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nothing of error.” Inspiration, again, is defined, as “ that inexplicable power which the Divine Spirit aforetime exercised upon the authors of Holy Scripture, to guide them even to the words which they have employed.” As words are made up of letters, and their sense often depends merely on point or accent, our author's evident meaning is that literally not "one jot or tittle” of the Bible owes anything to human invention.
The first objection to this theory naturally suggested to the mind of any reflecting person would be the significant and characteristic marks of individuality in the several writers of the Bible. But Professor Gaussen makes nothing of this. “That the style," he says, “ of Moses, Ezekiel, David, St. Luke and St. John, may at the same time also be the style of God, is what a child could tell us.” Perhaps it is; but we would rather hear the opinion of men of full age. To say that what is peculiar to one individual may be peculiar to another, strikes us as any thing but sound reasoning. When we find each of those "holy men" who were employed upon the Bible speaking or writing in the style to which he was accustomed on ordinary occasions -using the same forms of speech, even to their errors and anomalies—the same figures—the same similes—the same illustrations-exhibiting throughout, the same evident traces of his position, his education, or his calling-writing or speaking, in fact, as if entirely uncontrolled by any extraneous influence, the inference deducible from such facts is certainly not in favor of an overruling or constraining power. If, indeed, by the shrewdest special pleading it can be shewn that it is not against such a conclusion, we shall probably be inclined to listen to farther argument; but until this is done, we must remain firm in our present belief.
The illustrations brought forward by our author seem moreover to help his cause but little. The expressions “By the mouth of David,” “ by the mouth of all his prophets," appear quite as much to favor the idea, that these speakers or writers, were left unfettered in their use of terms, as that they were mere passive instruments. The examples cited to shew that in some cases the Divine Spirit compels the use of certain words appear extremely infelicitous. Caiaphas, “speaking, not of himself;" the Galileans on the day of Pentecost, uttering strange and un
learnt tongues, and Balaam compelled, in spite of his own inclination, to say what he did not wish to say, are all very singular proofs of the fact, that God, in the ordinary circumstances of inspiration, not only allows men to speak as they will, but actually adopts their language, with all its faults and errors, as his own.
But our strongest objection to the verbal theory, rests on the facts attempted to be rebutted in the first section of our author's third chapter, “ The translations of the Scriptures.” For, however ingeniously the question may be handled, we have still this great difficulty to get over. If God dictated every word of the Bible, we, as "aliens from the commonwealth of Israel”_ as sinners of the Gentiles, conversant with no language but our mother tongue, have no Bible at all. This is a very serious question, although it be quite true, that "it does not contest the fact of the verbal inspiration of the Scriptures, but only the advantages of it." For surely it is idle to contend that God dictated the Hebrew and Greek Bible, if we allow that Bible to be now defunct, and consequently inoperative in the work of evangelizing the world.
Again, as to the “various readings found in the original text," we can by no means agree with our author, that the fact is "admirable in its insignificance-imposing by its nullity." We have before us an English edition of the Bible, “ with 20,000 emendations," all of some, and many of very high, authority. Opposed ourselves, to the verbal theory, we can say conscientiously, that to our own minds, there is nothing of insuperable difficulty in these various readings. As far as the sense and spirit of the Bible are concerned, they are mostly unimportant. But admitting our author's system, they are of solemn and momentous account. For this reason, whilst allowing as fully as Dr. Gaussen can do, the plenary inspiration of the Scriptures, we regret that he should have found it necessary to take his stand on ground, which we feel confident he cannot successfully maintain, in these days of enquiry and fact.
With these exceptions, the work has our heartiest concurrence. It is powerfully eloquent and right-minded, and we wish it an unlimited circulation.
We have more than once had occasion to speak in terms of high commendation of the beautiful “ Pocket Paragraph Bible," published by the Religious Tract Society. Our praise was somewhat qualified by the consideration that the very beauty and compactness of this edition-its microscopic print and “high-pressure" composition, disqualified it for general use, whilst they secured its convenient portability, and rendered it doubly acceptable to youth, to Sabbath school teachers, and to ministers and home-missionaries, whose "eyes were not dim." These objections are now removed by the publication, under sanction of the same Society, of “ The Annotated Paragraph Bible,” in royal 8vo. the first part of which, containing the Pentateuch, is now before us. The text is printed in a clear, bold, type; the notes in a smaller but well-cut letter, suitable for all ages. The marginal references, however, strike us as still too minute to be readily legible, though their arrangement down the side of the page gives them a great advantage over those in the smaller edition. We have already on one or two occasions referred to the beautiful appositeness of the brief notes and various readings in the pocket volume; and are greatly pleased to find that they are amplified with much judgment in this new edition, which contains, as its title implies, many “annotations” not found in the smaller one. By way of illustration we give the commentary of Genesis xlvii. 31. “And Israel bowed himself upon his bed's head"-an incident which, interpreted in the light of Hebrews xi. 21, has given rise to many singular and impertinent glosses. “The Greek translators, differing only in a vowel point, render the word “staff. The idea, however, is the same, as the spear of the warrior and the staff of the chief were set at the bed's head. The patriarch turned himself in a posture of devotion.
The work is to be completed in six parts, at three shillings each, a price we cannot imagine to be remunerative.
The Memoir of John Lang Bickersteth, late of Rugby School, * pourtrays a lovely character. We have read it with tears and prayer, not unmingled with thanksgiving to that God who out of the life and mouth of a mere youth of fifteen could thus ordain strength and perfect praise. It has thrown, however, a chill dark shadow over public schools generally, and especially over Rugby, hallowed though it be by its association with such holy, earnest men, as the late Dr. Arnold. Let every schoolboy read the work itself.
* London: Religious Tract Society.
Pleasant Pages continues to deserve its happily-chosen title. Without being school-masterish, it is animating, instructive, and practical.
Green's Edition of " Barnes' Notes on the Gospels”* is a miracle of cheapness, even in these cheap days. We do not mean that it contains merely a large quantity of paper and an astonishing amount of type, as is too often the case with works published at so very low a figure, but the thorough and muchneeded revision it has undergone in its marginal references, and punctuation, as well as its additions and improvements, entitle it to be ranked amongst the best edited works of the day, at a price perfectly unique.
We should fail in our duty to our readers did we not call special attention to the distinguishing features of this work. Unlike many of the cheap reprints, it has not been hurried carelessly throngh the press, under sanction of an editorial name alone. There is pains-taking and honest work here-not merely in revision and paragraphy, but in additions and adaptations which materially augment its value.
Infidelity tested by Fact t is a seasonable reprint from “The Church,” calculated to do good amongst the large class of infidels and latitudinarians still surviving the “outworn creed” of Chartism.
“ The Voice of the Early Church"I is sound, musical, and deserving of attention-very unlike the cracked and discordant tones of that in our own day. The little work before us is therefore as well-timed as it is temperately and judiciously written.
* Barnes' “ Notes on the Gospels,” thoroughly revised and unabridged, in Five Monthly parts, 8d. each. London: B. L. Green.
# In three parts, 6d. each. Hamilton, Adams, & Co.
+ London: B. L. Green.
Enquiries and Correspondence.
14. Judicial Murder. Mr. EDITOR.—The simple, yet eloquent answers which appear in your Magazine, encourage me to send the following enquiries:
The sixth commandment says, “ Thou shalt not kill,” (Ex. xx. 13.) And many other passages, both in the Old and New Testament, lead us to infer, that murder is forbidden, either judicially or otherwise.
We read in the Bible, that “Whosoever sheddeth man's blood, by man shall his blood be shed !" And many other crimes much more insignificant, were punished by death. See repetition of sundry laws, (Lev. xx.) • A reconciliation of these apparent contradictions, will be much esteemed.
15. Marriage with Unbelievers. DEAR SIR-I shall feel myself truly grateful, could you procure me an answer, based on a good foundation, to the following query, as I am ignorant how I ought to act consistently with my religious ideas, and feel that I am not sufficiently clear on these points to act for myself.
There is a young lady to whom I am deeply attached, but who is not what I call truly religious—she acts on principle in everything she does-is kind and charitable to the poor- is not worldly 'minded
studies her Bible much-never reads trashy books; and yet I do not think she is converted, I think she wants the "one thing." Now, in this case, ought I to marry her? as there is a verse in the 2 Corinthians, vi. 14.,~"Be ye not unequally yoked together with unbelievers ?" It is a hard term, but if a person be not a believer, he is an unbeliever, which seems to disapprove of it. If you can get me some good opinion on this subject, you will greatly oblige,