« 前へ次へ »
milies. • Those small bodies, who part of the country was in his from personal attachment, local favour, and that several guarded circumitances, or a superior per- polis, and armed patrols, lay in severance and bravery, still con- the way. tinued with the Generals Waih The making of a single officer ington and Lce, were 100 incon- prisoner, in other circumstances fiderable in force, to demand would have been a matter of little much attention on the one side, moment; but in the present fate or to inspire confidence on the of the raw American forces, where other; whilst the support to be a general deficiency of military derived from new levies, not yet skill prevailed, and the inexpeförired, was too remote and pre- rience of the officers was even a carious, to afford much prefent greater grievance than the lack of consolation to the Americans. disciplive in the soldiers, the loss Dec. 13th.
In this critical situa of a commander, whose spirit of
tion of their affairs, enterprize was directed by great the capture of Gen. Lee seemed to knowledge in his profeflion acrender them till more hopeless. quired by actual service, was of That officer, at the head of all the the utmost importance, and the men which he could collect or more distressing, as there was little keep together, being on his march to hope it could be soon to join General Washington, who supplied. had assembled the Pensylvania mi The rejoicing in Great Britain litia to secure the banks of the on this occasion was equal at least Delaware, was, from the distance to the dejection of the Americans. of the British cantonments, be. It was conjectured, that some pertrayed into a fatal security, by fonal animofities between this Gewhich, in crossing the upper part neral and several officers in the of New Jersey from the North army, as well as persons of power river, he fixed his quarters, and at court, contributed not a liccle lay carelessly guarded, at some di to the triumph' and exultation of ftance from the main body. The that time. operation of zeal, or defire of The capture of Gen. Lee was reward in an inhabitant, having also attended with a circumstance, communicated this situation to Col. which has fince been productive Harcourt, who commanded the of much inconvenience to both light horse, and had then made a fides, and of much calamity to indeíultory excursion at the head of dividuals. A cartel, or something a finall detachment to observe the of that nature, had some time bemotions of that body, he conduct- fore been establihed for the exed his measures with such address change of prisoners between the and activity, and they were so well Generals Howe and Washington, seconded by the boldness and ra which had hitherto been carried pidity of motion which distinguish into execution, so far as time and that corps, that the guard was other circumstances would admit. evaded, the centries seized without As Lee was particularly obnoxious noise, che quarters forced, and to government, it was said, and is Lee carried off, though all that supposed, that "Gen. Howe was
tied down by his instructions from cartel, but induced retaliation on parting with him upon any terms, the other fide, and Colonel Campif the fortune of war fhould throw bell, who had hitherto enjoyed him into his power. Gen. Wash- every degree of liberty confiftent ington not having at this time any with his condition, and had been prisoner of equal rank with Lee, treated with great humanity by the proposed to exchange fix field people of Boston, was now thrown officers for him, the number being into a dungeon, and treated with intended to balance that desparity; a rigour equal to the indulgence or if this was not accepted, he he had before experienced. Those required that he should be treated officers who were prisoners in the and considered suitably to his fta- fouthern colonies, though not tion, according to the practice treated with equal rigour, were, established among polished nations, however, abridged of their parole and the precedent already set by liberty, and deprived of other the Americans in regard to the comforts and satisfactions, which British officers in their hands, uno had hitherto rendered their condi: til an opportunity offered for a 'tion uncommonly easy. direct and equal exchange. at the same time declared, that
To this it was answered, that their future treatment should in as Mr. Lee was a deserter from his every degree be regulated by that Majesty's service, he was not to which Gen. Lee experienced, and be considered as a prisoner of war, that their persons should be anthat he did not at all come with. swerable, in the utmost extent, for in the conditions of the cartel, any violence that was offered to nor could he receive any of its him. benefits. This brought on a fruit This was not the only instance less difcuffion, whether Gen. Lee, in which the Congrels manifefted who had resigned his half pay at a firm and undaunted resolution. the beginning of the troubles, In the midst of the dangers with could be considered as a deserter, which they were environed, far or whether he could with justice from giving way to any thing like be excluded from the general be- unconditional fubmission, they nefits of a cartel, in which no made no overtures towards any particular exception of person had. kind of accommodation. On the been made ; the afirmative in other fide none were made to them. both these positions being treated They prepared to renew the war, by Washingtion with the utmost and to repair their shattered forces indignation.
with all diligence. They were In the mean time Lee was con now convinced of the inefficacy of fined in the clofelt manner, being , temporary armies, engaged only watched and guarded with all that for a fhort term, and calculated strictness and jealousy, which a merely to repel a sudden invasion, ftate criminal of the first magni. when opposed to the confant war tude could have experienced in of a powerful enemy, and the in the most dangerous political con- cessant efforts of regular forces. It jun&ture. This conduct not only could never be hoped, with new fufpended the operation of the men thus changed every year, to
make any effe&ual itand against ment of a Colonel, to 150, which veteran troops, and their present was that of an Enfign; the pricritical situation afforded too 2 vate men, and non-commissioned larming an experience, of the fa- officers, were to have 100 tal consequences which might at- each. As a bar to the thoughlefftend that period of utter imbeci- ness and prodigality incident to lity, between the extinction of the foldiers, and to prevent the most old army, and the establishment worthless and undeserving from of the new. To guard against this obtaining for trifles, those rewards evil in future, which could not be due to the brave for their blood remedied for the present, they issued and services, all these lands were orders about the middle of Septem. rendered unalienable during the ber, for the levying of 88 batta- war, no aflignment or transfer beJions, the soldiers being bound by ing to be admitted at its conclufion. the terms of enlistment to serve The Congress had before, as an during the continuance of the war. encouragement to their forces by
The number of battalions which sea and land, decreed that all offi. each colony was by this ordinance cers, soldiers, and seamen, who appointed to raise and support, were or might be disabled in may be considered as a pretty action, should receive, during life, exact political scale of their com one half of the monthly pay to parative strength, framed by those which they were entitled by their who were interested in its correct. rank in the service, at the time of ness, and well acquainted with meeting with the misfortune. Nottheir respective circumstances. withstanding these encouragements, Massachusete's Bay and Virginia it seems, as if the condition of were the highest on this fcale, serving during the indefinite term being to furnish 15 battalions each; of the continuance of the war, Pentylvania came next, and was was not generally agreeable, to a rated at cwelve ; North Carolina people fo little accustomed to any 9. Connecticut and Maryland 8 kind of subordination or restraint; each, New York, and the Jerseys, so that in the month of November, the latter considered as one go. the Congress found it necessary to vernment, were, in consequence admit of another mode of enlist. of their present fitxation, fet no ment for the term of three years, higher than 4 battalions each. the soldiers under this compact re
The liberality of the Congress ceiving the fame bounty in money in its encouragement to the troops, with the others, but being cut out was proportioned to the neceffity from any allotment of lands. of speedily compleating the new With all these encouragements army. Besides a bounty of twenty given by the Congress, the hufidollars to each soldier at the time ness of recruiting went on, howof enlifting, lands were to be ever, but heavily ; and it must allotted at the end of the war to not be imagined, that the army the survivors, and to the represen. actually railed, did at any time tatives of all who were fiain in bear any proportion in effective action, in different fated propor men to that which was voted. tions, from 500 acres, the allot The holding out a promise of