Strategic Computing: DARPA and the Quest for Machine Intelligence, 1983-1993

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MIT Press, 2002 - 427 ページ
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The story of the U.S. Department of Defense's extraordinary effort, in the period from 1983 to 1993, to achieve machine intelligence.

This is the story of an extraordinary effort by the U.S. Department of Defense to hasten the advent of "machines that think." From 1983 to 1993, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) spent an extra $1 billion on computer research aimed at achieving artificial intelligence. The Strategic Computing Initiative (SCI) was conceived as an integrated plan to promote computer chip design and manufacture, computer architecture, and artificial intelligence software. What distinguished SCI from other large-scale technology programs was that it self-consciously set out to advance an entire research front. The SCI succeeded in fostering significant technological successes, even though it never achieved machine intelligence. The goal provided a powerful organizing principle for a suite of related research programs, but it did not solve the problem of coordinating these programs. In retrospect, it is hard to see how it could have.In Strategic Computing, Alex Roland and Philip Shiman uncover the roles played in the SCI by technology, individuals, and social and political forces. They explore DARPA culture, especially the information processing culture within the agency, and they evaluate the SCI's accomplishments and set them in the context of overall computer development during this period. Their book is an important contribution to our understanding of the complex sources of contemporary computing.

 

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目次

Introduction
1
The Information Processing Techniques Office IPTO
21
An Agent of Restoration
32
Salesman
39
An Agent of Transition
46
Testing the Market
56
The Pyramid as Conceptual Icon
63
3
77
7
213
The Tyranny of the Demonstration
229
The ALV and Its Shadow
243
Reconciling Vision and Budget
261
Strategic Computing 2
279
Connecting the Supercomputers
293
The Politics of Change
310
Conclusion
319

The Divorce of the Dynamic Duo
95
The Plight of the Program Manager
109
The Value Added
131
5
149
Defining the First Generation
165
The Search for the Generic Expert System
185
IntelliCorp and Teknowledge
196
Why?
320
How?
321
What?
325
Notes
333
Note on Sources
397
Index
405
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著者について (2002)

Philip Shiman is a member of the Defense Acquisition History Project, a government-sponsored team researching defense acquisition from 1945 to the present.

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