engravings was £42,000.
The Penny Cyclopædia and its Supplement were completed in 1846. The two works contain 15,764 pages; and the quantity of paper required to produce a single copy is two reams, each weighing 35 lbs. At the period of its completion, the entire quantity of paper consumed in the work was fifty thousand reams, the total weight of which amounted to one million, seven hundred and fifty thousand pounds. Since that period 2,000 reams of paper have been used in reprinting, to correct the inequalities of the stock, making an addition of 70,000 lbs. The wrappers for the monthly parts have used 1,500 reams of paper, and the milled boards employed in binding the volumes having been also taxed, the total payment to the Excise by the Penny Cyclopædia has been sixteen thousand five hundred pounds.
FILIAL OBEDIENCE. A DUTIFUL and affectionate son, before arriving at the years of understanding, obeys his father from mere subjection and respect. He is not able, as yet, to comprehend the bearings of moral actions, or to see with distinctness why one mode of conduct is right and another mode wrong; and he shapes his behaviour implicitly according to his father's will. Love and filial fear are the only elements of all his motives.
When the late Rev. Richard Cecil was but a little boy, he, on one occasion, accompanied his father to the India House, and was told by the latter to wait at one of the doors till he should transact some business within, and return. His father, on finishing the business, entirely forgot him, passed out by another door and went home. Young Cecil was not missed till the evening, when, on enquiry being made respecting him by his mother, his father exclaimed, “O, I desired him to wait for me at the door of the India House, and you may depend upon it he is still there!" On his father going in search of him, he was accordingly found on the very spot where he had been told to remain, the little fellow never having asked himself a reason for his enduring so long a penance, but having simply attended to what he supposed to be his father's will.
CRY ALOUD; SPARE NOT. ROWLAND HILL mentioned in one of his sermons, that having seen a gravel-pit fall in, and suddenly bury three human beings alive, he called for help in a voice so loud that people came at the sound from a mile off. “No one called me an enthusiast then,” he added, “and when I see eternal destruction ready to fall upon poor sinners, and about irrevocably to entomb them in an everlasting mass of woe, and call aloud for them to be saved, shall I be called an enthusiast now ?"
OUTER AND INNER EARS. It was a saying of King Charles I. who had a very faithful monitor in one of his chaplains, that he carried his ears to hear other preachers, but he carried conscience to hear Dr. Sanderson.
“ It is Written ; or, every word and expression contained in the Scriptures proved to be from God." This is the title of a pocket volume, lately issued by Messrs. Bagster and Sons, whose praiseworthy labors in Biblical literature are well known. The work is a translation from the French of Professor Gaussen, and has already passed through three editions in its English dress-a proof that it has been duly appreciated in this country.
The argument is clearly stated, and developed with much shrewdness and critical acumen, though to our own minds its conclusions are often unsatisfactory; and we do not on the general question see reason to alter our previous opinion, which is somewhat at variance with that of its author. The professor appears not only to have undertaken an impossible task, but to be throughout the whole of his work fully conscious of its insuperable difficulties. Though professedly an advocate for verbal inspiration, his reasonings in many cases tell only against those who insist upon a graduated scale of general supervision-a system which he undoubtedly destroys root and branch.
We believe fully in the plenary Inspiration of the Bible as a revelation of God's thoughts; but we see so many difficulties in the verbal and literal theory—“that unchangeableness assigned to the least iota,” for which our author contends, that our minds have been long made up upon the subject; and we find nothing in the work before us sufficiently convincing to shake our faith.
Gladly would we believe that our author is only anxious to satisfy us of the Divine authority of every part of Revelation, and to repudiate the idea entertained by many that those parts only are inspired which absolutely, and by their very nature, demand the illuminating agency of the Holy Spirit-but his arguments are obviously intended to go much beyond this. He labors at something more than the design with which professedly he sets out—" to prove the existence, universality, and plenitude of Divine inspiration."
“ God,” says he,“ has provided in a certain, though mysterious manner, that even the words of the Sacred volume should be invariably what they ought to be, and that they contain