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ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY.–VII.

nected with mental operations. Their uses have more relation

to our animal than to our intellectual life, and the appetites THE ORGAN OF SMELL.

which arise from a desire to gratify these senses have always In the preceding articles on the organs of sight and hearing | been considered to be less refined and more sensual than those it was remarked that while the sensations excited through their which pertain to the senses of sight and hearing. It is true agency were so different, the external causes which operated on that a spurious delicacy and refinement of the sense of smell the eye and ear respectively were not dissimilar. Rapid vibra- have caused the wealthier classes in times of high civilisation tions, propagated by bodies themselves in violent but otherwise to delight in costly and rare essences and scents; but the unnoticed vibration, are conveyed through intervening media extensive use of these has been the characteristic of effeminate for great, and, in the case of light, unlimited distances, by races, and of times when civilisation, in its highest sense, had waves which are capable of indicating the direction from which begun to succumb to luxury. When Rome boasted of her

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I. VERTICAL SECTION OF HUMAN HEAD, SHOWING THE RELATION OF THE PASSAGES FOR AIR AND Foop. II. FRAMEWORK OF THE NOSE.

III, MUSCLES OF THE NOSE. IV. SEPTUM OF THE NOSE AND ITS NERVES. Rel to Nos, in Figs.-I. 1, upper turbinated bone ; 2, middle do. ; 3, lower do. ; 4, hole leading to the canal which drains the eye; 5, Busta

chian hole; 6, palate; 7, uvula ; 8, epiglottis ; 9, pharynx; 10, larynx ; 11, cricoid cartilage; 12, thyroid cartilage ; 13, cavity of the mouth. II. 1, part of upper jaw bone ; 2, nose bone; 3, upper side cartilage ; 4, lower do.; 5, cellular tissue. III. 1, pyramidal muscle of the nose ; 2, muscle to lift the side cartilages; 3, compressor of the nose; 4, front dilator of the nostril; 5, small compressor of the nostril ; 6, hind dilator of the nostril; 7, muscle to pull down the side cartilages. IV. 1, nerve of the lobe of nose; 2, olfactory lobe; 3, nerves of the septum ; 4, nerve of palate.

they proceed. These vibrations, therefore, can inform the mind costly perfumes, she had almost ceased from the prouder boast concerning objects far removed from its instrument, the body, of being mistress of the world ; and the more manly tone of with an accuracy which makes us scorn the idea that we can be modern and western society has decided between Hotspur and deceived in that which our eyes have seen and our ears heard. the fop, to the prejudice of the latter. Through these avenues the human mind extends itself, till it Matter or material substances exist in three forms—the solid, touches, and by the aid of reason may be said to grasp, the liquid, and gaseous; and almost all substances can be made to universe; and the highest powers of the mind are employed assume each of these forms. Thus ice may be transformed in interpreting the messages brought to us by light and into water and into steam. When the particles of matter sound.

hang together so closely and rigidly that they will not move In marked contrast to these are the remaining senses of over one another without the application of force, they form a which we have to write-namely, those of smell, taste, and solid. When the particles hang together so loosely that they touch. These senses are excited by material particles applied will move over and round each other with the slightest force, directly to those parts of the body which can take note of their so that they can scarcely be said to hang together at all, the peculiar qualities, and hence they are far less necessarily con. substance is called a liquid. When the particles not only do

VOL. I.

15

not hang together, but exert a force to fly off from one another, entrance above, and the epiglottis is bent down, while the sides the substance they form is called a gas. The sense of touch, of the hole below are so contracted beneath its overhanging strictly and properly defined—that is, excluding the sensation and protecting hood, that the food passes over it, and the drink of heat and of resistance-has to do with solids. The sense of on each side of it, without danger of their making an entrance taste has to do with liquids only, as nothing is sapid which is into the larynx. It will be seen that the effluvium from food not liquid or capable of being dissolved. The sense of smell not only rises into the nasal organ when it is presented to the occupies itself with gases; for these alone can gain acoegs to mouth, but passes to it, also, after it has been introduced into the organ, or cause the sensation of smell. Lest the reader the mouth, so that the nose is an effective guard to this entrance, should suppose this statement opposed to the testimony of his as well as to that which it more immediately occupies. experience, from the well-known fact that solids, such as cedar. The external protecting framework, or nose, covers in the wood, camphor, and musk, excite the sensation of smell, while nasal chambers in front, and, on account of its oblique direction, ordinary scents are preserved and carried about in a liquid overhangs the orifices, which are further defended from intrusive form, it must be explained that these substances contain volatile solids by a number of stiff hairs. At the upper part, or roof of essential principles, which, on free exposure to the air, are slowly the nose, this framework is of bone, because there no flexibility given off in a state of vapour. Some solids give off particles is required, but towards the point it is composed of cartilages, of their substance in a state of vapour without first becoming which are more elastic, and which can also move in relation to liquid, as is ordinarily the case. Thus snow, which coats the one another, while the outer and lower sides of the orifices are earth in winter, will diminish daily, even though the air is composed of yet more bendable cellular tissue. These wings of frosty, and there is no melting process going on. In other the nose can play up and down, and to and from, the central cases, as in cedar-wood, oils naturally volatile seem to be long partition by the action of muscles, so as to enlarge, contract, or entangled in the solid matter, and but slowly rendered to the slightly alter the direction of the openings; but the framework air; but their odoriferous power is so great that very small is, nevertheless, stiff enough to keep the nostrils moderately portions of them produce strong perfumes. This is sometimes distended while in a state of rest. Stretching horizontally truly wonderful. Dr. Carpenter states that a grain of musk backward from the nose are the nasal chambers, divided from may be freely exposed to the air for ten years, during which one another by a plain partition, which is bony behind and time it perfumes the whole surrounding air; yet when weighed, gristly in front, and they pass under the chamber of the brain there is no perceptible loss observed. Matters which exhale and over the cavity of the mouth, to open backward over the odorous emanations are detected at a great distance, from the throat. Solid floors of bone divide this second storey of the head tendency of gases to pass through and diffuse themselves from the upper and lower rooms, and bones also wall in the equably throughout all other gases. Thus, though there be but right and left sides. These walls, however, are not smooth and a very small escape of coal-gas in one part of the room, it soon plain like the central partition, but have three bony projections announces itself to the nose in every corner of the apartment. one above the other, which are called turbinated bones, because This is a faculty peculiar to gases, and produces many in they are curled upon themselves like scrolls, the first conver teresting results, which, however, cannot now be dwelt upon. surface of the scroll being directed inwards. These turbinated

The final canse for which the sense of smell is given to the bones stretch inwards, nearly reaching the plain partition, and higher animals—i.e., to beasts, birds, and reptiles—is primarily thus divide each lateral chamber into three horizontal passages, to warn them against receiving into the lungs and stomach called the upper, middle, and lower meatuses. All the interior noxious matters, and secondarily to guide them in the search of the chambers is covered with a membrane, which is very for wholesome air and food. As a rule, to which, however, thick and pulpy on the scroll bones, the roof of the chamber, there are many exceptions, nauseous smells are associated with and central partition. This membrane is peculiar in that it noxious gases, and that food which gives off a pleasant aroma secretes a slimy mucus, it is very vascular, and so contains is of a nature, and in a oondition, to supply good nutriment. much blood, and the ultimate fibres of the nerve of smell lose The bulk of the atmosphere consists of inodorous gases, admi. themselves in its substance. The nervous apparatus of smell rably mixed so as to suit the purposes of respiration, and the on each side arises from under the brain by three roots; it is in main products of vegetable life are nutritive and bland; but the shape of a little round horizontal bar of brain matter, ending small quantities of destructive effluvia and of deadly poisons in a bulb, and it lies in a groove of the soft brain above, and of are no uncommon things in nature, and unless some kind of the hard bone beneath, being separated from its fellow by e quarantine were exercised on air and food, the system could not crest of bone. These bulbs being placed in the brain-case, send be maintained in health. True, therefore, to its office of down, from all along their course, through many holes in the sanitary inspector, the organ of smell holds a position at the bones on which they lie, nervous cords, which divide and subentrance of the passages for air and food. In order to appre- divide, and run, some to the vertical central partition, some to ciate its office it is necessary to understand the relation of these the top scroll-bone, and some to the roof of the chamber. Their passages to one another. This is best done by a reference to distribution, of course, indicates where the sense of smell resides, the illustration. The largest figure represents the nose chamber that is, not in the main channel of the air, which passes along of the left side; the hollow of the mouth below it; the pharynx, | the floor of the passage, but in the upper part of the chamber. or channel for food, running down towards the stomach on the Hence, when we want to smell anything, we take means to get left side (of the figure); and the larynx, or channel of the air, the gas driven upward into the upper part of the nose. This is when pursuing its course to the lungs, parallel to it, on the effected by contracting the nostrils, and drawing the air suddenly right-hand side, as they would appear if the head were cut in and sharply in, so that it is directed upwards instead of along two with the downward stroke of a sharp, resistless knife, made the floor of the passage. as near to the middle plane as possible, yet so as to be on the It has been remarked that the membrane of the nose is very left of the upright partition between the two nose-chambers. full of blood-vessels, and this is important, because the presence The ordinary course of the air, when no food is being swallowed, of much warm blood, distributed over a surface purposely folded to is upward through the nostril, then horizontally through the give it a greater extent, has a tendency to warm the cold air as lower part of the nose-chambers, then downward and forward it passes through the complicated channels before it is introbehind the soft palate, entering the hole immediately below duced into the lungs. That cold air, introduced through the the part marked as the “ epiglottis," and so on to the lungs. nose, instead of through the month, is less likely to be injurious, The simpler course of the food is horizontally through the is so far recognised, that respirators are used by delicate persons mouth, and then vertically downward. If the reader has in cold air, while it is not thought necessary thus to protect understood the engraving, he will see that the air and food the nose. passages cross one another; or, perhaps, it makes it more clear There are curious connections between the nasal chambers to say that the air passage enters the food canal from above, and the hollows in many of the bones of the face and head, and passes ont again below and in front of it. This is a which are analogous to the air cavities of birds' bones. The singular arrangement, and open, one would have said, to the nose has also another office, in that it serves as a sewer for obvious objection that the food might get into the lungs, where the eye. Two little ducts from the inner corner of the eye it is not only not wanted, but could not be for a moment join and form a tube, which, after passing through a bony canal, endured. This catastrophe is, however, provided against by delivers its drainage into the lower meatus of the nose by a tho act of swallowing, in which the soft palate closes the air small orifice, shown in the engraving. Hence, violent blowing of the nose is often resorted to in order to clear the eye from | bably with the verb to be and the preposition by, denoting the dust and tears.

active power or agent, as a prefix, performs the part of an So far as concerns ourselves, the use of the olfactory organ intensive, and increases, sometimes in a bad sense, the inherent is rather to teach us what to avoid than what to seek, and the import of a word; e.g., beloved, bedaub, besmear, bepraise. In pleasures of smell are rather incidental to other healthful con other cases it seems to do little more than aid in forming words, ditions than much prized on their own account; yet the varied as an adverb out of an adjective; as behind (hind, hinder), before, fragrance of a thousand flowers, so delicately diffused as not to below, beneath. The adverb betimes (early) is made up of by pall the sense, or to surcharge the pure air, is no small addition and time, bytime; that is, in time. to the delights of the garden and the country. If, however, we

“ He that goes out betimes in the morning is more like to dispatch endeavour to imprison these odours, and make them our own,

his journey than he that lingers till the day be spent."-Bishop Hall. they are nearly always suggestive of a sickly effeminacy, and have called down sneers on their possessors. Thus, Cowper By means also, near, as “ Stand by me." writes

“And as he (Jesus) passed by, he saw Levi” (Mark ii. 14).
"His better hand, more busy, gives the nose
Its burgamot;"

Hence the phrase by and by denoted immediately, as may be and Tennyson

sécn in Mark vi. 25, in which, and in other passages of Scrip

ture, it is the representation of a Greek word which signifies " His essences turned the live air sick ;"

straightway, forthcith. The repetition of the by may have had and again Shakespeare

emphasis for its object. Hence is explained the word by-stander, “ He was perfumed like a milliner.”

that is, one who stands near. At present, by and by seems in conversation to intimate some little distance of time from the

actual moment. LESSONS IN ENGLISH.–VIII.

Bene, a prefix of Latin origin (from bonus, good; bene, well), is

found in union with words of Latin origin; thus with facio, I do, PREFIXES (continued).

and its parts facere, factum (in combination a may pass into i),

it forms benefaction, benefit, beneficial, beneficent; so in union Apo, of Greek origin, from; as apostle, from the Greek ano

with dico, I say (dicere, dictum), bene forms benediction, and (pronounced ap'-o), from, and otellw (pronounced stel’-lo), I send;

with volo, I am willing, it forms benevolent. Hence, one who is that is, a person sent from one to another, a messenger.

benevolent is one who wishes well; and one who is beneficent is Apo has the force of our English prefix un, as in uncover.

one who does well; a benediction is a good word, a blessing, and This is its exact import in the word apocalypse, a revelation, from the Greek co, and KalUATW (pronounced ka-lupe'-to), I

a benefaction is a good deed, a gift. The opposite prefix is the

Latin male (pronounced ma'-le), ill or evil. The contrast is well onceal; that is, according to the Latin, an unveiling; and

illustrated in these words, where, as in other instances, the old according to the Greek, an uncovering.

spelling is retained, as offering so many historical facts*O for that warning voice which he who saw

“ The kyng, willing to show that this benefit was to hym much acceptTh' apocalypse, heard cry in heaven aloud."-Milton.

able, and not worthy to be put in oblivion, called this grant of money Arch (ch sounded like k), of Greek origin (from apxn, pro

a benevolence, notwithstanding that many with grudge and malevolence nounced ar-ke, a beginning), in the forms arch, arche, and archy, reat summes toward the new foude (found) benevolence."-Hall. denotes the origin, the head, and hence government. It is the

Edward IV.second syllable in monarch, monarchy; and as the letter which Bi, in the forms of bi and bis, of Latin origin (bis, twice), has in Greek represents the ch is pronounced like k, arch thus intro- in English the force of two or twice ; biped (pes, Latin, a foot), duces a Greek pronunciation into our tongue. Hence you may | two-footed, biscuit (cuire, French, to cook), twice-cooked. learn the error which pronounces architect (from apxn, first, or head, and TEKTOV, pronounced teck-ton, a maker or builder), as |

“The inconvenience attending the form of the year above men. if its arch was pronounced like the monosyllabic word arch;

tioned, was in a great measure remedied by the Romans in the time of

Julius Cæsar, who added one day every fourth year; which (from the that is, the arch in a building.

place of its insertion, viz., after the sixth of the calends of March) besides a type and an antitype, theology recognises an was called bissextile or leap-year."--Priestly, on History. archetype, or original type, an original mould or model, in which, in virtue of which, and after the likeness of which, all created

Cata, of Greek origin (kata, pronounced kat'-a, down), properly beings were formed, as was taught by the Greek philosopher

denotes motion in a downward direction, and appears in the word cataract (from the Greek kata and pagow, pronounced

ras'-so, I strike or dash), which, according to its derivation, "There were other objects of the mind, universal, eternal, im

signifies a breaking-down; that is, of the rock which leads to a putable, which they called original ideas, all originally contained in De archetypal mind or understanding, and from thence participated by

downfall of water. This prefix is found in other words of Greek raferior minds and souls."-Cudworth.

origin, as in cataclysm (from the Greek katakavo uos, pronounced

kat-a-kluse'-mos, a deluge, from the verb karakAufw, pronounced This word arch (from apxn) is found also pronounced in the kat-a-klu'-zo, to inundate), a term applied to the deluge. ordinary English manner, as in archbishop—that is, a chief bishop, the chief bishop of a province. In its signification of

"The catacombs are subterranean streets or galleries from four to

eight feet in height, and from two to five in breadth, extending to an chiaf it is used also to denote something questionable, bad, or

", of immense and almost unknown length, and branching out into various homorque.

walks under the city of Rome."--Eustace, Italy." "Daggett thanked me, and after his comic manner spoke his request

Cent, of Latin origin, from centum, a hundred, is found in with so arek a leer that I promised," etc.-Tatler. *** Come, tell us honestly, Frank,' said the squire with his usual

centenary, a hundred or hundredth ; centuple, a hundred-fold ; archner, ' suppose the church, your present mistress, drest in lawn

centurion, a commander of a hundred soldiers in the Roman sleves, on one hand, and Miss Sophia, with no lawn about her, on the

army. The old Saxon word hundredor may be compared with cther, which would you be for?'"-Goldsmith.

centurion. Auto, of Greek origin, equivalent to self, is found in autocrat,

"Hundredors, aldermen, magistrates, etc."-Spelman. from the Greek autos (pronounced aw-tos), one's self, and The import of hundredor or hundreder may be learnt from Katu (pronounced krat'-e-a), power, government, one who governs the following words, describing the ancient civil division of of lumself and by himself; hence autocracy is arbitrary power, England for the purpose of government: despotism.

“As ten families of freeholders made up a town or tithing (a tenth), *The divine will is absolute; it is its own reason; it is both the

so ten tithings composed a superior division, called a hundred, as conproduear and the ground of all its acts. It moves not by the external

sisting of ten times ten families."-Blackstone, " Commentaries." impulære, or inclination of objects, but determines itself by an absolute Circum, of Latin origin (Latin, circus, a circle or ring), signifies Quocracy." --South.

around, as in circumstances (from circum, and the Latin verb sto, Be, of Saxon origin, in the forms be and by, connected pro- I stand), literally the things which stand around you; what has

Plato.

been called “a man's surroundings.” Circum enters into the / 2. From, as in debar, to bar or keep from, to prevent. composition of many words; e.g., circumnavigation, circumlocu

“His song was all a lamentable lay, tion, circumspect, circumscribe, etc.

Of great unkindness, and of usage hard, “The circumscription of a thing is nothing else but the determina

Of Cythia, the lady of the sea, tion or defining of its place.”—More, “ Soul."

Which from her presence faultless hiin debarred "-Spenser. Cis, of Latin origin, signifying on this side of (Rome being

3. Out, thoroughly, as in declare (de and clarus, Latin, clear), considered the centre), is found in Cisalpine, this side of the Alps,

in which the prefix has the form of an intensive; to make clear, in opposition to Transalpine, on the other side of the Alps. Gallia

that is, by utterance. . Cisalpina was what we call Lombardy ; Gallia Transalpina was

4. Not, with a force like un in undo, reversing the sense; as, Ganl or France.

decompose, to do the opposite of composing, that is, compound

ing; decollation (de and collum, Latin, the neck), un-necking, Co, of Latin origin (cum, with), occurs in the forms cog, col, that is, beheading, decorticate (de and cortex, Latin, bark), to com, con, cor,

strip off the bark; defame, etc. Co, as in coalesce (from co and aleo, Latin, I grow), to grow “Bless ye men that cursen you, preye ye for men that defamen together; it is found in the derivatives coalescence, coalition.

you."—Wiclif, “ Test.,” Luke vi. "No coalition which, under the specious name of independency, | Deca, of Greek origin, meaning ten, is found in decade, a carries in its bosom the unreconcilable principles of the origin

period of ten years ; in decalogue (from the Greek deka, procord of parties, ever was or will be a healing coalition."-Burke, on the Nation.

nounced deck'-a, ten, and doyos, pronounced log'-os, word, dis

course), the ten words or commandments of God. Deca is found Cog, as in cognate (from cog, and natus, Latin, born), born also in the Latin form of decem, as in decemviri (Latin, decem, with, of the same family or kind; cog is found also in cognition

ten, and vir, a man), the decemvirs. (Latin cum, with, and nosco, I know), knowledge ; a means of

"By this time were the ambassadors returned with the Athenian knowing, a cognisance or token.

lawes. And therefore the tribunes (at Rome) were so much the more “For which cause men imagined that he gave the sunne in his full earnest and urgent that once at length they would set on to describe brightness for his cognisaunce or badge."--Hall, “Henry IV.

and put down some lawes. And agreed it was that there should be Col, as in colloquial (Latin cum, with, and loquor, I speak), re

created decemvirs above all appeale."-Holland, " Livy." lating to conversation; as also in collusion (from col, and ludo,

Demi, of Latin origin, in the forms demi, semi, hemi, a half, Latin, I play), a playing together; that is, to deceive.

is found in demy, in semibreve, and in hemisphere. "Well, let us now leve the cloked collusion that remayned in France,

"Thou wouldst make an absolute courtier, and the firm fixture of and return to the open dissimulacion which now appeared in Eng

thy foot would give an excellent motion to thy gait, in a semi-circled lande."--Hall, Henry VI."

farthingale."-Shakespeare, " Merry Wives of Windsor.” Com, as in commemorate (from com, and memor, Latin, mind.

A farthingale is a hooped petticoat or gown. ful), to keep in mind, to recall to mind; found in commensurate,

Dia, of Greek origin, through (so as to divide), is found in comminute, commute, compact, etc.

diameter, a measure through, from one side of the circle to the

opposite; in diagonal (from the Greek dia, pronounced dy'-er, A different spinning every different web

through, and yovia, pronounced gon'-i-er, a corner or angle), a Asks from your glowing fingers; some require

line drawn from corner to corner; in dialogue (from dia and The more compact, and some the looser wreath."

Dyer, Fleece."

logos, Greek, a discourse), etc. Cor, as in correct (from cor, and rego, Latin, I rule), and cor

Var. How dost, fool ?

Ape. Dost dialogue with thy shadow ? respond, corrode, corrupt, corrugate (from cor, and ruga, Latin, a

Var. I speak not to thee.--Shakespeare, " Timon." wrinkle).

Dia is abbreviated into di, as in dichotomy (from the Greek "The full lips, the rough tongue, the corrugate cartilaginous palate,

dia, through, and Teuvw, pronounced tem'-no, I cut), a tucofold tho broad, cutting teeth of the ox, the deer, the horse, and the sheep, qualify this tribe for browsing upon their pasture.”-Paley, “Natural

division, or class. Theology."

"All things reported are reducible to this dichotomie : 1. the foun.

tain of invention ; 2, the channell of relation."-Fuller, “ Worthies." Contra, of Latin origin (contra, over against), as in contraband (bannum, low Latin, a decree, law), against the law, smuggled ;

Dis, or dią in another form, may be rendered by the phrase, and in contradict, contrary. Contra appears in another form

in two directions, or in different ways, as in distract (from dis namely, counter, counterfeit (from counter, contre, and faire, and traho, I draw); to distract is to draw a person's mind in French, to make), and in counterpane, a covering.

two or more directions so as to produce confusion and pain. “On which a tissue counterpane was cast,

Dis is found in these forms, namely, di, dif, div.
Arachné's web the same did not surpass,

Di, dif, etc., as in diverse (from di and versus, turned), turned
Wherein the story of his fortunes past

in opposite directions, different, opposedIn lively pictures neatly handled was."

“And for there is so great diversitie Drayton, The Barons' Wars."

In English, and in writing of our tong, De, of Latin origin, denoting motion downward, has, in com

So pray I God that none miswrite thee,

Ne misse the metre for defaut of song." bination, the following meanings, being modifications of its original import.

Chaucer, “Troilus." 1. Down, as in decrease, develop (Latin, volvo, I roll); de Dif, as in difficult, where the dif (dis) has a reversing force ; throne, to put down a king.

difficult comes from dis and facilis ; facilis is the Latin for easy,

the a being changed into i, as is customary in compounds of "The question of dethroning or cashiering of kings will always be an extraordinary question of state, and wholly out of the law."-Burke,

facio; so that dificult is equivalent to our uneasy; that is, not " French Revolution."

easy.

Dir (of Latin origin), as in dirge, a sacred song, so called Also in debase (from de, and battre, French, to beat), which ori.

from the beginning of the Psalm, “Dirige nos, Domine" (Direct ginally meant to lower in regard to material things; e.g. :

us, O Lord), and accustomed to be sung at funerals.. "King Edward III., in the sixteenth year of his reign, proclaimed

“The raven croaked, and hollow shrieks of owls, that no man should sell wool-fels or leather under such a price, so

Sung dirges at her funeral," that these staple commodities might not be debased."-State Trials, 1606.

Ford, " Lover's Melancholy." The application of the word debase to a moral influence is Down, of Saxon origin, is the expression of descent; henco exemplified in this citation :

motion from a higher to a lower level ; and hence, perhaps, the Sam. So let her go. God sent her to debase me,

application to “ the downs," that is, hillocks viewed in relation And aggravate my folly, who committed

to their declivities. Down was formerly used as a verb. To such a viper his most sacred trust

“The hidden beauties seemed in wait to lie,
Of secresie, my safety, and my life."

To down proud hearts that would not willing die."
Milton, " Samson Agonistes."

Sir P. Sidney, " Arcadia."

Dun, in Saxon, signifies an elevation, a hill, and even a moun. Oft I had heard of Lucy Gray: The sweetest thing that ever grew tain ; it may be the origin of our ton as in Broughton, a fortified And, when I crossed the wild, Beside a human door! height. Downs may be hence derived. In “ Webster's Dic- I chanced to see at break of day

You yet may spy the fawn at play, tionaryDowns are defined as “ridges of high land, such as lie

o lie The solitary child.

The bare upon the green; along the coasts of Essex and Sussex, in England; hence roads No mate, no comrade, Lucy knew; But the sweet face of Lucy Gray in which ships lie off these hilly coasts at anchor.” What is She dwelt on a wide moor, I Will never more be seen, called “ Salisbury Plain" is, in the parts near the city, a chalky down, famous for feeding sheep.

2. Form sentences having in them the following words :The student will do well to continue his study of the Saxon Compound, simple, primitive, derivative, departure, substitution, elements of our language. For this purpose I recommend to

suffix, prefix, distinction, ahead, amain, affection, allow, attract, am. him the poetry of Wordsworth, the simpler portions of which

biguity, anarchy, antichrist, antechamber, apothecary, autocrat, bene.

factor, malefactor, conversion, collusion, contravene, dialogue, disare pre-eminently Saxon. In order that he may have a speci.

traction men under his eyes, the opening stanzas of “Lucy Gray," by Wordsworth, are given in the following

3. Write a theme on each of the following subjects : EXERCISE.

1. The Conversion of St. Paul. 2. The Battle of the Boyne. 3. 1. Parse the following stanzas :

The Structure of the Eye. 4. Jacob's Journey to Padar-aram.

COPY-SLIP NO. 50.—THE LETTER S.

COPY-SLIP NO. 51.—THE WORD six.

COPY-SLIP NO. 52.-ELEMENTARY LOOPED STROKE, BOTTOM-TURN.

COPY-SLIP NO. 53.—THE LETTER j.

LESSONS IN PENMANSHIP.-XV.

between the lines b b, cc on the diagonal hair-line with which

the letter was commenced. The letter & is connected with any The last of the four letters that may be considered as being letter that follows it by a hair-stroke carried to the right from modifications of the letter o is the letter S, examples of which the middle of the curved down-stroke on the right of the letter, are given in Copy-slips Nos. 50 and 51. That its form is based as may be seen in Copy-slip No. 51. When s is preceded by in a great measure on the letter o, may be seen by drawing a any letter which terminates in a bottom-turn, the hair-line of fine line through the middle of this letter diagonally from right the bottom-turn is carried into the diagonal up-stroke with to left, from the point in which a line drawn in the direction of which the letter is commenced; but when the letter that precedes the slope of the letter (as in our early copy-slips), and touching it does not end in a bottom-turn, as b, f, o, r, V, and w, the its right side, would cut the line a a, to the point in which a line, connecting hair-stroke is carried into the direction of the diagonal also drawn in the direction of the slope of the letter, and up-stroke midway between the lines a a, cc, the lower part of touching its left side, would cut the line b b. The letter s is the diagonal up-stroke being of necessity omitted, and the letter formed in the following manner :-First, a hair-stroke is carried is finished in the usual manner, as will be seen in Copy-slip upwards diagonally from left to right, a little above the line a a; No. 59. When double s occurs in any word, the first s is somethe pen is then brought downwards, and a curved down-stroke is times made by a hair-line looped above the line a a, like the top made, which is turned upwards to the left when it has reached of the letter f, turned at the top to the left, and converted the line bb, and terminated in a dot made about midway gradually into a thick down-stroke, which is brought downwards

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