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CH A P. I. Retrospective view of American affairs in the year 1776. Preparation in

Canada for the armament on Lake Champlain. State of the American force. Engagement near the isle Valicour. Arnold retires ; pursuit ; overtaken ; burns his wessels. Crown Point destroyed and abandoned. General Carleton lands there with the army. Motives for not attacking Ticonderoga. General Carleton returns with the army to Canada. Situation of afairs to the southward. General Lee taken. Perseverance of the Congress. Measures for renewing their armies. Lands allotted for serving during the war Money borrowed. Addrets to the people, . Petitions from the inhabitants of New York, and from those of Queen's county in Long Ifand, to the Commissioners. Critical flate of Philadelphia. Congress retire to Baltimore. Divifions in Pensylvania. Desertions. Surprize at Trenton. Lord Cornwallis returns to the Jerseys. Prevented from attacking the enemy at Trenton by impediments, of fituation. General Washington quits his camp, and attacks Colonel Mawhood, near Princetown. Lord Cornwallis returns from the Delaware to Brunswick. Americans over-run the Jerseys. British and Auxiliary forces keep poleffion of Brunswick and Amboy, during the remainder of the winter, Indian war.

Articles of confederation and ferpetual union between the thirteen revolted Colonies.

HE efforts to remove those summer of 1776, were equal to the

obstacles that had restrained importance of the objects in view, the progress of the British arms and the greatness of the difficulties on the side of Canada, in the which were to be surmounted. VOL. XX. 1777.




The weight and execution of the and the frong poits of Crown maval equipment; fell of course Point and Ticonderoga, defended upon the otñcers and men of that and supported by an army, to be department, whose ability, zeal, encountered fivord in hand. To and perseverance in the perfor: add to these impediments, the mance, can never be too much communication between the Lakes applauded. The talk was indeed Champlain and George, did arduous. A feet of above thirty not admit the paffage of those fighting vessels, of different kinds veífels of force, which, after being and sizes, all furnished with can-, successful on the one, might be non, was to be little less than equally wanted the other. created; for though a few of the. And if all those difficulties were largelt were reconstructions, the furmounted, and Lake George advantage derived from thence passed, there still remained a long depended more upon the use of and dangerous march through inma:erials which the country did tricate forests, extensive morasses, not afford, than upon any laving and an uncleared country, still in as to time, or lessening of labour. a itate of nature, before they could When to this is added, the tranf- reach Albany, which was the firit porting over land, and afterwards post to the southward that could dragging up the rapids of St. afford them rett and accommoTherefe and St. John's, 30 long; dation. boats, a number of flat boats of The spirit of the commanders considerable burthen, a gondola, sose in proportion to the difficulties weighing 30 tons, with above which were to be encountered. 400 battoes, the whole presented The objects in view were great, a complexity of labour and diffi- the glory to be acquired tempting, culty, which seemed sufficient to and the desire of their attainment appal even the spirit of British seemed to lefsen or remove obseamen. However it must be ftacles, which to a cold or lukeallowed that the labour did not warm speculation would have apfall folely on them. The foldiers peared infuperable. If the Lakes had their part; and what is to be : could be recovered, and Albany lamented, the peasants and farmers poffefsed, before the severity of of Canada were taken from their the winter fet in, the northern ploughs, and conipelled by power army would hold a principal Mare to bear a fare in toils, from in the honour of bringing the war whence they could derive no ho to a speedy conclufion. It was nour or advantage

conceived that they could then Though the equipment was pour destruction at will, into the compleated in about three months, hcart either of the middle or the the nature of įhe service, as well northern colonies, each of which

the eagerness of the com would be exposed to them in its manders and army, required, if most tender and defenceless part. it had been poflible, a fill greater Whilst the poffeffion of Hudson's dispatch. The winter was fast river would establish and secure approaching, two inland seas to their communication with General be passed, the unknown force of Howe, it would equally sever and the-enemy on each to be subdued, disconnect the southern and nor


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thern provinces, leaving thereby long-boats were furnished in the the latter to fink under the joint same manner. About an equal weight of both armies, or to accept number of large boats acted as of such terms as they could obtain, tenders. Those we have taken without the participation of the notice of, were all intended for, others. Nor could General Walh- or appertaining to battle; we omit ington attempt to hold any post in the vast number destined for the New York or the Jerseys, with transportation of the army, with such a fuperiority of force as al. its stores, artillery, baggage and ready oppressed him in front, and provifions. General Carleton's army at his The armament was conducted back. The succefits of their fel. by Captain Pringle, and the feet lows on the side of New York, navigated by above 700 prime increased the impatience, and ex- seamen, of whom 200' were voluncited the jealousy of this army, teers from the transports, who after every one apprehending that the having rivalled thofe belonging to war would be brought to an end, the lips of war in all the toil of before be could have an opportu- preparation, now boldly and freely nity of sharing in the honour of partook with them in the danger that happy event.

of the expedition. The guns were With all this ardour, and the served by detachments of men and most unremitting induttry, it was officers belonging to the corps of not until the month of Oktober, artillery. In a word, no equipthat the feet was in a condition ment of the fort' was ever better to seek the enemy on Lake Cham- appointed, or more' amply fur. plain. . The force was very confi- nished with

every liderable with respect to the place vifion necessary for the intended and service, extraordinary in re service. gard to the little time spent in its The enemy's force was in formation, and such as, a very few degree equal, either with respect ages ago, would have been deemed to the goodness of the vessels, the formidable eveni upon the Euro

number of guns, furniture of war, pean feas. The thip Inflexible, or weight of metal. Sensible, which may be considered as "Ad- though ihey were, of the necessity miral, had been re-constructed at of preserving the dominion of the St. John's, from whence the failed Lakes, and aided in that design in 28 days after laying her keel, by the original force in their and mounted 18 twelve pounders. hands, with a great advantage in One schooner mounted 14, and point of time for its increase, their another 12, fix pounders. A flat- intentions in that respect were bottomed radeau carried fix 24, counteracted by many effential, and fix 12 pounders, belides and some irremediable deficiencies. howitzers; and a gondola, 7 nine They wanted timber, artillery, pounders, Twenty fmaller vefsels, hip-builders, and all the materials under the denomination of gun- neceffary for such an equipment. boats, carried brass field pieces Carpenters, and all others confrom 9 to 24. pounders, or were çerned in the business of shipping, armed with howitzers. Some were fully engaged at the sea ports

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retired to their main body at be obftinate, although the army Ticonderoga. Gen. Carleton took were in the end fucceisful, it would poffeffion of the ruins, where he probably thereby be so much weak. was foon joined by the army. ened, that all prospect of advanAs he continued i here till towards tage in the future campaign would, the end of the month, and, be in a great measure, be annihilated. fides several reconnoitring parties, The difficulty, perhaps impoffibipushed on at one time frong de lity, of keeping open the comtachments on both sides of the munication with Canada, and fub. Lake, who approached within a fitting the army during the winter small distance of Ticonderoga, at was obvious. : General Carieton the same time that veslels appear.

therefore reimbarked the army ed within cannon shot of the without making any attempt, and works, to examine the nature of returning to Canada, cantoned ihem the channel, and found its depth,

for the winter in the belt manner little doybe can be entertained the country afforded. that he had it in contemplation to It is fit that we mould now tum attempt that place. The strength our attention to the important of the works, the difficulty of ap. transactions in the South. We proach, the countenance of the faw towards the conclusion of the enemy, and the ignorance of their last campaign, that Lord Cornnumber, with other cogent rea wallis had not only overrun the Sons, prevented this design from Jerseys, but that the Delaware was taking place.

the only apparent obitacle, which It was evident that this post seemed capable of retarding the could not be forced in its present progress of his army, in the ftate, without a very considerable reduction of Philadelphia and lofs of blood, whilst the benefit the adjoining provinces. The arising from success would be com American army was indeed no paratively nothing. The season It is said that the greatest was now too far advanced to think number which remained embodied of pailing Lake George, and of did not exceed 2500 or 3000 men, exposing the army to the perils of This was, all that remained of an a winter campaign, in the inhof- army, which at the opening of the pitable, and impracticable wilds campaign amounted, as it is said, to the southward. As Ticonde

to at least twenty-five thousand. soga could not be kept during the There are some who represent it winter, the most that could be ex as having been at that time much pected from fuccess, would be the stronger. The term of their en. reduction of works, more indebt- gagement being expired, which,

nature than art for their along with the obligation of duty, Arength, and perhaps the taking discharged all apprehenfion of dif. of fome cannon ; whilst the for- grace, there was no keeping tomer would be restored, and the gether, at the heel of a ruinous latter replaced by the enemy, be campaign, troops broken and dirfore the army could interrupt their pirited, equally unnacustomed to proceedings in the ensuing fum fubordination, and to a long ab. But if the defence Tould fence froin their countries and fa



ed to


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