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Lower Oxides of Nitrogen

Head and forepart of Tænia
the Passion-flower Tribe 56 and Compounds of this

Solium-Joint of same,
Cyclopean or Pelasgic
XXIX. Cucurbitaces, or

Gas with Hydrogen . 289 near tail end-Head of
Architecture - Early

the Cucumber Tribe . 87 Carbon and its Oxides . 335 Larva of Tania Solium
Monuments - First Re-
Hydro-carbons, Coal-gas,

-Distoma Conjunctum-
gular Constructions -
the Nightshade Tribe 88, 120 Flame, etc.. .

Liver Fluke — Oxyuris
Pyramids, etc. . . XXXII., XXXIII. Legu. Compounds of Carbon with

Vermicularis . . . 241
Progress of Architecture in
minose, or the Legumi.

Nitrogen and Sulphur-

Nereis-Transverse Section
Egypt and India-The

nous Tribe . . 121, 152 The Halogens-Chlorine 399 of Eunice-Proboscis of

. .
XXXIV. Boraginacee, or

a nearly allied species--
the Borage Tribe .
Ancient Architecture of


Leech - Circulation in
XXXV. Labiatæ, or the

Persia-Greek Architec.

41 Leech-Section of Earth.
ture-The Parthenon-

Lip-flower Tribe. .177 COMPARATIVE ANATOMY: worn Transverse See-
Doric Order of Architec-
XXXVI. Scrophulariacea,

tion of Ditto-Circula-

Introduction - Terms em.
ture . . . . 129 or the Foxglove Tribe · 177

ployed in Classification . 17 |

. tion in Lob-worm. . 279
The Greek Orders of ar: 18

Scolopendra Morsitans --

Divisions of the Animal
. . 193
XXXIX. Compositæ, or

Glomeris Julus-Antenna

Kingdom - Vertebrata-
Roman Orders of Archi.
Compound flowered
Mollusca - Molluscoida

and Eyes of Ditto-Under
tecture-Tuscan Order
plants. . 178, 209, 247

side of double segment

- Annulosa - Annuloida
Composite Order . .257 XL. Valerianaceae, or Vale-

of Ditto-Notomata Cen.

--Calenterata-Protozoa 81 |
Explanation of some of the
rian-worts .

trura-Scheme showing

Subdivisions of the Animal
Terms used in Architec-
XLI. Caprifoliaceæ, or

nature of Rotary Illusion 313

Kingdom-Table of Sub-
ture . .
Caprifoils . . . 249

Privet Hawk Moth-Cater-

divisions of Classes-Pro.
Architraves, Arches, and
XLII. Rubiaceæ, or Galia-

pillar : Pupa, Imago -

tozoa . . . . 1:3
Vaulted Roofs .383 cewe . .

Common Wasp: Larva,
Coelenterata-Hydrozoa . 145
XLIII., XLIV. Cinchona:

Pupa, Imago-Under side

Actinozoa (Rayed Animals) 183
. . . 273, 305
Echinodermata (Hedgehog.

of Head of Bed-bug -
Redaction . . . 7
XLV. Convolvulacew

Beetle with Dorsal In.

skinned Animals). . 215
Compound Addition
XLVI, Polemoniaceæ, or

Helminthozoa .


teguments removed to
Compound Sabtraction . 78 Phlox-worts . . .

show Viscera---Bee, Para-

Annelida: Ringed Worms. 279
Compound Multiplication. 78 XLVII. Hydrophyllaceæ .


sitical Insect, seen by

Compound Division. .
XLVIII. Gesneracem, or

Transmitted Light, and

Insecta . . . . 337
Fractions in connection
Gesner-worts. . . 345

highly magnified to show
with Compound Quan-
XLIX. Bignonaceæ,


Tracheal System . . 337
tities . . .

Sketch of Haddock, show.

Practice . . . . L. Pedaliaces, or Pedaliads 375 ing its external form, and DRAWING, LESSONS IN:
Decimals in connection
LI. Acanthacew, or Acan-

also the arrangement of

On Light and Shade in
with Compound Quanti-
thads . . . . 375 its internal organs -

Trees-Massing in the
ties-Reduction of Deci. LII. Selaginaceæ, or Sela-

Transverse section of

Foliage, etc. , 7, 39
mals .
gids .

Haddock - Sketch of

Foregrounds-High Lights
Short Methods of Reduc-
LIII. Utriculariæ
Lobster - Transverse

-Setting Drawings, etc. 72
tion with reference to
LIV. Plantaginaceæ,

Section of Lobster

Treatment of Trees and
Money, .

Ribworts .
Amoeba-Shell of Polycys-

Foliage. : :
Rule of Three, Single and LV. Plumbaginaceæ, or

tina-Sectional Diagram


Treatment of Reflections in
Double . . 294, 326
Leadworts ..
showing circulation in a

Water . . . . 135
Per-centage - Profit and LVI. Primulacem,

Sponge--Group of Vorti.

The Human Figure. 199,
Primeworts, .

cellæ-Noctiluca Miliaris 113
Simple Interest , 402 LVII. Ebenaceæ, or

Eudendriun Ramosum


Hydrozoon encrusting a

LVIII. Aquifoliacew, or

Shell-Rhopalonema Ve-

Figs. 100-110. Studies of
Introduction .
. . 20 Hollyworts . . . 402

latum, the Veiled Club-

Trees and Foliage, and
Principles of Double Entry
LIX. Oleacee, or Olive.

tentacled Medusa--Per-

Plants in Foreground .8, 9,
Principal Rules for finding
worts . . . . 402
pendicular Section of Sea

40, 41, 72, 73, 104
the Debtor and Creditor 154

Anemone - Transverse

Fig. 111. Application of
Explanation of the Waste

Section of Sea Anemone

Vegetable Form to De.
Book, Cash Book, Bill
Introduction --- Attraction


signing . . . 105
Book, Day Book, etc.
of Gravity-Force of Co.

verse Section of Pleuro-

Figs. 112-118. Treatment of
Porms of Drafts, Promis-
hesion-Force of Affinity

brachia . . . . 145 Reflections in Water 136, 137
sory Notes, and Foreign
Elementary Substances-
Caryophyllia Smithii-Dry

Fig. 119. The Human Ske.
Bills of Exchange .
Cornl of Caryophyllin

. 218

. . . . 20)
The Day Book, Journal, etc. 276 -Acid - Alkali - Base-

Smithii - Diagrammatic

Figs. 120-121. The Facial
Property Accounts-Per-
Chemical Nomenclature 36 Section, showing how

Angle in Men and Animals 201
sonal Accounts-Profit
Measures of Length, Capa-

Red Coral is secreted-

Figs. 122–127. Arms, Legs,
and Loss Accounts . 318 city, and Weight-Ther-

Cestum Veneris-One of

Hands, and Feet. 264, 265
the Polypes of Alcyonaria 184
mometry - To make a

Fig. 128. Head of Judas,
Mercurial Thermometer 76 An Atoll-Fringing Reefs

after Holbein. . . 323
XXV. Umbelliferae, or Chemical Apparatus -

- Formation of Atoll . 185 Figs. 129–138. The Human
ApiaceseThe Umbelli.

Tubing -- Blowpipes -
Plates and Holes on Echi-

Face . . 329, 392, 393
ferous or Parsley Tribe. 24
Flasks, etc. . .

nus Shell - Ambulacral

DXVI. Myrtaceae, or the
Oxygen .

Plates-Echinus divided
Myrtle Tribe . . 25 Hydrogen -- Diffusion of

to show Alimentary Canal

Derivation: Prefixes . . 15
XXVIL Cruciferæ, or Bras.
Gases, etc. etc. . .

-Spine-Jaws and Teeth

Sufixes . 38, 70, 110, 134, 166
sicaceae - The Cruciferous

-Side View of Single Uncombined Suffixes . . 206
(Cross-bearing) or Cab-
Peroxide of Hydrogen i

Jaw-Tooth-Inside of

Words that are both Pre-
bage Tribe . . . 56 Nitrogen, Air, etc. . .271 Purple-tipped Sea-Urchin 217 fixes and Suffixes




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pieces of the metal from the rest; that is, I have applied a force ITRACTION OF GRAVITY-FORCE OF

which has overcome the power of cohesion, and therefore certain ->N-FORCE OF AFFINITY.

particles have been wrenched from their neighbours. Now I

may collect the "filings,” and submit them to the greatest ay is to ascertain the nature and proper pressure I can exert, but I cannot bring them back into their of which our world is composed. Of late solid state; no pressure which we at present possess seems to

the chemist has penetrated beyond the be capable of bringing the particles sufficiently near to each
d of the “spectrum analysis," of which in other to allow the force of cohesion to come into play.
treat, a new chapter has been added to But although particles of bodies are bound thus closely
ar Chemistry," which gives some insight together, yet in no body do they seem to be in actual contact,
of the great centre of our solar system, for all solids are porous. Two hundred years ago this was

t stars. In pursuing his investigations, proved in the case of gold by the “Florentine Experiment;" and
"he bodies under his consideration to expe- if gold, which is almost the densest of metals, can be shown to

upon them with various forces—heat, be porous, we may well believe it of the rest. The “ Florentine yg them within the action of re-agents, Experiment” is so celebrated that it demands recital. The tr in all circumstances, and never predicts question was raised concerning the compressibility of water, and

os all by experiment; hence chemistry is it was determined to try the experiment in the following - ( science.

manner :-A hollow sphere of gold was filled with that liquid; e to do with bodies, let us in this lesson and seeing that a sphere is that solid which possesses the maxi

which act upon “substance," and which mum capacity, any alteration in its shape would therefore lessen hemist in his research.

the quantity of water it could contain. The gold globe was That which has weight" is, perhaps, the accordingly slightly flattened, and the water oozed through the definition. Gases, although they are so gold, appearing as dew on the outside. The Florentines, there. # anything solid, are yet bodies ; they have fore, declared that water was not compressible--a conclusion

of air on every square inch is 14:67 lbs., and they had no right to draw unless they could have collected the en becomes wind, which sways the trees, carries dew, and found that it exactly filled the space by which the

st, or in the hurricane devastates a country, pressure had diminished the capacity of the hollow sphere.
do if the air were imponderable. There Water has been proved to be slightly compressible, and the
ices present in the world which have no only use of the Florentine Experiment is to assert that gold is
ich produces the phenomenon of heat; elec porous.
waves cause the sensation of light, and the This truth, that the particles of bodies, in spite of the great
traction—these, not being “bodies," do not force of cohesion, are not in actual contact, may be inferred
the range of Chemistry: they rather belong from the fact, that all bodies contract when cooled, which they
physicist; but it will be necessary to speak could not do if their particles were already in contact. Thus it
take such a prominent part in the decom. would appear that the particles or molecules of bodies are under
ation of bodies.

two forces-one attracting, the other repelling them; and that action, by which the particles of bodies are the state of the substance, whether it be solid, liquid, or gaseous,

the attraction of gravity, the attraction of will depend upon the ratio which these two forces bear to each sion of adhesion, and the force of affinity. other. In the solid state the molecular attraction, or cohesion, gravity is that mysterious power by which is by far the stronger. In the liquid condition the repelling ced to each other the suns and worlds which power almost balances the attractive; in a gas it entirely superhe has ordained that all matter should exert sedes it, and the atoms are solely under the influence of “ molei on all bodies in its neighbourhood. This cular repulsion.” When the temperature of a body is raised, he mass of the bodies and their distances this molecular repulsion is always increased, each atom being

a stone be dropped over the edge of a perpen- repelled from its neighbour. The body expands, and at last the - 3 sea beneath, it will strike the rock before it I cohesion is so nearly overcome that the solid becomes a liquid. because the cliff attracts the stone and draws | If the temperature still increase, the atoms are still further

however, the stone be carried away from the repelled, until they cease to have any attraction for each other, • force decreases. The power which made the and the body becomes a gas. The molecular repulsion is so avity," that is, the attraction which the earth closely allied to caloric, the one is so intimately dependent upon ; the force of that attraction we call its the other, that they have been thought to be the same thing.

this force decreases with the distance the | That the physical condition of a body entirely depends upon r e the earth, is proved by the fact that the heat may be shown in almost all bodies. Ice becomes, when less on the top of a high mountain than in heated, water-then steam. Put a small piece of zinc in the Of course, to test this fact a spring balance | flame of a blow-pipe : it first becomes red-hot, then melts, and

finally goes away in vapour, which burns with a bright white sion, which has more claim upon our attention, flame, into the oxide of zinc. There is the strongest evidence pol ity" chiefly in this, that “gravity" acts upon that all bodies are capable of assuming these three states. . In c e, whereas the force of cohesion only begins Solids may be gases under certain circumstances; and gases, by the particles of matter are brought into the sufficiently reducing their temperatures, may become, first liquids,

then solids. In future lessons we shall find many examples of reais force that bodies possess solidity, and it this interesting fact. 1 liquids “cohesion" was very weak, and had no Adhesion is a force which binds two bodies together by means

of some adhesive substance, such as gum, glue, etc. stores, of iron, the teeth of the file separate small The force of affinity. This is eminently a chemical force.

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VII. Id:of Verbs Uses of



PAGE The Greek Element-Greek

Europe . . 268, 299, 323 KEY TO EXERCISES IN LES Regular Verbs—The Second Stems. 252, 358, 394, 409 Construction of Projection | SONS IN GERMAN :

Conjugation . . . 403 Conversations on English

of Map of Europe. 355, 388 | Exs. 4-9. 27 Exs. 27—33 . 222 *.* The Key to the Exercises given Grammar . 134, 302, 331 Table of Latitudes and

„ 10 . . 63 . 3437. 247 in any Lesson in Latin will be Longitudes of Places

,, 11–16. 95 ,, 38–41 , 283 found at the end of the next ESSAYS ON LIFE AND DUTY: in Europe . . . 389 , 17—20 . 119, 42, 43, 315 Lesson or the next Lesson but MAPS :

, 21-23. 156 , 44—52 . 372 one. Charity

Map of the World. Patience.

. 144 1, 2426 . 180 , 53—59 . 408


Atlantic Ocean

The Pulley

Pacific Ocean


Principle of Virtual Velo Fidelity .

Europe .
Introduction - The Greek

cities - The Three SysPerseverance Norway, Sweden, and Den

Alphabet. .

tems of Pulleys . . 69 Economy.

mark .

Vowels --Consonants-

Compound Pulleys . . 61

. 36

The Inclined Plane--The

Punctuation, etc. . FRENCH, LESSONS IN:


. 301
Gencral Remarks on the

Wedge-The Screw . 68
Central Europe
XLVIII. Unipersonal Verbs 10

Statical Forces-Friction . 107

Noun, the Adjective, and
Projection of Map of Europe 356
XLIX. Regimen relating to

the Prepositions - The

Illustrations of preceding some Verbs. .

Definite Article . .

Principles - Kite, Boat,


Case-endings of the Declen.

etc.-Elements of MaTIVE: LI. The Past Definite o

sions . .


chinery . . . . 1 Irregular Verbs . . Introduction - Definitions

Prime Movers - Animal The First Declension. 98, 130

--Proportional Scales. 161 LII., LIII, The Imperfect

The Second Declension 162, 195 Force, Water, Wind, Methods of Construction

The Third Declension Tonse.

195, 229, Steam . .

170 Station Point, etc.-Pro. LIV. The Past Anterior

258, 291, 322, 354, 390

Dynamics Definitions and the Pluperfect Tenses 106 blem I. . . . 225 The Second Declension Con

The Three Laws of LV. Idiomatic Construc. Orthographic and Isome.

Motion. tracted . . . 390

Proof of Third Law tions in Regimen. tric Projection - Pro

of .

** The Key to the Exercises given LVI. Idiomatic Uses of blems II.-VI. . 295

Motion-Laws of Falling

in any Lesson in Greek will be Tenses of Verbs . 107 Problems VII.-XI.

Bodies — Atwood's Me found at the end of the next

chine . . LVII. Idiomatic Phrases . 1

. . 200

Lesson. LVIII. Rules for the Plu. GEOMETRY, LESSONS IN:

Laws of Falling Bodies

Projectiles-Collision or ral of Compound Nouns 133 The Circle and its Proper LIX. The Two Futures,


Impact . . . . 292 ties . . .

23 Simple and Anterior : 172 Problems in Practical Geo

Impact-Centrifugal Force

How England and Scotland LX. Irregularities of the

-The Pendulum-Centre metry on the Circle 49,92, 123 became one. . 22, 58 Future

of Oscillation. How Ireland became part

. .

. 333 Regular Polygons LXI, The Two Conditionals 173 Problems in Practical Geo

of Great Britain . 85, 125 MUSIC, LESSONS IN: LXII., LXIII. Idiomatic

metry on Construction of
How England became pos-

Mental Effect of Notes . 51
Phrases . . 174, 202
Regular Polygons 148, 191, 211 sessed of India . . 157

Character and Effect of LXIV. Idioms: Faire used Conic Sections-The Ellipse 251 The Dagger Scene in the

Leading Notes . 115 Reflectively and Uniper. The Oval-Parabola . 284, 307

House of Commons .

Mental Effect-Consonance sonally. . The Hyperbola, Cycloid, Origin of the United States 219

of Notes, etc. . . . 183 LXV. Idioms relatir

Spiral, etc. . . . 308
Charles Edward Stuart and

Measurement of Intervals Avoir, etc. .

the Rebellion of 1745

-The Glass Harmonicon LXVI. Idioms relating to

The Massacre of Glencoe.
Avoir and Epouser

-German Concertina . 263 Wilkes and Liberty. .

Relation of Notes, etc. 316, 379 LXVII. Idioms relating to XLV. Peculiar Idioms 26 The Right Noble and VaDimension, Weight, etc. 266 XLVI. Verbs governing the

lorous Sir Walter Raleigh 341 OUR HOLIDAY: LXVIII. Idioms relating

Genitive . . . Admiral Byng on the 14th Gymnastics. to Mettre, etc. XLVII. Adjectives re

of March, 1757

The Hanging Rope LXIX. The Imperative . 297 quiring the Genitive .

Summary of Sketches in

The Giant's Stride. . LXX. The Imperative and XLVIII. Adjectives re

Vols. I, and II. , . 405 The Hanging Bar or Trethe Infinitive Idioms 298 quiring the Dative .

peze . . . . LXXI. The Subjunctive. XLIX. Verbs requiring the HYDROSTATICS :

The Hanging Stirrups , 411 LXXII., LXXIII. The Use Dative. .

The Hanging Rings . 412 of the Subjunctive 330, 364 L. Verbs requiring an Ac

Objects of the Science

Swimming .

. . 159, 223 LXXIV. The Imperfect

cusative of a Person and

Principle of Equality of

Croquet . and Pluperfect of the a Genitive of a Thing .

Pressure - Hydrostatic

Laws of Croquet . . 32 Subjunctive . . . LI. Verbs requiring the

Press . .

. 366

. 365 LXXV., LXXVI. Regimen,

Dative or Accusative . 117 Pressure of Liquids arising PENMANSHIP, LESSONS IN: or Government of Verbs 383 LII. Verbs requiring two

from their weight

Official Handwriting .33, 64, 128 Accusatives, and those

Centre of Pressure

Business Handwriting KEY TO EXERCISES IN LES. governing the Accusative

Levels-Springs and Ar.

Legal Handwriting. SONS IN FRENCH: with the Dative ... 118

tesian Wells . . . 396 Germau Handwriting. LIII. Prepositions re

Greek Handwriting. . 383 Exs. 1–3 . 11 Exs.29–35 . 233

quiring the Genitive 119

„, 36-41 .237

Prepositions re-

Adverbs . , 10-15. 75 , 42-49.233 quiring the Dative 155 Personal Pronouns.

Analysis of the Voice : , 16, 17 .. „ 50-53 . 331 LV. Prepositions requiring Possessive or Adjective

Exercises on Inflections 20, 50 » 18-20 ,, 54–56.333

the Accusative .
Pronouns .

Just Stress , , , 91 21-25.

9. 57—60 ,337
LVI. Prepositions re-
Demonstrative Pronouns.

Expressive Tones, Rules » 26–28. 203 quiring the Dative or Relative and Interrogative

on . . 126, 147, 186 Accusative . . . Pronouns . .

Appropriate Modulation 18 GEOGRAPHY, LESSONS IN:

LVII. Examples illustra-
Indefinite Pronouns.

Promiscuous Exercises . 18, Astronomical Principles of

ting the various uses of
Correlative Pronouns

214, 250, 278, 306, 346, 378 Geography. 4, 41, 79 Prepositions

The Numerals.

RECREATIVE NATURAL HISThe Great Circles of the LVIII., LIX., LX. PecuPrepositions .

TORY: Earth-The Meridian-liar Idioms. 180, 222, 246 The Latin Verb.

The Butterfly The Equator . 102 LXI. Regimen of Nume. Paradigm of the Verb Sum

The Frog. Latitude and Longitude rals, etc. . . . 246 --Compounds of Sum 210

English Snakes. First Meridian, etc. . 143 LXII. -- LXX, Various

The Latin Verb: its several

The Swallow
Construction of the M
Idioms 282, 283, 314, 315, 340, Terminations , 250, 274

The Spider · 303, 353 of the World . 164

371, 407 Regular Verbs- The First Natural Divisions of the LXXI. Passive Verbs in

Conjugation. . 310, 350 WHITWORTH SCHOLAREarth's Surface · 196, 231 the Indicative

Ou Parsing


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The Giantinope



. 178


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