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Christ Jesus, and feed of the clean spiritual food from heaven. And the apostle saith to the saints, that they were not to touch the unclean,' to wit, the unclean spirits, and its works and actions. And yet the same apostle saith, that every creature of God is good,' the outward creatures, and ought to be received with thanksgiving ; . For they are sanctified by the word of God and prayer. Therefore, those things may be touched in the time of the gospel and new covenant, which were not to be touched in the old.' And so the new covenant is not according to the old.

Concerning the Passover in the Old Covenant; and the Jews in the

Spirit, the True Christians in the New Covenant.

The paschal lamb was one of the flock without blemish, to be sacrificed in the old covenant: but Christ was a perfect man without sin, and died for sin. And the paschal lamb, the Jews, in the old covenant, were not to break a bone of it: and Christ, when they had crucified him, the paschal lamb in the new covenant, they did not break his legs, as it is written, .Not a bone of him shall be broken.' And the Jews did eat their paschal lamb at evening; and the whole congregation of the Jews did kill the paschal lamb at the evening, and they were to eat of the lamb, a male without blemish; and strike the blood on the two side-posts, and upon the upper door-posts of the house.' Exod. xii. But now once in the end of the world hath Christ offered once for all, to put away sin by the sacrifice of himself in the new covenant, who sprinkles the hearts and consciences with his own blood.' Heb. ix. 26. And did not the congregation of the Jews join together to kill Christ, our paschal lamb, at their passover, who tasted death for every man; and his blood cleanses from all sin ? For Aaron the high priest sprinkled the blood upon the people, which was the life of the clean beasts, and made an atonement with it for himself and the people in the old covenant and testament: but Christ with his own blood, which is the life of him, the lamb of God without blemish, which takes away the sins of the world, he the high priest, sprinkles the hearts and consciences of his people with his own blood, which is his life, and with it makes atonement to God for the sins of the world. And none but the circumcised in the flesh did eat of the outward lamb, the passover in the old testament. And none do eat of Christ, the passover in the new covenant, but who are circumcised in the spirit, and by the faith which he is the author and finisher of. The goat did bear the people's iniquities in the old testament: but Christ, in his new testament, the Lord did lay upon him the iniquities of us all; and “Christ was made sin for us, who knew no sin, that we might be made the righteousness of God through bim.' 2 Cor. v. 21. And was not that one golden candlestick, which Moses was commanded to make in the old covenant, with all its knobs, flowers, and branches, and bowls like almonds, which were to be made of pure gold, a type of the body of Christ, the church, (Exod. xxv.) seeing that the churches of Christ in the new testament are called the golden candlesticks? Rev. i. 20. The law saith, Do this and live; and be obedient, and ye shall eat the good and fat of the land:' but they that were disobedient, wandered, and murmured, and died, and their carcasses fell in the wilderness, and never saw the good land.

But in the new testament Christ saith, “This is the work of God, to believe in him whom God hath sent. And he that believeth in the son of God shall not perish, but have life everlasting. And he seeks those good things which come down from above, and hath them, and his affections are set on things that are above, the everlasting things of the kingdom, and of the world that hath no end. And they that make a profession of the words of Christ and his apostles in the new covenant, as the Jews did of the old, and do not obey his gospel, nor believe in the light, which is the life in Christ, they are not grafted into him; and so do not enter into the eternal rest, but do wander in the spiritual wilder. ness, and die in their sins, as Christ said of those that did not believe in him. The outward Jews in the flesh in the old covenant, and outward circumcision in the flesh, they had their outward genealogies and s chronicles, for every tribe, and written in outward books: but in the ✓ new covenant, which is not according to the old, he is not a Jew that is one outward, but he is a Jew that is one inward, in the spirit. So the Jews in the spirit, the true christians in the new testament, have their names written in heaven, and in the Lamb's book of life, and have the Father who is the creator of all, his mark and seal in their forehead. And outward circumcision in the flesh, was circumcision in the old testament. But in the new testament, outward circumcision is not circumcision, but inward circumcision, which puts off the body of death, and the sins of the flesh, that hath gotten upon man and woman by transgression; this is the true circumcision in the new covenant, in which people serve God in the spirit.

And in the old covenant he was a Jew that was one outward: but in the new covenant, he is not a Jew which is one outwardly; but he is a Jew that is one inwardly; and circumcision is that of the heart, and in the spirit, and not of the letter, whose praise is of God, and not of men. And the Lord appeared among the Jews in the outward temple, when they kept his law in the old covenant. But in the new covenant, which is not according to the old, God hath sent his son to abolish the Jews' outward temple, and the old covenant, and the law, and things in it, which God had commanded. And in the new covenant, which is

not according to the old, God, and his son Christ Jesus, appears in his people, and dwells in them, and makes them his temple. And in the old covenant they had the temple in the city of Jerusalem; but in the new covenant there is no temple in the heavenly Jerusalem; for the Lord God and the Lamb is the light and the temple of it. G. F.

Marshgrange, the 8th Month, 1679.

To the great Turk and King at Algiers: together with a Postscript of George Pattison's taking the Turks, and setting them on their own shore.

In the name of the Great God, and Lord, creator and king of all things, in heaven and earth, do I write unto you. And I do take Enoch, Noab, Abraham, and Lot, and Isaac, and Jacob, and Joseph, and Moses, and David, and all the prophets of the great and most high, dreadful and terrible God, who is a consuming fire to the wicked, and John, as you say in your Alcoran, page 30, chapter xxxiii.--I say, John the son of Zachariah, that did affirm Christ to be the Messiah, and to be the word of God, that great and chaste just prophet, and Mary, the mother of Jesus Christ, with all his holy apostles, and your own Mahomet and your Alcoran, to be witness against you, and some of your practices that are practised amongst you, at the dreadful day of judgment of the great God, when you shall all give an account of your words, deeds, and actions, and be rewarded; who will reward every man according to his works, whether they be good or evil. For I say of a truth, that the great God and Lord of heaven and earth, and all things therein, is no respecter of persons, but in every nation, he that fears God, and worketh righteousness, is accepted of him.

And now, O great Turk, and the king of Algiers, I have something · here to present before you, and my desires are, that you may read, hear, and fear the great and terrible, righteous, holy, and pure God.

And here as followeth, you may see the impiety and unchasteness, and the cruelties of some of your people at Algiers, against honest, chaste people, that serve and fear and worship the most high God, which you have taken captive; I say you have taken their ships, their goods, and some you keep slaves, some till they have died, and others you have sold for slaves; many people of the most high God, in scorn called Quakers, besides great numbers of other English people, and people of other nations cruelly oppressed, and inhumanly used by you.

Did ever Mahomet give you authority to rob, spoil, and take the goods of them that do you no harm, and keep captives the bodies of

them, and sell them; or to beat upon the feet, belly, or back, them which are so taken, to make them promise more money for their ransoms than they are able; or to beat upon the feet with one, or two, or three hundred blows, and hang up by the heels, and beat them which you have taken captives, because they refuse to lie with your men, as a man lieth with a woman. And is it not contrary to your very wild bulls, horses, rams, and he-goats, and other wild creatures and brute beasts?

And is it not declared against, by the mighty and eternal God, by Moses and all his holy prophets; who saith it is an abomination to lie with mankind as with woman-kind: and such men as commit these abominations have defiled the land, and God will spew them out. And such emperors, kings, and magistrates as wink at, and suffer such wicked abominations and impieties, the great God will bring his judgments and vengeance upon them.

For the eternal holy Lord God Almighty saith, who is of purer eyes than to behold iniquity: 'If any man lieth with mankind, as he lieth with women, both of these men hath committed abomination, they shall surely be both put to death; their blood shall be upon them, for all such defile God's land and earth; and for such iniquities will the mighty God visit your land.' For he is the mighty God, to see all your actions, ways, and doings, and hears all your words, and sees all your thoughts; I and you can turn yourselves no way from the eye and face of God, nor from his hearing your words, nor seeing your thoughts. Now, would you (to wit, the great Turk, and the king of Algiers, or any of your subjects) be so served yourselves, if you should be so taken captive, to be hanged up by the heels, and beaten with two or three hundred stripes, because you 'esteem virtue, piety, and chastity, and not be forced to lie with other men, as you lie with women, could you undergo such punishment as you inflict upon some of our chaste people, because they will not submit to such abominable impieties as some of your subjects would force upon them, that you have in captivity.

And would you think it were just, according to the law of the great God, and your own Alcoran, if you were taken captive and your goods spoiled, and to be beaten upon the belly, back, or feet, to get more money than you are able to give, for the redemption out of your captivity ? and is this not contrary to the just law of the great and holy God, and contrary to his prophets, yea, and contrary to Mahomet, that gave forth the Alcoran? Or did those which took Lot, Abraham's friend, and his company captive, beat them, because they would not lie with men, as aforesaid? Or where did ever David, or any of the prophets of God, force any that they had taken captive to lie with men, as you have done.

And do not you remember, that when some of your men-of-war took George Pattison captive, who was a Quaker, and his ship, and his men; that afterward they conquered them again, without hurting of them, and took them captive, and when they had done, set them on the Turkish shore without hurting of them, as may be seen in the postscript?

And where did any of the Turkish men-of-war do so to the English or to the Quakers; but, on the contrary, you beat them, to get more money than they are able to give you, because they will not lie with your men. And this practice of yours is neither moral nor humane, but worse than beasts; and so do contrary to the law of the great God, in that you do that to others, which you would not have others do unto you. Now Mahomet saith in your Alcoran, chap. xv. p. 161: "When the messengers of the great eternal God were sent to destroy the infidels of Sodom, which came to Lot's house; and the inhabitants of the city came to Lot's hause to see the messengers: and Lot said unto them, I beseech you, defile not yourselves with my guests: fear God, and dishonour not yourselves; and how that Lot said, behold my two daughters, take them: and the inhabitants said, we do not hinder thee to lodge thy guests. And how that the inhabitants remained confounded in their drunkenness, and that God overthrew the city, and turned it upside down, and caused it to rain with stones and fire, which utterly destroyed it, who were so impious. And this shall serve for an example to passengers that shall see those ruins; and for a mark of the omnipotency of God, to them that believe in his divine majesty, that God avenged on them, they may serve for examples to posterity.' Now, how can you look up to the great God of truth, and in your own Alcoran and scriptures concern. ing Lot, and suffer such impious, abominable actions to be committed at Algiers, for your men to whip young men, and force them, because they will not lie with men? Is not this as bad or worse than the Sodomites, that would have lain with the messengers that came to Lot's house, to commit sodomy; who called to Lot, and said, bring them out that we may know them; and Lot proffered them his two daughters to save the messengers. And is not the eternal God, that changes not, the same, to judge and destroy them that act such things among you, as them in Sodom did, and that suffer such impieties and abominations to be acted, and love their sins more than piety?

And Mahomet saith in your Alcoran, chap. xv. "God guideth not the unjust.' And therefore the great and eternal God doth not guide your people in these impieties. And you say the greatest part of the world are impious, because of the enormities of their crimes: but now look among your own subjects, and see if they be not the same for crimes, impieties, and enormities. And if Jesus the son of Mary, who confirms the ancient scriptures, be full of light, and of the gospel, to conduct the

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