« 前へ次へ »
In the lower surface of the frond upper4. Til be seen many rows of dark stripes. These : zen B ich, and they contain the sporules of the plant,
yes inerefore may be got by opening the sporidia. -:- en r-garded by the naked eye, look almost lika 1. I examined under a microscope, however, their outling
y recognised. The difference between a sporidiund - Jundia) and a real seed may be thus explained.
i wy one part (the embryo or germ) from which the ng nt can spring; whereas a sporule does not refuse to
" m y side which may present itself to the necessary -Leons of earth and moisture.
nougn the sporules are thus easily discoverable in the fern ..t cue botanical student must not expect to find them
eauty in other members of the cryptogamic tribe, in CURS members of which not only does their position vary, 16 their presence is totally undiscoverable. If therr prese
TRE BANYAN TREE.
weber of the
ber of the vegetable world which bears a SECTION 111.-ON THE ORGANS OF VEGETABLES. ently seeds, belongs to the phanerogamous
Vegetable organs admit of the very natural division into A b ation of this rule, wo restrict those intended for nutriment and growth, and those intended
work planta, to the noomingly for propagation. Hence we may speak of them as nutritive
mono, ind fow others, and reproductive organs. Nutritive organs consist of leaves. Toponly so allod, but are stems, branches, roots, and various appendages to all of these.
tormod sporulus or spores. hereafter to be described; whilst the reproductive organs of mbox, are, wo to speak, the | vegetables are flowers and their appendages.
doan plants, the study The Root, - We have already seen that it does not suffice to Wy hard, but uwolul torms; constitute a root that the portion of the vegetable treated of often cough, therefore let I be underground. Thus, for example, as it was remarked in the
havo hang and exthom preoeding lesson, the potato is not a root, but a tuber; an onion a lthough the latter way bo is not a root, but a bulb.
A root may be defined as a filamentous or thread-like (Latin Nu what thawa wulus are like. Aluem, a thread) offset from the descending axis of the plant.
which hy tha wir I loaf at differing from the stem itself in certain relations of a botanical lalu tha mulu af te lueu hy | structure, and each filament ending in a soft absorbent tnft
denominated the spongiole, the function of which consists in say, stolo-beamng, which expression requires the previous explaabsorbing moisture, and conveying it into tho structure of the nation of the word stole. A stole, then, is a little stem which plant. Hence the chief and primary use of the root is that of springs from the axilla (literally, arm-pit), or point at which nutrition; but it also serves as a means of enabling the plant to the leaves spring from the stem. The strawberry (Fig. 4) affords take firm hold of the earth in which
a common and well-marked illustrait grows. Representations of various
tion of this kind of root. roots are shown in Figs. 5,6,7,8, and 9.
A bulb is an underground bud, from In most cases, the part at which
the upper part of which the stem the stem ends and the root begins is
arises, and from the lower part of well defined. It is denominated the
which the root descends (Fig. 7). The collar. Although the general cha
onion furnishes us with a very familiar racteristic of the root is to seek the
example. ground, as the characteristic of the
Tubers or tubercles are expansions stem is to seek the air, nevertheless
of underground stems, usually constems frequently assume a tendency to
taining much fecular or starchy matter, become roots, and roots to become
and studded with eyes or buds. The stems. A very remarkable example
potato and the dahlia (Fig. 8) furnish of the former tendency is furnished
us with very familiar examples of a by the banyan tree, or ficus religiosa,
tuber. a native of India. This tree has a
The Stem may be eitherannual, biennatural tendency to shoot down pro
nial, or perennial. It is termed annual longations from its stem,
when it becomes developed which, taking root, cover
in the spring and dies the ground with an arbour
before the winter, as, for like growth of most fan
instance, is the case with tastic appearance. The
wheat; biennial, when it opposite tendency is re- O
lives two years; of this cognisable in certain varie
kind is the carrot, which ties of the elm, which shoot
during the first year only up sprouts from the root
produces leaves, and havover large tracts of ground
ing lived two years flowers in the vicinity of the
and dies. Perennial stems parent trunk, very much
are those which live many to the annoyance of the
years, as is the case with farmer, whose land is thus
trees in general. As reconsiderably damaged. Al.
gards their hardness, though the essential cha.
trunks or stems are usually racteristic of a stem is to
divided into herbaceous
4. STOLONIFEROUS ROOT OF ascend into the air. vet ' 3. RHIZOME AND ROOT-LEAVES OF
(Latin, herba, grass), subcertain forms of stem in :.:
ligneous, and ligneous some vegetables exist underground; of this kind are ginger, 1 (Latin, lignum, wood). Herbaceous stems are those in which and the so-called orris-root. Stems of this kind are known woody fibre is almost altogether absent, and which are therefore in botany by the appellation of rhizomes (Fig. 3).
soft and juicy; of this kind is the stem of parsley, hemlock, etc. Usually the root is attached by the collar to an ascending Subligneous stems are those in which woody fibre, although stem, from which latter proceed the leaves; in certain plants, present, does not exist in the smaller shoots; of this kind are however—for instance, the primrose-there is no ascending sage and rue, the bases of the stems of which are hard and stem, but an horizontal, underground one (the rhizome) takes | woody, and therefore continue for miny years, whereas the
5. RADISH. SPINDLE-SHAPED ROOT.
7. ONION, BULB WITX
8. DAHLIA. TUBEROUS ROOT.
9. PASTURE GRASS. FIBROUS ROOT.
its place, and from this the leaves immediately grow; such smaller branches and their extremities annually perish, and as leaves are then termed "radical,” that is to say, proceding often become renewed. from the root, and the plant itself is said to be acauliferous, Shrubs are ligneous plants, the stems of which throw off an from the Greek privative a, without, and the Latin word caulis, undergrowth of stems and flowers at their base, and which a stem.
never attain any considerable dimensions. Of this kind, for Sometimes the root is said to be “stoloniferous,” that is to l example, are rose-trees.
! IN TRENCH-IT.
That is, a combination of the letter & with the usual sound of MISS
the last syllable of the Englich word moth-er.
De like duke
the last syllable of the same word, motioner.
Jo hte shut. 1st menn be me i n the innowing extract
wanted! That is, a combination of the letters sh, with the same sound
of the unaooented
the Let Yan this
como awon O: wae sebars 2 . . me n er del Ve s ts express them- mentioned in the first eraraple; or bike the sound of t.e last mi
pronounced, but withont to ne the below b
i r utterance of the syllabie of the word pleas-Ure, &s suy 18 mars. As pronunciation of the the sound of the y, which is sometames beard; le., pleas-ure. wh o fout is he low-bred and ignorant and not p.eas-youre.
Lo Eke Zuta
nisk ** W ood and sometimes not;!
Me like mall
sun when in general, do not speak faster ' mentioned in the first example: or like the sound of mu in the i sin conversation, and in familiar readiag, first syllable of the English word sutter. . .www it often as they can do it, and thus i
Xo bke auk i wila w ogoo than doe3 a foreigner, who gives! That is, a combination of the lette Tith the sound men.
. to every unaccented e he meets with. ' tioned in the first erample; or like the sound of n3 in the English i litre 140e, anl the phrase je n'ai pas rez tout le word nut. Pronounce nu in the word out, and you have the Lub linunood by a foreigner and a Frenchman 'correct pronunciation of the French ward ne 147 .0o-nan-ce-je ne pa reçu tou le ré-te-men; !
So like suhe har i Frenchman will pronounce, cort-nans—iné
los! That is, eractly like the pronunciation of ce as given in the i
l , sounding in the first word two syllables!
Te like tu. donne ut myllables, whero the others would sound ten.'”
m ustom of clipping or shortening words as much I That is, exactly like the sound of the last syllable of the
inu, in ordinary reading and common conversation, is English word 12-ter. Till stad in the following sentence, namely :
Que like buta
That is, like the sound of the last syllable of the English Hurand vous serez lo mimo, vous me trousera le m.me."
word baket, pronounced rather carelessly. the botence contains thirteen syllables in prose, namely:
1 Take, if you please, another ilustration, riz: the sonnd of 14
- in the Eng'ish wori aut, as exp aired above, in illustrating the Troll - rez-le-mêms-vous-me-trou-le-rez-le-même. In poetry, would have two syllables. However, in familiar reading
• sound of the French word ne. This will gire the correct sound ... Toyorsation, it is pronounced in eight syllables only, riz:
of e mute or unaccented filmd vou-srel-mêm-loum-trouv-rel-mêm. The suppression
The sound of e mite or inaccented resembles the sound of the
of , Hidge is precisely the reason why foreigners imagine that the
Letter e of the word the, which is heard in pronouncing quickly liccl epeali so very quickly.
was tee these two words, viz.—the mi 73. Apply the sound of this e, thus 37. B e, Mure OR UNACCESTED.-Yame, sh: sono1 like'
pronoanced, to the e in the following words, viz. Sce, de, je, me, mund of the letter w in the Eng'ich i; of, like the i
ne, se, te, que, etc. w of the last syllable er in the words orr- ] ater, when'
1 Or last.y, the sound of e mute or unscoented is based upon the okoll quickly.
sound of the English a pronounced naturally. Let the organs Thu e mute or unaccented " is a mere emission of the Toice i
within the mouth maintain as nearly as possible the same posi. without any distinct sound. It either sacseeds a cousast. by!
tion, whiist the lips are protruded as if to pout or rhistle. Ther, than articulation of which it becomes Beasible, or comes after
'Whilst the mouth is in this position, endeavour to pronounce buwel, of which it may be considered the prolongation"
* & the English a again; this, in a majority of cases, will give the It is confessedly difficult to illastrate the sound of this Towel
'correct sound of e muts or unaccented. Practise frequently on Din the aid of Engih letters, yet it is worthy an hogest attempt
this last-mentioned plan alond, and the car will soon detect the Tot it may be soquired from a teacher, by stort in
ricionsness or correctness of the sound. Most pupils find it , an;
; more or less dificult to acquire this sound; but perseverance 1. -26, all learners are not good imitators! If it can beige. ti: i try analogous English sounds, it seems quite r?2999 ble",
will, in dae time, oreroome erery obstacle.
La illastrating the sound of e mute or unaccented, the follow. 1. Ispose that thruagh this process many more sisi t3 val. - 1. rstand and raise it, that if they were left in
ing sigas will be used, sometimes one, again the other, viz. :-uh,
to the à utfal pobry o
tae and the apostrophe, thus :Let os tra. Before the pas attempts to pronounce the Frenci tords
Je by shuh, or by j'. Se by sud, or by s'. used for examples .et hem obserre most esrefer the sunl of SECTIOX VIII-DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES AND the last syllable of the following wards, when attered as they
PROXOLXS. usually are in common conversation, seselys
1. The demonstrative adjectives oe, m., cette, f., this or that, Mother, Brother, Serez, Sis-tar, -ter. are alw:rs placed before nouns; they agree in gender with these Take any one of the above English words, tis:-he first,
nonas ($ 20 (1) the er. Pronounce it naturally and alond with a fil roica
Aret rys ce parapluie ? n.,
Hars you this or that umbrella ? coyoral times, until the common sound of the last syl-ble in
Narez-vous pas ette bouteille? I., How you not this or that bottle ? attulay is familiar to the ear. Take each of those mords and 2. Before a word masculine singular, commencing with a thus practino, by pronouncing aloud carefully, but naturally, vowel or h mute, cet takes the place of $ 20 (1)]. obaovying at the mome time the sound of the last syllable. I arez vous pas cet argent? Have you not this or that money?
Now, by what combination of letters would you roprocent vous avez ea est honneur, You have had this or that honour, that sound? By wr, in the first syllablo of the English and 3. When it is diseme i necessary to express in French the
uwy oy by u Manifestly the latter. Bolow aro a few difference existing in English between the words this and that, Pranal words, which you will now prooood to pronounce alonul, the adrerbs ci and li mas be placed after the nouns ($ 20 (2)]. rying to the yowel. In och example the last syllablo of to word W.
Je n'ai pas ce parasol-ci, j'ai ce I hire not this parasol, I have that Ponoumnowal of the following Fronch word : i parisol la
parasol autody amabpopuy, mi molition mark were placed
4. Thn demonstrative pronouns celui, m., celle, f., this or that,
the damanstratia are not to rapresent nians, bat are norer joined with thein like miljotive 37(1):
J'ai mon parapluie et celui de votre I have my umbrella and your brothor's 28. The stranger has no poultry, but he has monoy. 29. Your frère,
-i.e., that of your brother. brother is hungry and thirsty, afraid and sleepy. 30. Is any ono Vous avez ma robe et celle de ma You have my dress and my sister's
ashamed ? 31. No, Sir, nobody is ashamed. 32. Is your scar,
-i.e., that of my sister.
brother right or wrong? 33. My brother is right, and yours is 5. The pronouns celui, celle, with the addition of the words ci
wrong. 34. Your sister has neither her satin hat nor her and ld, are used in the sense of this one, that one, the latter, the velvet hat. 35. Has the baker the mahogany chest of drawers ? former ( 37 (4)]. They agree in gender with the word which 36. Ho has it not, he has the mahogany sofa. 37. Has the they represent.
tinman my plato ? 38. He has not your plate, he has mine. Vous avez celui-ci, mais vous n'avez You have this one (the latter), but
SECTION IX.-THE PLURAL OF NOUNS ($ 8). pas celui-là, you have not that one (the former).
1. The plural in French is generally formed, as in English, by 6. The prononns ceci and cela are used absolutely, that is,
$the addition of s to the singular. without a noun, in pointing out objects.
Un homme, une femme,
A man, a toonan. Nona n'avons pas ceci, nous avons cela, Wo havo not this, we have that. |
Deux hommes, deux femmes, Tico mon, two women. Ceci ou ceh,
This or that.
The form le of tho article becomes plural by the addition of s, RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.
and may be placed before plural nouns of either gender. Avez-vous le livre de cet homme? Havo you that man's book ?
Les hommes, les femmes, The men, the women. Je n'ai pas son livre, j'ai la mien. I have not his book, I have mini,
1 Has the cook that umbrella ?
2. 1st EXCEPTION TO RULE 1.- Nouns ending in s, x, s, Le cuisinier a-t-il ce parapluie ? I n'a pas ce parapluie-ci, il a ce He has not this umbrella, he has remain unchanged for the plural. parapluie là, (R. 3.) that umbrella,
Le bas, les bas,
The stocking, the stockings.
La voir les
The voice, the voices.
Le nez, les nez.
The nose, the noses. Je n'ai pas celui de mon frère, j'ai I have not my brother's, I have my 3. 2nd EXCEPTION.-Nouns ending with an and eu, tako x for celui de ma soeur, (R. 4.)
sister's ;-i.e., that of my brother, the plural.
that of my sister. Arez-vous celui-ci ou celui-là ? Have you this one or that one ?
Le bateau, les bateaux, Tho boat, the boats. Je n'ai ni celui-ci ni celui-là. I havo neither the latter nor the former.
Le lieu, les lieux,
The place, the places.
4. 3rd EXCEPTION.—The following nouns ending in ou take J'ai celle-ci. I have this (one).
æ for the plural :-bijon, jewel ; caillou, pebble; chou, cabbage; Arez-vous ceci ou cela? (R. 6.) Have you this or that ?
genou, knee; hibou, owl ; joujou, plaything. VOCABULARY.
Les bijoux, les cailloux, les choux, The jouels, the pebbles, the cabbages. Ardoise, 1., slate. Encrier, m., inkstand. | Parapluie, m., um Les liboux, les genoux, les joujoux. The owls, the linees, the playthings. Balai, m., broom. Fromage, m., chesse. brella.
5. 4th EXCEPTION.—The following nouns ending in ail change Bois, m., wood, Jardinier, m., gardener. | Plomb, m., lead,
that termination into aux for the plural :--bail, lease ; corail, Bouteille, f., bottle. Lait, m., milk.
Plus, no longer.
Poulet, m., chicken.
coral; émail, enamel; soupirail, air-hole; sous-bail, under-lease; Etranger, m., stranger, | Malle, f., trunk. Salière, f., salt stand. | travail, labour. foreigner.
| Parasol, m., parasol. | Volaille, f., poultry. Les baux, les coraux, les émaux. The leases, the corals, the enamels. EXERCISE 13.
Les soupiraux, les travaux, les The air-holes, the labours, the under. soux-baux.
leases. 1. Votre frère a-t-il son encrier d'argent ? 2. Il ne l'a plus,
6. 5th EXCEPTION.- Nouns ending in al form their plural il a un encrier de plomb. 3. Avons-nous la lettre de l'étranger ?
in aux. 4. Oai, Monsieur, nous avons celle de l'étranger. (R. 4.) 5.
Le cheval, les chevaux,
The horse, the horses.
Tho general, the generals. satin. 6. Le menuisier a-t-il votre bois ou le sien? 7. Il n'a ni le mien ni le sien, il a celui du jardinier. 8. Avez-vous mon
Bal, ball ; carnaval, carnival; chacal, jackal ; régal, treat, bon parapluie de soie ? 9. J'ai votre parapluie de soie et votre "
follow the general rule. parasol de satin. 10. Avez-vous ma bouteille ? 11. Je n'ai pas
7. 6th EXCEPTION.-Ciel, heaven ; wil, eye; and aïeul, ancesvotre bouteille, j'ai la malle de votre scur. 12. Le domestiane tor, form their plural irregularly. a-t-il cette salière ? 13. Il n'a pas cette salière-ci, il a celle-là. Les cieux, les yeux, les aïeux, The heavens, the cyes, the ancestors. 14. Avez-vous le bon ou le mauvais poulet? 15. Je n'ai ni For further rules see § 8, § 9, and $ 10, of Part II. celui-ci ni celui-là. 16. Quel poulet avez-vous ? 17. J'ai celui
RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. du cuisinier. 18. Le boulanger a-t-il de la volaille ? (Sect. IV. 1.) 19. Le bonlanger n'a pas de volaille, il a du lait. (Sect. V. 5.)
Les Anglais ont-ils les chevaux du Have the English the general's 20. Arez-vous votre fromage ou le mien ? 21. Je n'ai ni le
| Les généraux n'ont pas les bijoux. The generals have not the jewels. Tôtre ni le mien, j'ai celui du matelot. 22. Quelqu'un a-t-il Les enfants ont-ils les cailloux ? Have the children the pebbles ? faim ? 23. Personne n'a faim. 24. Avez-vous quelque chose ? | Les yeux de l'enfant.
The child's eyes. 25. Non, Monsieur, je n'ai rien. 26. Avez-vous le sofa d'acajou Les tableaux de cette église. The pictures of that church.
Avez-vous les oiseaux de ce bois? Have you the bi ls of that wood ? son joli miroir et son bon crayon.
Avez-vous les encriers d'argent de Havo you my sister's silver inkstand:?
ma scur? EXERCISE 14.
J'ai les bijoux d'argent et d'or de I have the gold and silvor jewels of 1. Has your brother that lady's umbrella ? 2. My brother l'étranger.
the foreigner. has that lady's umbrella? 3. Have you this parasol or that | Les rois n'ont-ils pas les palais de Have not the loings the marble one? 4. I have neither this (one) nor that (one). 5. Have
palaces ? you the stranger's gold watch? 6. No, Sir, I have the baker's.
VOCABULARY. 7. Who has my slate? 8. I have your slate and your brother's.
Baril, m., barrel. ! Général, m., general. Meunier, m., millor. 9. Has the cook a silver salt stand? 10. The cook has a silver Bas, m., stocking. Gilet, m., vaistcoat. Morceau, m., picco. salt stand, and a silver dish. 11. Has the cook this poultry Bijou, m., jewel. Grand, adj., larjo, groat. Oiseau, m., bird. or that? 12. He has neither this nor that. 13. Has he this Chocolat, m., chocolate. Jardin, m., garden. Paire, f., pair. bread or that? 14. He has neither this nor that, he has the Chou, m., cabbage. Joujou, m., plaything. Petit, adj., small. baker's good bread. 15. Have you my cotton parasol ? 16. I Dans, in.
Légume, m., vegetable. Poivre, m., pepper. have not your cotton parasol, I have your silk parasol. 17.
Enfant, m., child. | Marchand, m., merchant. Qu', que, what.
Fer, m., iron. Has the gardener a leather trunk? 18. The gardener has a
Maréchal, m.,blacksmith. Rien, nothing. Fils, m., son.
| Mauvais, e, bad. leather trunk. 19. Who has my good cheese? 20. Nobody has your cheese, but some one has your brother's. 21. Have
EXERCISE 15. Fot mine or his ? 22. I have neither yours nor his, I have 1. Avez-vous les marteaux du charpentier ? 2. Nous avons the stranger's. 23. Has the cook this bottle or that broom ? les marteaux du maréchal. 3. Les maréchaux ont-ils doux 24. He has this bottle. 25. Have you a lead inkstand ? 26. marteaux de bois ? 4. Ils ont deux marteaux de for. 5. Les No, Sir, I have a china inkständ. 27. Has the stranger poultry? | généraux ont-ils les chapeaux de soie de l'enfant ? 6. Ils ont
. i ; et les joujoux de l'enfant. 7. Les enfants ont-ils brother's horses, I have your cousin's hats. 3. Have the blaekLok a le votre bois ? 8. Ils n'ont pas les oiseaux de mon smiths good iron? 4. The blacksmith has two pieces of iron. 1. installs ont les chevaux de mon général. 9. Le maréchal 5. Have you two pairs of stockings? 6. I have one pair of +-- wine pairu du bas de laine? 10. Le maréchal a deux paires stockings and two pairs of gloves. 7. Has your sister the gold in Loss du luine. 11. Monsieur, n'avez-vous pas froid ? 12. jewels? 8. My sister has the gold jewels and the paper playSuis, Monsieur, j'ai chaud. 13. Avez-vous du café ou du things. 9. Have you the cabbages in your garden? 10. We cha malat? 14. Je n'ai ni café ni chocolat. 15. N'avez-vous have two cabbages in our garden. 11. Have you the silk hats ? puis les choux de mon grand jardin ? 16. J'ai les légumes de 12. The generals have the silk hats. 13. Have you coffee or witre petit jardin. 17. Votre fils, qu'a-t-il ? 18. Mon fils n'a sugar ? 14. We have neither coffee nor sugar. 15. Are your riun. 19. Avez-vous deux morceaux de pain ? 20. Lo meunier brothers ashamed ? 16. My brothers are neither ashamed nor a un morceau de pain et deux barils de farine. 21. L'épicier afraid. 17. Who has two barrels of flour ? 18. The miller has a-t-il du café, du thé, du chocolat, et du poivre ? 22. Il a du two barrels of flour. 19. Have the birds bread ? 20. The thé et du café, et le chocolat et le poivre de votre marchand. birds have no bread. 21. Has the merchant tea, chocolate, 23. Qui a de l'argent ? 24. Je n'ai pas d'argent, mais j'ai du sugar, and pepper? 22. He has sagar and pepper, but he has papier. 25. Avez-vous de bon papier ? 26. J'ai de mauvais neither tea nor chocolate. 23. What has your sister ? 24. She papier.
has nothing. 25. What is the matter with your brother? 26. EXERCISE 16.
Nothing is the matter with him. 27. Is he not cold ? 28. He 1. Have you my brother's horses ? 2. I have not your is not cold, he is warm.
COPY-SLIP NO. 8.-COMBINATION OF THE LETTERS u, t.
COPY-SLIP NO. 9.–COMBINATION OF THE LETTERS I, i.
COPY-SLIP NO. 20.--COMBINATION OF THE LETTERS t, l.
LESSONS IN PENMANSHIP.-IV. rather less than one-fourth of an inch; and Small Hand, on
single lines, and sometimes between double lines threeAs it is impossible for any one who is attempting to teach himself thirty-seconds of an inch apart, or rather less than one-eighth the art of Penmanship to write well without ractice, we now of an inch. For those who may not have a graduated scale of give three more combinations of pairs of the four letters that the inches, we append a printed scale, showreader has already learned to make, before passing on to other ing the respective widths of the four letters of the alphabet in writing, for whose formation strokes kinds of writing that have been named. Large Textlå inch. are required that differ in shape and character from the first Now, to show our readers how to rule elementary stroke that forms the basis of the letters i, u, t, 1. la page wherein to copy any of the ex
At this stage of our Lessons in Penmanship, it may not be amples that have been or will be given, out of place to say something about the kind of handwriting let us suppose that the learner wishes to Text Hand | inch. that the students of this part of the POPULAR EDUCATOR are prepare paper for copying tl, as in Copypractising, and to give those who may feel disposed to rule slip No. 10. First rule two lines, one on
Round Hand paper for themselves, in imitation of our copy-slips, a few brief either side of the page, close to the mar.
inch. Instructions that will enable them to do so.
gin, from top to bottom, taking care that Small Hand inch. First, with regard to the kind or description of handwriting they are parallel to each other—that is to that is set before our readers in our present series of elementary say, at equal distances from each other all the way down. Then copy-slips, it should be said that it is called Large Text, and rule a line across the top of the page, also close to the margin and that it is the largest, plainest, and boldest of the four kinds of at right angles to the parallel lines at the sides of the paper, or handwriting usually practised by learners. The three hands “square with them," as a joiner would say, and, commencing that yet remain to be named are termed Text Hand, Round from this line, set off with compasses along the side lines disHand or Half d Small or Running Hand. Of these, tances equal to ed, da, ac, cb, in order, as in Copy-slip No. 10, Large Text
on between lines half an inch apart; and repeat this as often as the length of the paper will allow, Text H
ne-third of an inch apart ; Round taking care to leave a space of one-fourth of an inch between Hano
mty-fourths of an inch apart, or the last of each set of five lines and the first of the next which