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"I have heard se reatures sitting at a play,
- die rery eanning of the scene,
- so to the soul, that presently Ser zwelaim'd their malefactions.”
Shakespeare, " Hamlet." Ieš zen jelzs, pronounced mel-as, black), to
eta ef melancholy, literally, black bile (from SACS es, and yoản, pronounced kol-e, bile),
os rame habitual sadness.
inimest melancholy !
herefore to our wesier view
Vilton, "ni Peseroso." on Mets pronounced met-ta), signifying AD name, transference, is found in metaphor
e manutenced fer-co. I bear), a figure of 2. Sunsference of the literal meaning of Semily sepresented objects of sense. It is en ransference that the word which set
csets ms come to denote a state of mind a wiek now describes a shrewd, clever azmies SBD. percing—from the Latin acu, c
is wow applied to mental or moral otspurs Instances may be given in 18.
su tecto, I benid), abstract (Latin, ab,
cate, certe Latin, etxmn, with, and capio, De beur wresponding nouns; also, in hari PR iisposation), light "ight-hearted). The r. wever, y specially given to more marked and
Inn, Estances of tesasference, on the Je supposedi resemblance between the
mentai abjects. Thus, the sun is termed the
The boom the men ur yt. *** uerecipitick of anthoring power, and dignity, and ! wad Burhale utten sesi in Seripture. --men, "Vulgar Erns." yrms "he wo first syllables of metaphysies in Greek,
ING. pronounced met'-ta tv 5-2-ka, after the reri scuences). The force of the word will be learnt sa utanons*me part which is physie (physics, relating to matter) is
La sunuleth the material and efficient cases, uni the other, una s metapi „sze metaphysics, the plural is wow generally used), saileth the formal and final causes." -Besim, " Limoncement
- From this part of Aristotle's logic there is so easy transition to rint "ras been enlled his metaphysics ; a name wniowa to the author ! mself, and given to his most abstract philosophical works by his sütors, from an opinion that these books ought to be studied immediately aytar hus påysics, or treatises on natural philosophy."_Gillies
, s * Aries of Ariestle's Works." Yets also enters into the Greek word metempsychosis (em, it
, RS. Arnie mi durn. pronounced su’-ke, the soul), the passage of the soni the site on une body to another.
- The souls of usurers, after their death, Lucan affirms to be mstomaugi temporiumsel, a translated into the bodies of asses, and there remain cer; zum years for poor men to take their pennyworth out of their bones."
EXERCISE. ! Pase the following sentences :
i is a very hot month. In July the grass and flowers are barnt. y mi w do you not water your garden? The children go under the * WARR SK a sus bee is on the honeysuckle. The bee will carry the honey
Dre Look at puss! She pricks up her ears.
Pese wants to get into the closet. The mice have nibbled the Harta Petruary is a cold month. It snows. It freezes.
Fum sentences having in them these words :Spatication; prerent; incrustation ; excommunicate ; eflori
BINDO PRZEDp; survey ; office; entertainment; epitaph; equivocaBarns $, &adt; fortid; pardon ; hieroglyphics.
Write a theme on each of the following subjects :
vised and his brethren. 2. A May morning. 3. The Invincible amb les tomada The Solar System. 5. The chief river in the neighbour.
der where you live, and any objects of interest on or near its banks
She smells the
LESSONS IN PENMANSHIP.-XIX. No. 70. An inspection of these elementary strokes will show
that the letter r is formed of the top-turn, with the addition of In Copy-slips Nos. 67 and 68 the learner will see how the letters a fine hair-stroke brought upwards along the right-hand side V, W, and b are joined to letters that precede and follow them, of the thick down-stroke of the top-turn as far as the line cc, and in these he will also find examples of the method of bringing when it is carried out to the right, in a graceful curve, as far the final curve to the right, which terminates the letters that as the line a a. The pen is then brought downwards, and the have just been named, in a downward direction, in order to letter is terminated by a curved or hooked stroke, resembling in carry it with greater facility into the line that forms the loop | a great measure a small bottom-turn. When the letter r is
of the letter e, which would be greatly curtailed in size and followed by e, the finishing turn, as in the case of the final robbed of its proper proportions if the final curve of the v, b, curve terminating the letters V, W, and b, is made larger in OF W that precedes it were carried to the right midway between order to carry it into the fine up-stroke commencing at cc, the lines a a, cc, in the ordinary way, instead of being brought which forms the loop of the letter e. downwards as far as the line cc and then turned into the loop An example of the letter r, in conjunction with letters pre
ceding and following it, will be found in Copy-slip No. 71, in The four remaining letters of the writing alphabet-namely, the word roller. The elementary looped stroke, turned at the r, f, k, and 2-each exhibit a peculiarity of form that is top, which generally forms the upper part of the letter f, is not to be found in any other letter. The elementary strokes given in Copy-slip No. 72. It resembles the loop-stroke, turned which are combined to form the letter r are shown in Copy-slip at the bottom, which enters into the composition of the letters No. 69, and the letter r itself in a complete form in Copy-slip j, g, and y, in a reversed position.
of the letter e.
LESSONS IN GERMAN.-XVIII. Brunswick to-morrow. 15. The heavens declare the glory
of God. SECTION XXXIII.-PECULIARITIES IN VERBS, ETC.
VOCABULARY. 1. The infinitive of the active voice, in certain phrases, is, espe- Ab'holen, to fetch, call Herum', about, round.: Wie'ternehmen, to take cially after the verb Sein, often employed in a passive significa
Hin'schiden, to send to. again, back. tion as :-: itt zu ebren, he is to be honoured. Er ist zu loben, he Abʻreisen, to depart. Johann, John.
Wilhelm, m. William. is to be proused. 9.15 ihn rufen, let him be called. This use of Abʻschreiben, to copy. Luft, f. desire, wish. Zurüf', back. the infinitive prevails to some extent in English. Thus, we may Clavier’unterricht, m. Mit bringen, to bring. Zurid tommen, tocomo trangiste literally the following examples :-Dieses Haus ist zu ver- instruction on the Mit'gehen, to go with. back. nebez this house is to let. Dieser Knabe ist zu tateln, this boy is piano.
Zurüdt'schiden, to send to biasse.
Gärtner, m. gardener. Spazier'gang, m. walk. back. 2 cze signifies to name, to call;" also, sometimes, “to comsandIn the sense of naming or calling, it is most generally
EXERCISE 62. ad is passire signification, as :- Wie heißen Sie? how are 1. Wo ichidhen Sie Ihren Berienten hin? 2. Er ist franf, er land TuS ind? , what is your name? Ich heiße Rudolph. I am nirgends hingehen. 3. Schreiben Sie diesen Brief ab? 4. Ich habe ihn Gites Rapher, my name is Ralph.
schon abgeschrieben. 5. Glauben Sie, das der Buchbinder mir meine VOCABULARY.
Bücher zurüdsidt? 6. Hat Ihre Schwester die Blumen erhalten, die is
ihr gekauft habe? 7. Der Gärtner kommt morgen und wird sie mitbringen And Spa e percenSeišem, to name (R. Schnell, quick, rapid. (Sect. XXVI. 2). 8. Wann geht Johann in die Schule? 9. Gr geht
morgen tahin, und der Fleine Heinrich geht auch 10. Wo find die Besagt, to contri per fides, to restore, Uebung, f. practice, neuen Tische, welche der Schreiner gemacht hat? 11. Haben Sie den re-establish.
schönen Wagen gesehen, in weldem Herr . seine Frau und seine Kinter SanGiness, 6mmelm. (the) Uebetreten, to per abholte? 12. Wann kommt Ihr Herr Bruder von Paris zurüd? 13. Brunswick bearens, sky. suade.
Er ist schon seit (Sect. LVII.) fünf Tagen zurüc. 14. Haben Sie ut tiral by fat m. James. Ue beriđub, m. over-ust
, einen Spaziergang zu machen ? 15. Nein, ich habe schon einen Jetcits, or 10:16. the- shoe.
Spaziergang um die Stadt gemacht. Frus கர கர. the (Sect. XXX. Ueberzeu'gen, to con641. mer: 1.t 6). vince.
EXERCISE 63. kurirse, n. work of Bermie'then, to let. 1. He was beginning to tell us what he had written, but he Stegmir nie.
Betzei ben, to pardon, was interrupted by the arrival of a stranger. 2. When did izbe, f. pains, toil. excuse.
your sister start for France? 3. She left the day before yesterGuf'p'lugter fei. Cine without. Sollfom'men, perfect. day. 4. Has she taken little Mary with her ? 5. It will be very
: Werthroll, valuable. difficult to make his conduct agree with the principles that he
professes. 6. You, who have forsaken your friends, are entitled RéstMÉ OF EXAMPLES.
to no confidence. 7. Good women are the most charming class Fue buýtt Gemrijen eft nicht zu be. An evil conscience is not to be of society; they comfort us, raise our minds, constitute our ΣΕ: Ingc
happiness, and have no vices but those which we communicate Eur Weichrter ist leichter zu über. A learned man is easier to con- to them. er ger als ein Dummer.
vince, than a stupid (one). ciehest oft met wie eine Waare zu Wisdom is not to be bought
SECTION XXXIV.—PECULIARITIES IN VERBS, ETC.faufer:
(continued). like wares. Close beißt die Königin der The rose is called the queen of
Werten is used as an auxiliary in forming the future of all flowers.
German verbs; and, in this use, is translated by our auxiliary het koude beißt der König ter The lion is called the king of
"shall” or “ will." (§ 70. 6.) the beasts.
1. As an independent verb werden signifies, “to become, to
grow, to get,” etc., as :- :-Er wird alt, he is growing old. Das EXERCISE 60.
Wetter wird falter, the weather is growing colder. Es wirt tunkel, : Indie großen remen Hauser sind alle zu vermiethen. 2. Das eine it is getting dark. Der Rabe wird sehr alt, the raven becomes very me of an emetiem, bet antere zu verkaufen. 3. Es ist nicht zu glau-old (lives or attains to a great age). porr ne ne verigree bat 4. Lueses Buch ist bei Herrn Westermann
2. Werden with the dative often denotes possession, as :- Mir 1.1 Penone, gr baber 5. Sein einziger Stern war am ganzen Him wird immer tas Meinige. I always obtain my own (to me comes
Es ift treiet lange Bort auszusrreshen? 7. Wo fino [becomes] always my own). Meinen armen Unterthanen mus tas Iruta ere sarthe um Ueber duhe zu finden? 8. Die besten, die Ihrige werten, my poor subjects must have their own (property). a lienee knibe for ber meinem alten Nachbar N zu finden9. Das
CONJUGATION OF THE VERB werben, IN THE INDICATIVE. be wala by se tak mochte im Schlosse zu retten war. 10. Nichte todos sent Perhe ju gewonnen 11. Tujer hohe Felsen ist nicht
Participles. 12. I seles alte Haus ist nid)t mehr herzustellen. 13. PRES. Werten, to become. PRES. Wertend, becoming. 9. s ro midt i tommen 14. Gr ist weter zu überzeugen. PERF. Gewer'ten sein, to have PERF, Geworten, become. 15, een Betragen ist gar nicht zu verzeihen. 16.
become. berit she Freuns? 17. Er heißt Jafob. 18. Wie heißt daß auf
PRESENT. car? 19. && bergt eine Erille. 20. Ein Kunstwerf ist desto schöner,
Plural. is somenet e 14, tak best, je mehr Theile es hat, und je mehr alle Id werte, I become;
wir werden, we become. Iscle Ihese guma Zwede beuragent.
Du wirst, thou becomest; ihr werdet, you become.
Er wiro, he becomes ;
fie werden, they become. 1. The pronunciation of foreign words is only to be acquired
IMPERFECT. ting practice. 2. Nothing is to be learned without pains. Ich wurte or wart, I became ; wir wurden, we became. 2 Reddit felicity is not to be found in this world. 4. You Tú wurtest or warrst, thou be. ibr nurret, you became. speak so goek, that you are not to be understood. 5. Health camest; 28 not to be bought with money. 6. The peace of the town was er wurde or wart, he became ; sie wurten, they became. not be ested through severe orders. 7. How do you call
PERFECT. these lowest 8, They are called tulips. 9. The intelligent acola azet be ruined. 10. The difference between to buy Id bin geworten, I have be- wir sint geworten, we have beand to sell must by this time, be known to the scholar. 11. come;
is to be hand of the bookseller C. in London. 12. Tu bist geworten, thou hast be- ihr seid geworden, you have be work of art cannot be made without much toil. come;
come. and the vilat are valued for their perfume, the Er ist genrorden, he has become; sie sind geworden, they have br
come. silyo its colours. 14. James is going to
THE VAULTING HORSE.
6. Wollen Sie dieses Jahr noch nach Amerika auswandern? 7. Ich habe Jú mar geworden, I had become; wir waren geworden, we had be
es vor, aber ich glaube nicht, daß etwis taraus werden wird. 8. Franfreichy wurde im Jahre eintausend achthundert acht und vierzig eine Republik. 9.
10. Ist Ihre neue Grammatit idon Du warst geworden, thou hadst thr waret geworden, you had be- Gott sprach: es werde, und es ward.
becndigt? 11. Noch nicht, aber ich hoffe, daß sie in längstens vierzchn become;
come. Er war geworten, he had be- sie waren geworden, they had be- Tagen fertig werden wird. 12. Was soll aus mir werden? "13. Es wird
ein heißer Tag werden, sprach ein alter Krieger, wenige Stunden vor der
Schlacht, zu seinen Cameraten. 14. Die Sonne sant in das Meer, und es FIRST FUTURE.
ward Nacht. 15. Der Kranke seufzt auf seinem Lager : , will es denn nie 3d werte werden, I shall be. wir werden werden, we shall be- Tag werden?“ und ter Taglöhner unter dem Druce seiner Arbeit: „wird es
denn nicht bald Nacht werden?“ 16. Das Wetter ist schon ziemlich kalt Du wirst werden, thou wilt be- ihr werdet werden, you will be geworten.
EXERCISE 65. Gr wird werden, he will become ; sic werden werden, they will be- 1. The present [Gegenwart] we know, the future [Zukunft] we
know not of, and honour to that man who can quietly await
[ruhig erwarten] the future. 2. Became your sister suddenly ill ? SECOND FUTURE.
3. No, she felt a violent headache eight days previously. 4. Do 35 merte gerborden sein, I shall wir werden geworten sein, we shall you intend to become a learned man? 5. Let us go home before have become; have become.
it gets dark. 6. Most people become ill through neglect [turch Du wirst geworten sein, thou wilt ihr werdet geworden sein, you will Bernachlässigung). 7. Many a one [Mancher] has become quite have become; have become.
another man, after he has received a more careful education. 8. Gr witt geworden sein, he will ste werden geworden sein, they will Most people become slaves of wealth instead of masters of it. have become ; have become.
9. As soon as it becomes spring, the whole of nature revives
again (belebt sich wieder). IMPERATIVE. Bette du, become thou;
werdet ihr, become you. Werte er, let him become; werden sie, let them become.
GYMNASTICS.-VI. 3. Often, when repeated or customary action is implied, the genitive of a noun is made to supply the place of an adverb, The construction we have next to notice among the appliances as :-Dzé Morgens schläft, des Mittagé lieft, und des Abends spielt er, hoof the Gymnasium is that known as sleeps in the morning, reads at noon, and plays in the evening. ($ 101.) 4. Ad (as), after fobalt, so viel, so weit, etc., is frequently
This consists in a figure made of wood, something in the form onitted, but must be supplied in translating, as :-So viel ich of the body of a horse, and the character of which will be seen weiß, so far as I know. So gut ich fann, as well as I can. Sobalt
by our illustration (Fig. 19). It is desirable that the block to femmt, as soon as he comes, etc. For other uses of als, see
which forms the body of the horse should be covered with Sact. LX.
leather and well padded, but this is not indispensable. The VOCABULARY.
legs, which must be very firmly fixed in the ground, should be Finster, dark.
Sinfen, to sink. so contrived as to be capable of elevating or lowering the body Aus' mantern, to emi-i Fühlen, to feel. Sobald', as soon as. of the horse at pleasure, and the pommels also should be grate. Heiß, hot.
Tag'lohner, m. day- movable, so as to be adjusted at the most convenient distances Peentigen, to end, Buffen, to hope.
for the performance of the different exercises. finish.
Quntert, hundred. Tausend, thousand (8 In some gymnasia a more simple kind of construction, named Gametab', m. comrade. Jahr, n. year.
à Vaulting Buck, is employed for the use of learners in the thereout, Krieger, m. warrior. Vermoʻgen, to be able. preliminary exercises among the Vaulting Horse series. The therefrom.
tager, n. couch. Vor‘haben, to intend. buck is a solid block, in form an oblong square, and supported Långstens, at the Werden, to become, either on four legs, or on one stout one, so fixed in the centre longest.
etc. (R. 1). that the body of the buck revolves upon it. But as the first Meer, n, sea. Ziel, n. limit, goal, few of the exercises we have now to mention closely resemble Gebli den, to descry, Plößlich, suddenly.
those which are performed on the vaulting buck, we need not Schlacht, f. battle. Ziemlich, tolerably. here make more than a passing allusion to the latter. botnar ten, to await. Republif', f. republic. Zuvor', previously.
The body of the vaulting horse is divided into three portions, onnig, ready. Seufzen, to sigh. Zu!fünftig, future. the neck, the saddle, and the croup.
The saddle is, of course,
the space between the two pommels; the neck, the narrower RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.
portion in advance of the pommels; and the croup, behind Sekalt ez das hörte, stand er auf. As soon (as) he heard that, he them. Near side is the side on your left hand, looking towards
stood up (got up).
the neck from behind ; and off side, the side on your right. ce siel ich weiß, ist er ein chrlicher As much (as) I know (so far as 1. The first position for the learner to practise is the rest (Fig.
I know), he is an honourable 20). You vault into this position from the ground, either with
or without a run. Placing the hands on the pommels of the Schatt' tie Nachricht von dem Ver. As soon as the report of the horse you spring lightly up, until the thighs rest on the body of
Ta'the Görgey's cintraf, sank der treachery of Görgey arrived, the horse, as in the illustration. Then descend to the ground, Murh ter Ungarn.
the courage of the Hunga- and, without leaving your hold of the pommels, spring up again rians sank.
and again several times in succession. Sebalt die Sonne un'tergeht, wird As soon as the sun goes down, 2. Still in the position of the rest, practise the free movement Nacht.
it (becomes) is night. of the legs, first one and then the other, sideways as far as you Was ist aus ihm gewor'den ?
What has become of him? can extend them. Afterwards move both together in the same Tu Stunten werten zu Tagen, die The hours (become) grow to way. The object of this exercise is to prepare the learner to
Tage zu Wochen, die Wochen zu days, the days to weeks, the mount the horse in a free and easy manner.
Go into the rest on the near side, then throw the right leg
upward, and let it pass over the croup; remove the right hand EXERCISE 64.
at the same time, and place it either upon the saddle or upon 1. Bit Werten alt und älter. und find eher am Ziele, als uns angenehm. the front pommel, when you can come down easily astride the it . 2. G: wart jo finster, raß wir unsere Hånte
nicht vor den Augen zu horse. This position is said to be crossways to the horse, and ctbfuten vermochten. 3. um fünf Uhr wird es tunkel. 4. Steben Sie you are sideways when in the rest. les Mergent früh auf? 5. Sobald es Tag wird, verlasse ich mein Lager. 4. For the croup mount, you raise both legs upward from
ange, n. eye.
Irud, . pressure.
mitted ( 25).
rest, and, opening them when they are above the croup, you course, grasping the pommel; but here, again, it is necessary come lightly down into the seat.
to have one or two persons by to assist you in case of a 5. In the neck mount, you start as with the saddle mount, but | alip. throw the right leg over both croup and saddle, removing both 11. The balancing movement will assist you in changing “hands as the leg passes.
readily from one seat to another. Thus, from the croup seat 6. In dismounting from the saddle seat, the right hand rests you raise the body as in Fig. 21, the legs being close together
upon the pommel in front you then throw the legs downward and forward along the side 1 of you, and the left is placed of the horse, and, when level with the saddle seat, pass one leg
upon the saddle; you then over; then removing the hands to the front pommel, the change
the position of the rest, and swing them forward
but on the off-side of the as before, but as you
horse, and you then spring pass one leg over the lightly to the ground. In dismounting from the croup, you neck you face about, and throw up both legs backwards, and come to the ground on the come into the seat with off-side, without an intermediate position. From the neck you the forward pommel in dismount as from the saddle, by swinging the left leg back front of you. These wards, or you may occasionally descend to the ground by the exercises may be done direct leap forward.
on both the near and There are various other ways of mounting and dismounting, off sides of the horse more or less fantastic in their nature, but it would require too in turn. mach space, and serve no practical purpose, to describe them 13. Sit on one side of
Fig. 21. here.
the croup, and grasp one 7. In descending from the horse, both in the exercises just pommel in each hand, then raise the body and pass it comdescribed and in the more advanced of the series, the backward pletely over and round the horse until you reach the neck suring off may be performed with advantage, as follows:- When seat, and descend into it, facing about as before. In this the position of the rest is reached, grasp the pommels firmly, exercise the body describes a complete semicircle, the weight throw up the legs backwards, and, at the same moment, push- resting upon the hands. ing off lightly with the hands, you descend to the ground some 14. There are various ways of vaulting over the horse, one of distance from the horse. In descending in this manner, you which is shown in Fig. 22. Grasp both pommels before taking may also either turn to the right or to the left before coming to the spring, but relinquish the hold of one hand as the body the ground, or completely round, so that the back is towards the passes over. A run of a few paces will give an additional horse when the feet touch the earth.
impetus for the spring, but the movement should also be prac#. Balancing upon the horse is performed in a variety of tised from the standing position. WAYA, but in these exercises the legs must not touch the horse. 15. Vault straight over the horse, after a short run, by placing One form of balancing is shown in Fig. 21. In executing this the hands upon the pommels and springing upward, the legs balance you start from the croup seat, and throw your legs passing between the arms, and the knees being raised towards aliually behind you, leaning well forward upon the hands at the chest as you pass over. This exercise may afterwards be The same time, the weight of the body resting upon them. In done with the knees lowered and the legs bent straight behind this wng you raise the legs to the position shown in the illus- in taking the jump, which will give variety to the movement. fuum, ani, as you booome more expert and confident, you may But these vaults should be practised only by an expert moeite the upward movement until you stand upon the hands. gymnast. Hul when ittempting to perform this feat, it is necessary that Other vaults are taught in our gymnasia, some of a much vina na swald be close by the gymnast to render assistance more difficult and daring character. Among these may be menmn ma il ia taquifedi,
tioned the leap over the horse without touching it with any part Tine ama kind of movement may be performed from the of the person, technically known as the free leap. It is usual ********v minuly demeribed as the rest (Fig. 20), but in this case to prepare for this exercise by vaulting from the ground on to de la on, misal na the moment of starting, may be kept entirely the saddle, resting one foot thereupon; and after the gymnast can . Bowers confit the h«46 eping both pommels firmly, gradually accomplish this, he is allowed to attempt the free leap. Thera
Faled the legs from the ground until the is a still more hazard.
emulation of our readers. In the gymnasia in which they mas amanu laian ihn nadele soat, grasp the forward pommel, occasionally be seen, only advanced gymnasts are allowed to
vaja ng the longue just clear of the horse, raise the attempt them, nor is even the expert performer left without the 4 w brama aluwal a atraight line with the head, the legs aid of one or more attendants, who stand by in readiness to
afetohi Nirmwards on either side. After you can give any assistance that may be required. Even in the simpler with anon, done they bring the head downward until it performances upon the horse caution is requisite, as in many in the morniniand slund on your head, the hands, of other gymnastic exercises.