Exercises, as to avoid the necessity of referring to them while

translating. Nothing is better adapted to fix a word in the SECTION III.-GERMAN HANDWRITING.

memory than the process of transcribing it; and by doing this

in the German character, the requisite familiarity with the word The papil should invariably make himself so familiar with the and the peculiar chirography or handwriting of the language meaning of the words given in the several Vocabularies and I which is shown below, are both secured at the same time.

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EXERCISE 3. Aufgabe 3.

EXERCISE 3. Aufgabe 3.

AacherBerlin, Köln, Dresden,

Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle), · Berlin, Cöln (Cologne),


Ems, Frankfurt, Gotha, Ham.



Ems, Frankfurt, Gotha,


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Exercise 3. Oefenbar .
Slapen, Berlin, Göln, Dessen, Olafmw.Luulis, Lök, bilens
Gran, Feming, bouse. sam. Gub.Fraukfital.Getfufumbiwaya
sert, sea, inigtes Samhymick. Zouar Bónunykbury,

ziz Waing Mixubany. Ožan, Bet, betet. Rapat, Paris bak.Rapatt, Outlin, Peth, Quebeck Quebee), Ecier, ulim, Baruz. Bien Trina Ulu Hailey, Minn,

samen Dem, slim tankou. Pynur Zuixif (ka, treurer Beunt, it afte Geri Afawww formimi alla farin, Gran, thenrer Freund, ist Doch grün des Lebens goltner Borgarin V Labenbyuhan Lan


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SECTION IV.-THE ARTICLE AND THE VERB. another : thus, in French, apple (la pomme) is feminine, while In German the definite Article has, in the Nominative singular,

| grape (le raisin) is masculine. In German the word head (ter a distinct form for each gender :

uve singular, | Kopi) is masculine; in French (la tête) it is feminine ; and in

Latin (caput) it is neuter. The word hand (tie Hand, la main, Masculine: Der Mann, the man; Der Bruter, the brother. manus) is feminine in the three languages. Feminine : Die Frau, the woman; Die Schwester, the sister. Neuter: Das Haus, the house;



Interrogatively. Some nouns, denoting inanimate objects, are in German, as in Ich habe, I have.

Habe ich? have I ? most languages, called masculine or feminine; and some, denot. Sie haben, you have.

Haben Sie? have you ? ing animate objects, are called neuter :

Er hat, he has.

Hat er? has he ?
Masculine : Der Apfel, the apple; Der Baum, the tree ;

Feminine: Die Traube, the grape; Die Nadel, the needle ;
Neuter: Das Kind, the child; Das Pfert, the horse.

Auch, also, too.

Bred, n. bread. | Fleischer, m. butcher

Båder, m. baker. Der, das, the. Haben, to have. Many words that are treated as masculine or feminine in one | Bier, n. beer.

Gr, cs, he, it. Ic, I. language, are regarded as being of the opposite gender in Brauer, m. brewer. Fleisch, n. meat. | In, yes.


Mehl, oder das Brod? 14. Er hat das Mchl. 15. Hat der Bäder den fuffieem, coffee, Wafler, m, millor. lint, and.

Wein, oter das Wasser? 16. Er hat das Wasser. 17. lieben Sie den in. . child. Men, no.

Was? what?

Bauer ? 18. Nein, ich liebe den Lehrer. 19. Haben Sie Fleisch, oder Mira, 1. gruin. Nur, only.

Wasser, n. water.

Wein? 20. Ich habe das Fleisch. 21. Haben Sie das Brod, oder den Waropen " girl. Sic, you.

Wein, m. wine. Zuder? 22. Ich habe das Prob. 23. Hat der Vater tas Buch, oder den el N, flour. Tbce, m. tea.

Wer? who?

Kamm? 24. Er hat das Buch.
Der Brauer Bat Wein, Sie haben The brewer has wine, you have

Naffee und to babe Wasser.

coffee, and I have water. 'SECTION II.-PRELIMINARY INSTRUCTIONS IN THE VERBS. Pui Brero bat eu, tad sind hat The horse has hay, the child has Wrur, und das Mardhen hat Thee. bread, and the girl has tea.

In regard to the exercises which I am about to give, you should

'first learn the vocabulary by heart. If yours is a mechanical EXERCISE 4.

trade, you may repeat the words over again and again while 1. Wer Bat Prob? 2. Der Bader hat Brub. 3. Hat der Bitter engaged in labour. Or you may make the words your own

DEV 4. 3a, er bat auch Mehl. 5. Was hat der Müller? 6. Der while walking to and from your employment. Among my perWalter bat Meb und Sern. 7. Wer bat Fleisch? 8. Der Fleischer bat sonal friends is a gentleman who acquired the greater part of Placle 9. Haben Sie Vier? 10. Nein, der Brauer hat Bier. 11. the words of the French language, while rising and dressing in

bent le Wein12. Nein, ich habe Kaffee. 13. Was hat das Mäd, the morning. Thousands of words have I myself learnt while den! 14. Dus Watchen hat Thee. 15. Hat der Brauer Korn ? 16. walking for recreation. Nein, er Bat mur Bier und Wein. 17. Was hat das Kind ? 18. Gs Having thoroughly mastered the vocabulary, take a slate and bat Wasser. 19. Gat es auch Brod ? 20. Ja, es hat Brot und auch write down the Latin into English; then write the English into Blert.

Latin. Look over what you have done carefully. Correct All German verbs are conjugated interrogatively, in the every mistake and error. If you look into the exercises you present and imperfect tenses, like have and be in English ; W

will find that the English will assist you in writing the Latin, that is, by placing the verb before its subject, without an al

an and the Latin will assist you in writing the English. When auxiliary :

you have got both the Latin and the English into as correct a Haben Sie das Duch? Have you the book ?

state as you can, copy them neatly into a note-book. Having Pefen Sie das Buch ? Read you the book ? (Do you read the book?)

done so, read them carefully over, and compare each instance 31 er bier ? Is he here?

with the rule or the direction, and also the example. Leave Webnt er bier? Resides he here? (Does he reside here?)

nothing until you understand the reason. All the examples or batte er den Bricf? Had he the letter?

illustrations that I give, as well as the chief rules, should be Schrieb er den Brief? Wrote he the letter? (Did he write the letter?)

committed to memory. Before you proceed to a second lesson,

" War er hier? Was he here?

ascertain that you are master of the first. It would be useful Boynte er bier ? Resided he here? (Did he reside here?)

to write out the rules in one consecutive view, in order that,

having them all at once under your eye, you may study them in CONJUGATION OF THE PRESENT TENSE SINGULAR OF Iceben. their connection and as a whole, so as to see their bearing one Assertively. Interrogatively.

upon another, and the general results to which they lead. Such 3d liebe, I love;

liebe ich ? love I? (Do I love ?) a practice would have a very beneficial effect on your mind, by Sie lieben, you love; lieben Sie? love you? (Do you love 3) habituating it to arrangement and order, and might be expected Gr liebt, he loves ; liebt er? loves he? (Does he love?)

'Does he loves to afford you valuable aid, both in other studies and in your

business pursuits. Carefully avoid haste and slovenliness. Do DEFINITE ARTICLE MASCULINE AND NEUTER IN THE NOMINA your best in all that you undertake. “Well," not "much," TIVE AND ACCUSATIVE.

should be your watchword. Repeated reviews of the ground THE MASCULINE FORMS.

passed over are very desirable. Every Saturday you should go Nominativ. Accufatio. Nominative.

Objective. i carefully over what you

carefully over what you have done during the week. At the Der Vater liebt ten Sohn, The father loves the son. end of every month the work of the month should be reviewed. Der Sohn liebt den Vater, The gon loves the father. On arriving at a natural division of our subject-as for instance,

when we have treated of the nouns-you should go over, and put THE NEUTER FORM.

together in your mind the substance of what has been said Nominatis. Acuatio. Nominative. Objective.

thereon. "Let us not be weary in well doing: for in due season Das Kind liebt das Mitchen, The child loves the girl.

we shall reap, if we faint not.” (Gal. vi. 9.) Das Mädchen liebt das Kino, The girl loves the child.


Curro, I run. The chief parts are curro, I run; currere, to run ; Bauer, m. peasant. Sehrer, m. teacher. | Vater, m. father.

cucurri, I have run; cursus, run. The English representative, or the Duch, m. book. Sieben, to love.

Wagen, m. carriage. element in English derived from the parts, is curr; also curs or cours.
Blag, n. glass.
Mann, m, man. Zuder, m. sugar. Con, from cum, means with; dis signifies in different directions; ex

signifies out of.
Eter, or.
Ramm, m. corab.


Curro and its parts give rise to several English words, as current Der Bratet hat terr Wein, Sie The brewer has the wine.

i (“the current coin of the realm "); currency ("the circulativg baben ten Baffe,

you have the coffee, and I
idy habt af
have the water.

medium "). Another example is found in the phrase "account Wafjer.

current.” ater liebt tat Rint, AMD The father loves the child.

EXERCISE 2.-ENGLISH-LATIN. bas Klint fibt 946 ardhjen and the child loves the girl.

Find English words derived from some part of curro; find English Dad shine hatt Mofai, unt Bas The child has the apple, and

words derived from curro, with in prefixed; also with con prefixed ; Watchen hat a Rino

the girl has the child.

also with dis prefixed; also with er prefixed.
Have you the hat ?
Men, bad Mint hat you at
No, the child has the hat.

Remark.--In order to make my meaning quite clear, I will 20ad Dattar in den ?

myself do this exercise in part. From cursus comes the Eng. What has the girl ? The girl has the comb.

lish word course; from in and curs comes incursion; from ex w Warden har sen Lama

and curs comes excursion. If the reader is acquainted with, or EXERCISE 5.

is learning French, he will do well, as he passes on, to find out er rett Mann? 2. Ich liebe tad Kind 3. French words corresponding to, and derived from, Latin words; Bon, a Kind hat ten Zuder. 5. liebt tas as in courir, French to run; cours, a course. By comparison 1960 tal Warden liebt tas Kind. 7. Wer he may occasionally find that the same sound or word has &

hat bag (M.18 3. hat ter Brauer ren different meaning in French from what it has in Latin or in ker hat sen Wagen 11. Wer hat tab Bier ? English. Thus, concursus in Latin means a coming together,

um ven Weta. 13, Bat ter Müller bad as to a meeting, a concourse of people; but the corresponding

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French, concours, signifies co-operation. So concurrence in Eng- gations are determined or characterised by the vowel which lish is agreement, but in French competition. By practising precedes the termination re in the infinitive mood; thus:comparisons such as this, you will not only meet with many

The first conjugation ends in are, as amāre, to love. curious facts, but be assisted to understand the nature of lan

The second conjugation
If it

„ guage itself, as well as receive good mental discipline.

ere, as docēre, to teach.

The third conjugation „ ere, as regère, to rule. seems strange to you that the same letters curr or curs should

The fourth conjugation „ ire, as audire, to hear. bear dissimilar meanings, a little reflection on the matter will soon take away your surprise. Let us go at once to the pri

We say then that the first conjugation is known by having a

w mary meaning of curr. Its primary meaning is to run. Now,

long before re of the infinitive; the second by having ē long; men may run into, or run out of, or run together, or run about,

the third by having ě short; the fourth by having i long. The for different purposes. For instance, they may run together in

same fact may be put before you in a different way; thus, ā

long is characteristic of the first conjugation; ē long, of the harmony, and then they concur; or they may run together in rivalry, and then they are in what the French call concurrence,

second; ě short, of the third ; i long, of the fourth. In general

| it may be remarked, that in the first conjugation à long prethat is, competition. I have thus, my fellow-student, opened out before you an

vails; in the second, ē long prevails; in the third, ě short immense field. It is only a hint or two that I can give; but if

| prevails; and in the fourth, i long prevails. you follow these intimations, you will in time become not only

Now, curro, of which I have spoken before, is of the third a Latin scholar, but a good linguist.

conjugation. The person-endings in it will not therefore be the In the former part of this lesson I had to employ the word

same as they are in the verb amo, I love. The person-endings carn, and in so doing I used particularly the form curr, This

| in amo are o, as, at; amus, atis, ant. In the tables or paradigms form is called the stem of the word. The stem of a word is

| (patterns), which I am about to give, the person-endings are that which contains its essential letters, or the letters which are

printed in italics, as amo, amas, amat; you will therefore easily necessary to make it what it is. Thus, curt is found in every

recognise them, and ought in all cases to repeat them until you form into which the verb curro passes. Observe that the second

have imprinted them on your memory. ris added merely to strengthen the word, or give force in pro

FIRST CONJUGATION. nunciation. You find this stem, cur or curs, for instance, in

PASSIVE VOICE. the English words current, incur, concourse, concurrence, dis


PRESENT INDICATIVE. course. Observe again, that many of our Latin words have


PERSON-ENDINGS.. come to us through the French. They have, therefore, entered Singular.


Plural. the English in the form which they had received in the French.

-ámus, we
-or, I

-ámur, WO This is exemplified in concourse and discourse, where an o has •ás, thou -átis, ye -cris, thou mini, ye been introduced by the French pronunciation, as these words

-át,' he -ánt, they -citur, he .-ántur, they cone to us immediately from the French words concours and

EXAMPLE.--Amare, to love ; stem, am. discours.

PRESENT ACTIVE INDICATIVE. PRESENT PASSIVE INDICATIVE. The stem of a word is found generally by cutting off the


Singular. final vowel or syllable. In curro you obtain the stem curr by

1st per. Amó, I love

1st per, Amor, I am loved taking away the o. The o in reality is the sign of the first

2nd „ Amás, thou lovest 2nd , Amáris, thou art loved person singular, or I. The word for I is not prefixed in Latin, 3rd , Amát, he loves 3rd , Amátur, he is loved except when it is required for emphasis, because the termina


Plural. tions of the verb show clearly what person is meant that is, 1st per. Amámus, we lore 1st per. Amámur, we are loved whether it is the first person, I, or the second person, thou, or 2nd „ Amátis, you love 2nd , Amúmini, you are loved the third person, he. In the English there is a necessity for

3rd , Amánt, they love 3rd , Amántur, they are loved. the constant use of the personal pronoun, because the endings Observe, then, that in order to form any person, you must first of the verb are not so different from each other as in the Latin. get the stem, by cutting off the last syllable. Then to the stem Thus, in English, we say, I run, thou runnest, he runs, we run, thus obtained, add the proper person-ending. Suppose you you run, they run. Here, out of six persons, the verb has the have to deal with the verb laudo, I praise ; and suppose you same termination for four-namely, I run, we run, you run, they want to express in Latin the English they praise ; the way to run. But for the pronouns I, we, you, they, the reader or proceed is—throw away the o in laudo; by so doing, you get listener would not be aware from the use of the verb which laud; now, they praise is in the third person plural ; the personperson was intended. In the Latin, however, the verb has a ending of the third person plural is ant, as shown above; subpeculiar ending for every person. After this explanation, we join ant to laud, and you have laudant, which means they praist. will call these terminations person-endings. These person. Or if you have to put laudas into English, by looking at tho endings vary with the tense and the voico; that is, they are table you find that its termination--namely, as-is the persondifferent in the past tense from what they are in the present ending of the second person singular, and consequently laudos tense ; and they are different in the passive voice from what means thout praisest. I have entered into this full and minute they are in the active voice. At present we will confine our explanation once for all. If you take pains to make yourself selves to the present tense and the active voice. In curro, the master of it, you will not require its repetition. But take care person-endings of the present tense, indicative mood, active not merely to consult the tables I give; you must commit them voice, are as follow :

to memory, and never pass on until you have made them in each case your own. Having learnt the form or example, learn

the vocabulary, and then put the Latin exercise into English, Singular.


and the English exercise into Latin. Do this also from memory; 1st person -o, I

l st person imus, we -is, thou 2nd

but after you have done it, compare your translation with the

-itis, ye 3rd , -it, he

-unt, they.

table or example, and correct it accordingly.

Discover and write down the English representatives of tho Adding the person-endings to the stem, we have the following | Latin words here used ; that is to say, the English words example :

derived from these Latin words. For instance, from delecto, ACTIVE VOICE.—INDICATIVE MOOD.

I delight, we have delight, delightful, delightfully ; from orno, PRESENT TENSE of the verb curro, I run.

I adorn, we have ornament, ornamentally, adorn, adornment ;

from educo (which properly means I draw out), we have to 1st person curro, I run 1st person currimus, ve run

educate, educator, education. Do the same after every separato Pud, curris, thou runnest 2nd , curritis, you run

exercise. 3rd , currit, he runs 3rd „ currunt, they run.

What I have called "the characteristic" of the verb, may be These person-endings vary also in another way, which I called the sign of the conjugations. Thus, of the first conjuproceed to explain. Latin verbs are commonly divided into gation à long is the sign, and č is the sign of the third. These four classes, which bear the technical name of conjugations. are Latin signs. Of the corresponding part of the English This division may not be the best, but it is that which is cus- verb, to is the sign; that is, the preposition to is in general the tomary, and therefore I retain it. These four classes or conju. English sign of the infinitive mood.


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under Egypt—under evidently signifying farther to the south than Delecto, 1 I deizht. OrnO, I I adoni. Vexo,

I I griere, the latter country. The ancients generally believed that Africa Educo, 1 I encate. Sulto, 1 I dance. | Vitupero, 1 I blame. and Asia, or rather Ethiopia and India, were united by land Ludo, 1 I praise. Tento, 1 I try. Vulnero, 1 I wound. still farther to the south, and they consequently considered the EXERCISE 3.-LATIX-ENGLISH.

Ethiopians and Indians as near neighbours. This is the ground Laudo

on which both Virgil and Lucan have supposed the Nile to take Vitaperas. Ornat. Educamus. Vexátis. Vulnerant.! Tentat. Tentat sultare. Valneráris. Vexátur. Landámur. Ornas. its rise on the frontiers of India. Educantur. Vexáris. Vulnerámini. Delecto. Delectas. Delectat. At the Homeric epoch the Greeks generally considered that Delectámus. Deleetátis. Delectant. Delector. Delectáris. Delec- the earth existed in the form of a disc. This disc was supposed to tátur. Delectamur. Delectámini. Delectantur.

be centrally divided by the Eaxine or Black Sea, the Ægean Sea, EXERCISE 4.- ENGLISH-LATIN.

and the Mediterranean Sea into two parts, the one north and the

other south; these parts were at a later period designated by I praise. Thou praisest. He praises. We praise. You praise.

Anaximander under the names of Europe and Asia, names which They praise, I am praised. Thou art praised. He is praised. Wei; are praised. You are praised. They are praised. They delight. Thou had been previously understood in a more restricted sense. The adornest. You are grieved. They are educated. He dances. You are river Phasis in Colchis, or Pontus, on the east, and the Pillars blamed. We try. You are tried. He is wounded. I am educated. of Hercules, or Strait of Gibraltar, on the west, were supposed Now, before you go forward in this exercise, and in every

to mark the limits of the world. The country of the Cimmerians, other, ask yourself, and ascertain that you give the right

who were afterwards confounded with the Cimbri ; and of the answers to the following or similar questions, namely: Of what

Macrobians, so called because they were supposed to be longer.

hot lived than other mortals; Elysium, a happy country which had conjugation is the verb amo ? of what tense is amo? of what! person is amo? of what number is amo? of what mood is amo ? |

no existence but in the fantasies of the mind ; the Fortunate of what voice is amo? Do the same with all the rest.

Isles, which at a later period, under the names of Atlantis and | Meropis, were the object of the philosophic fictions of Plato and

Theopompus ; the country of the Arimaspi, who saw so clearly LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY.-II.

because they had oniy one eye; of the Gryphons, who guarded

the precious metals of the Riphean mountains ; Colchis, the NOTIONS OF THE POETS.

country of magic, peopled with monsters and prodigies ;-all HOMER, who wrote his poems in the tenth century before the these and many other ingenious fables, the offspring of the Christian era, appears to have been acquainted with Greece, the imaginations of the poets Homer and Hesiod, or rather of the Archipelago, the island of Crete, and the coast of Asia on the people among whom they lived, were mixed up with notions shores of the Mediterranean. Within these limits he appears purely geographical, and constituted the world at that period a to have travelled, and he was, no doubt, personally acquainted | scene of marvels, a receptacle of agreeable delusions on the one with some of the scenes which he describes. His works, how. I hand and formidable mysteries on the other. ever, show that the geographical

During the historic ages of knowledge of the Greeks was at

Greece cosmological systems were that time more limited than that

multiplied to an endless extent. of the Egyptians in the time of

Thales said that the earth was a Moses, who lived seven centuries

sphere ; his disciple Anaximander before him. On the south, the


taught that it was a cylinder. Greeks only knew the valley of noe oro

Leucippus said that it was a drum, the Nile, and that part of Africa ral Regione

and Heraclides that it was a boat. which extends from Ezypt to the


Many and curious were the notions west as far as Cape Bon, and the

the ancient philosophers held concommencement of the Atlas chain

cerning the globe until voyages of of mountains; and on the east,

discovery were begun. Herodotus the Syrian desert, Asia Minor,

made a great step in the descripMesopotamia, and Persia. They

tive geography of certcin regions, possessed only very confused no

especially in the east of Europe. tions of the Adriatic Sea, of Sicily,

Yet, notwithstanding his voyages and of the south of Italy; and

into the three parts of the old with the greater part of the Italian

world, he fills his narrative with peninsula they were wholly un.

childish tales and dreamy details. acquainted.

He only knew the names of Arabia, Previous to the Homeric epoch,

Iberia (or Spain), Gallia (or France), the Greeks believed in the exist

of Day

the islands of Albion (Great Brience of nations who inhabited the

tain), and the Cassiterides (or Scilly countries situated behind the re


Isles). He had correct notions on gions where the sun appeared to

Africa, and particularly on Egypt, them to rise and to set. They

but the western part of this contiimagined that these nations lived

nent was unknown to him beyond THE WORLD ACCORDING TO THE GREEKS AT TRE in perpetual darkness, and they

Tripoli. His details on India, called them Cimmerians, a word


besides their uncertainty, are inevidently derived from the He.

termingled with fables taken from brew Cimeririm (pronounced kimeririm), and signifying dark- / the legends or popular creeds of the extreme East. Among the ness. In proportion as they became acquainted with more tales more or less ingenious, we must not forget the ants that regions that were enlightened by the sun (that is, as the limits were as large as foxes, and that collected heaps of gold mixed of the known world were extended by voyage and discovery), with sand! they transported the Cimmerians and their dark abodes to a Herodotus appears to have been unacquainted with western greater distance. In those early times the Cimmerians were Europe. He does not speak of Massilia (Marseilles), a city supposed to inhabit the borders of the Black Sea, near the founded by the Phocæans about 600 B.C., more than a century Thracian Bosphorus, Italy, and the distant countries on the east before he was born. Rome, which had been increasing in and west, where the world was supposed to terminate. The grandeur for about three hundred years before his time, is not people who were supposed to live the farthest north were called even mentioned by name. Of Italy he only knew the south of Hyperboreans, because they were placed beyond Boreas, or in the that part anciently called Magna Græcia. The extreme west of

frente north; and those who lived the farthest south were called Africa was equally unknown to the Greeks, yet the Phænicians Ethiopians-literally, sunburnt-because they were situated more had mado discoveries in the Atlantic Ocean, and the periplus directly under the sun's rays; their country lay south of Egypt, (sailing round) or coasting voyage of Hanno was executed conand was afterwards called Ethiopia sub Ægypto, or Ethiopia siderably before Herodotus. The African voyage of the Cartha

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ginian admiral, with the thirty thousand persons whom he had | descended this river, and went along the coast of Asia to the on board his vessels, is acknowledged to be authentic ; opinions bottom of the Persian Gulf. The expedition of Alexander opened only differ as to the point where his maritime course terminated the eyes of the Greeks, but produced at that time no results of Some will have it that, after having cleared the Pillars of any consequence to the science of geography. What was gained Hercules, he went as far as the Gulf of Guinea, while others by his exploratory voyage was lost by the dismemberment of his limit his exploratory voyage to the mouth of the Senegal river. empire; and the historians of the period relapsed into their Gosselin fixes the limit at Cape Nun.

former ignorance. Pytheas, a citizen of Marseilles, performed a voyage to the By degrees, however, geography assumed the dignity of a north before the time of Alexander the Great. He discovered science. Eratosthenes, who flourished about 250 B.C., composed Albion, or Great Britain, and always sailing in a northern direc-a treatise on the subject. He was a native of Cyrene in Africa, tion, he reached the mysterious place called Ultima Thule, which and the keeper of the Alexandrian Library. By means of he saw covered with ice, enveloped in mist, and, as it were, instruments erected in the museum of the city of Alexandria, immersed in a horrible chaos. But what was Thule? This is he found the obliquity of the ecliptic, to within half a degree a question which has puzzled all historians and geographers. of the truth. He was the first who attempted to determine the Some have considered with good reason that this country was circumference of the earth by the actual measurement of an arc Jutland or the coasts of Norway called Thulemark; or perhaps of one of its great circles. By means of sun-dials he found that Iceland, as Pytheas sailed through the Scandinavian seas, and Syene, near a cataract of the Nile, which was situated, as he his remarks relating to the coasts of the Baltic have been ac- thought, on the same meridian as Alexandria, was immediately knowledged exact. Others have claimed this appellation for under the tropic of Cancer, so that at the time of the summer the Shetland Isles on the north of Scotland.

solstice the sun was vertical to the inhabitants of Syene, and Aristotle, the great Greek philosopher and naturalist, main the gnomon had no shadow at noon. Thus, having measured tained that the earth was of a spherical form, and he even the angle of the shadow of the gnomon at Alexandria, also at stated the measure of its circumference at 400,000 stadia (a the time of the summer solstice, he found the distance of the Greek itinerary measure, equal to about 600 feet). Indications sun from the zenith at noon to be 7° 12', or one-fiftieth part of of the existence of Madagascar have been noticed in his writings. the circumference of a great circle, viz., 360°. He then comAs to Ceylon, he mentions it under the name of Taprobane, and puted the distance between the two places, Alexandria and that a long time before the age of Ptolemy. The limits of the Syene, and found it 5,000 stadia. Accordingly, he multiplied world according to Aristotle were, on the east, the Indus; on this number by 50, and found the measure of the earth's cirthe west, the Tartessus, or the Guadalquivir; on the north, the cumference to be 250,000 stadia. Making allowance for the Riphsan Mountains, Albion, and Ierne (Ireland); on the south, errors which he committed, for want of the delicate instruments Libya, in which he places the river Chremetes, which rises out of observation which we possess in modern times, this was a of the same mountains as the Nile, in order to disembogue itself tolerable approximation to the truth. Syene, indeed, was not into the Atlantic Occan-an idea which leads to the supposition on the same meridian as Alexandria, but on one nearly 3° east that he confounded the Nile with the Niger. He admitted that of the meridian of that city; and instead of being exactly on the Caspian Sea was a great inland lake, having no communica- the tropic, it was about half a degree north of that line. Eration with any other sea.

tosthenes affirmed the spherical figure of the earth, and asserted The conquests of Alexander the Great led to the most distinct that the immensity of the ocean would not prevent vessels from and extended notions of the ancient world. The most remark- going to India by continually shaping their course westward able geographical fact of his reign was the exploration of the Hipparchus, who flourished about ninety years late Indus. A fleet of 800 vessels, under the command of Nearchus, Eratosthenes, laid the foundation of astronomical geo

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