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TABLE OF PRINCIPAL EUROPEAN LAKES.
William. Yes, and I someway had got it into my head that Areas in Eleva. Greatest
by dropping the s I should put all right.
Countries, quare tions in Depthsin Thomas. I have known others make a similar mistake. But
come, I will endeavour to give you such instructions and explana
tions as shall make the case clear to you. Only observe that you Ladoga
must watch and suspect yourself, and you must never cease your Onega
self-questioning until you have rigidly applied and know that Ilmen
you habitually apply in practice that which you learn in study. Russia
For your comfort I may tell you that I know many persons who
once spoke as ungrammatically as you do, nay, as you did, and Wever
who now both speak and write our language with neatness as well Wetter
840 295 432 as strict accuracy. Let us begin. You know what a noun is ? Mälar . . .
William. Yes, a noun is a name.
Thomas. Exactly: the noun may be called the namer, for it Neuchâtel . Switzerland 90 1,437 426
is the part of speech which gives names to things, to all objects Lucerne
and realities, whether they are audible or visible, whether they Zurich
Switzerland 30 1,342 600
are thoughts or feelings, whether in the outer world or in the
964 Flatten Sea, or Lake Balaton Hungary
mind. Every real object, and some that are unreal; everything Maggiore
1,800 known, conceived of, felt, or beheld, is called a noun; for every. Como.
684 600 thing must, for grammatical purposes, have a name. If an idea Garda
or a material object has no name, it has, as far as grammar ig
concerned, no existence. You know, also, what a pronoun is? We append a summary of the principal islands, capes, moun. | William. Yes, a pronoun is a for-name, a word that stands tains, and rivers of Europe. In the summary of the rivers, the in the place, or performs the work of a noun; thus, instead of ocean or sea into which each river flows is named.
saying "he like reading " SUMMARY OF PRINCIPAL ISLANDS. ) SUMMARY OF PRINCIPAL CAPES.
Thomas. No, go no farther, please to correct yourself.
William. Thank you, I am glad you stopped me. Aland, Baltic
Finisterre, W. of Spain.
Thomas. Learn to stop yourself when wrong.
William. I will try.
Thomas. Ay, that's the word; as the children in the infant
school sing, “ Try, try, try again.” Now proceed. Fünen, W. of Zealand. Ortegal, Spain.
William. Well, then, instead of saying "he likes reading," I Gothland, Baltic.
St. Vincent, S. of Portugal. might have said “Thomas likes reading."
Thomas. Precisely; then, you see, Thomas is the noun, and
he the pronoun. So far, well. You know, also, what a “person" Malta, S. of Sicily.
SUMMARY OF PRINCIPAL MOUNTAINS. Negropont, Archipelago.
means ? Nova Zembla, Arctic Ocean. Alps, N. of Italy.
William. Yes, I am a person.
Thomas. Well, that is pretty near the mark. Are there any
other persons besides you in the world? Spitzbergen, Arctic Ocean. Dovrefield, Norway.
William. Yes, certainly : you for instance, and father and The Azores, N. Atlantic. Etna (volcano), Sicily.
mother. The Balearic Isles, E. of Spain. Pyrenees, France.
Thomas. Very good ; now when you speak of yourself you say The Ionian Isles, W. of Greece. Ural, Russia.
Vesuvius (volcano), Naples. Zealand, Cattegat.
I, do you not ?
Thomas. And when you speak to me, you say you ?
Thomas. And when you speak of your father and mother you Dniester, Black Sea.
Petchora, Arctic Ocean.
say they? Don, Black Sea. Po, Mediterranean Sen.
William. I do.
Rhine, North Sea.
Thomas. Well, then, you see there are three ways of speaking
of persons, as for instance, I, you, they.
William. Exactly so.
Thomas. Now, of these, which think you is "number one ?" Gotha, Baltic Sea.
Thames (Brit. Isles), North Sea. William. Well, I hope I am not selfish.
Thomas. I mean no imputation; I dare say you are no more Loire, Atlantic Ocean.
Vistula, Baltic Sea.
selfish than other people; however, is not "the great I" in all Meuse, North Sea.
Volga, Caspian Sea,
cases "number one ?”
Weser, North Sea. Nova, Baltic Sea.
At any rate, we may, in grammar, call
William. I suppose I must not object.
Thomas. Let us then call you the second person. Next to to CONVERSATIONS ON ENGLISH GRAMMAR.-II.
stands three, and, consequently, he and they may be termed the
third person. Mark, I represent the speaker, you the person William. Mr. Mather laughed at me, to-day, when, in con.
spoken to, he the person spoken of. Do you understand ? Here versation with him, I said “he like reading."
you have the same facts set forth in instances : Thomas. Who is Mr. Mather? William. The new secretary of the Mechanics' Institation.
THE THREE PERSONS. Thomas. An unfit man for his office, I shonld judge, if he is
1. I love. 2. You love. 3. They love. accustomed to laugh at the mistakes of the members.
Here I is the first person, you the second, they the third. William. Well, however that may be, I really fancy I shall William. Thank you; so far all is plain. never be able to speak correct English, for I suppose “he like Thomas. Observe, then, that as there are (you know) two reading " is wrong.
numbers, the singular and the plural, 89 each number has Thomas. Certainly, it is not good English.
pronouns of its own. Here they are in full, the figures William. And yet I have tried to correct what you term the denoting the persons. errors of my bringing-up; and now, alas! I am as far off as ever.
PERSONAL PRONOUXS, SINGULAR AND PLURAL. Thomas. No, by no means as far off as ever, if only because
Plural you are trying to get right; earnest effort never wholly fails;
1. I love.
We leve. you are a little too impatient. Why, one thing you have over.
2. Thou lovest.
You love. come; you used to say "I speaks," and “they speaks.”
3. He loves.
William. What do you mean by personal pronouns ?” | Divers. The more usual arrangement now is according to the
Thomas. Pronouns that indicate or relate to persons. They number of eyes, one genus having but two, others six, and the are called personal to distinguish them from other pronouns; but greater number eight. with those other pronouns do not trouble your head just now. Where do spiders live ? Some in little cells, formed of the Turn back to the form. In that form you see the model of good most delicate tissues; some in holes in the earth, or in wall English, or the pattern which you are to imitate. Mark, then, crevices; many in our wine-cellars; a few in our libraries; hosts that he, the third person, is the only person that has its verb high in the air, or in tubes suspended from leaves; and not a ending in s. It was, then, rather curious that you should have small number in the water. The webs of the geometrical spider struck off the s there, instead of dropping it in the first person may be studied in almost every garden. Look at its work. See singular, and in all the persons of the plural. In Hampshire, how beautifully the main threads radiate from the centre, and with they are so fond of the s, that they put it to all persons, except what peculiar art the circular lines are secured to the radiating the second person singular; or if they make an exception, they tissue. The repairs of this net demand incessant attention. do so where of all places they ought not, namely, in the third Once a day the whole is examined, and the torn or loosened person singular. However, study what I have said-study and threads adjusted. Look closely at a net of the diadem imitate the example I have given. One word more. I have (Epeira diadema) garden spider. You will recognise the creaused and not explained the word verb.
ture by the gem-like whitish markings on the body, and the William. Oh, you need not explain that; the verb, I know, is dark bands and spines on the legs. Those threads which form the doer, the verb represents action; for instance, love is a verb. the spirals are more glutinous than the fine but stronger Thomas. Yes; give me some others.
lines radiating from the centre, where the diadem takes his William. Well, write is a verb, so is strike, and think, and sentinel-post. Take a magnifying-glass, and a multitude of ren, and stop, and shout.
fine globules may be traced along the spiral threads. These Thomas. Enough, enough. Now study and strive to apply constitute a series of fastenings by which the circular lines are these instructions.
gummed firmly to the radiating threads. The number of these William. Cannot you give me some instances to correct? globules, or web-ties, is surprising, a single net of the “diadem”
Thomas. I do not think the proper way to teach you good spider having been found to contain above 87,000. The net of English is to put before you instances of bad English; as, how. the Epeira apoclisa, a species allied to the garden diadem ever, you are accustomed to these blunders, you can hardly be spider, usually consists of twenty-six radiating lines, and misled by them; probably you may, in many instances of bad twenty-four rows of spirals. A large web of this kind has English, recognise some old friends, from whose company I been calculated to contain 120,000 viscid globules. Besides the advise you to separate yourself now and for ever. Here, how radiating and spiral threads, the observer will not fail to notice ever, are some examples of first bad, and secondly good English; the main lines which extend beyond the geometrical work, correct the former, and parse the latter.
and support the whole. These main threads are fastened at William. Parse, what is that?
each end to leaves or twigs, and the radiating lines are then Thomas. Give the person and number of each instance. firmly secured to these supports. If one of these important Bad English to be corrected and avoided.
lines be suddenly broken, the beautiful geometrical structure I gives: they gives; you gives; thou gives; he give; we gives : | will collapse and become a roun. they runs ; he run; William cough; William and Mary coughs; why
The whole of such a net, with all its elaborate tracery of does they laugh? They does not laugh; I does very well; they does radiating and parallel lines, with its thousands upon thousands hedly; Henry ride well; do Henry ride well? Sarah sing sweetly; of points, is sometimes produced in about forty minutes. A the Sunday scholars goes to church; the curate read (present) the web over a cannon's mouth, or across the opening in the poorlessons impressively? do the clerk pronounce distinctly? you eats like box, is therefore no proof that either has been long disused. a sloven; they drinks too much.
The cannon may have been discharged yesterday, and get a Good English to be parsed and imitated.
perfect web be over its mouth this morning. The reader will The girl sings charmingly; the dogs bark; the hen clucks; the not forget that in this short time the spider not only arranges wind whistles; the storm rages; the tempest hurries on; you love the fine geometrical lines, but also spins the whole from its own reading; my father and mother go to church every Sabbath; how vill the choristers sing? do the boys sing well ? the girls have a
body. Let the reader examine carefully one of the fine threads, beautiful voice; thou singest out of tune; he keeps time very well ; and
. and then estimate its diameter. Does it not seem almost I vraise diligent scholars : I entreat you to remain here: do you wish impossible to express in the fraction of an inch the thickness me to learn Latin ? good boys love learning: here, father is coming | of that filmy tissue? But the fine line is not a single one, be runs after the hare ; hares have swift feet; does he love money? | being composed of no less than 4,000 threads. Some of these be ho loves money is not wise; he learns English ; does he learn wonderfully complex lines are themselves so fine that 4,000,000 Latia? they learn German, and you, I hear, learn Italian,
twisted together would not exceed the thickness of an ordinary
hair from the human head. Yet each one of these 4,000,000 RECREATIVE NATURAL HISTORY.
tissues is itself composed of 4,000 single threads. The dia
meter, therefore, of one simple thread is but one sixteen THE SPIDER.-PART I.
thousand-millionth (1600000ot) part of the thickness of a human As there are about 1,200 species of known spiders—one genus hair. If such a statement seems almost incredible, it is but one (Epeira) containing above sixty-a large volume would be of the many mysteries abounding in the lower forms of life. required even to describe the more remarkable families. We The spinning machine is a wonder in itself. Under the can, therefore, only mention in this and a future paper some of hinder part of the spider's body a small depression may be the most important facts connected with the structure, works, seen. Look closer, and, rising from this hollow, there will be and habits of spiders.
noted six small, tube-shaped bodies. Now use a microscope, These animals are no longer classed with insects, from which and the observer may detect a great number of exceedingly they differ in four particulars, having simple eyes instead of fine openings on four of the tube-like bodies, about 1,000 on compound, eight legs in place of six, no antennæ, and not under. each. Through each of these 4,000 apertures the spider draws going the interesting metamorphoses so characteristic of insect a fine thread, and all the 4,000 tissues, being hardened by the life. All the families of spiders and scorpions are grouped atmosphere, and twisted together, form one of the threads in together under the term Arachnida, derived from the Greek the web. These four tube-like bodies are called spinnerets, the name for a spider, apaxın (a-rak'-ne). The word Araneidæ in- upper pair differing much from the lower in structure. Two clades under it the true spiders 'only, and is from aranea, the kinds of threads are produced by this machine, at least in the Latin designation of the animal. Our common English name is case of the geometrical spider. The spirals of the web possess derived from the old word spinder, a spinner. A more ancient a gluey quality wanting in the radiating lines. But whence descriptive term was attercop, signifying poison-head.
does the spider procure the delicate fluid which it draws through We may note, in passing, that all spiders are distributed into the pores of the spinnerets ? From six or eight reservoirs too great sections-Pulmonaria, or those which breathe by pul- behind, in which a glassy substance is formed and stored up monary cavities; and Trachearia, or those which breathe by till required. A peculiar comb-like apparatus on one or more tracheæ, like insects. They are also sometimes classed accord of the feet is used for twisting, carding, and adjusting the fine ing to their habits, as Hunters, Wanderers, Sedentaries, and tissues as they issue from the pores of the spinnerets.
LESSONS IN BOTANY.-XXIII.
or even exceeding the length of the anthers; capsule oblong or
lanceolated, much longer than the flowers; seeds elliptic, inSECTION XLIV.-CINCHONACEÆ (continued).
| dented on the margins. It is this species which was first VALUABLE though coffee be, we now arrive at the consideration observed and described by the botanist Condamine. It is the of a genus which is of far greater importance—the genus Cin- same plant that was formerly described under the name of chona. Coffee is only a luxury; were the supply of the article | Cinchona micrantha, also cinchona of Lima (Fig. 184). suddenly to fail, we could do without it, and our health would Red cinchona (Cinchona nitida of Rinz and Pavon) has obovate be none the worse; but what would the doctors do without lanceolate leaves, tapering off towards the base, glabrous on cinchona bark—that precious medicine so valuable in agues and both sides, shining above, covered with a slight down below, not low fevers ?
marked with furrows at the axillary juncture of the nerves; capCinchona bark and the potato tuber are the two most precious sule lanceolated, twice as long as it is wide; seeds imperfectly donations which America has presented to the world. One denticulated. The bark of this species is greyish-white exter. secures us against famine, the other is almost a specific in certain nally; its chemical composition differs from that of the preceding febrile diseases.
in the circumstance that besides cinchona and quina there extsts The various species of cinchonas are all evergreen trees or in it a third alkali resembling these in general qualities, but conshrubs, inhabiting the valleys of the tropical Andes, between taining more oxygen; it is termed aricina. White cinchona bark the tenth parallel of north and the
is not employed in medicine. The nineteenth of south latitude, grow
discovery of the medical properties ing at elevations varying from 3,600
of cinchona bark is enveloped in to 9,800 feet above the level of the
great obscurity; all that we know sea. The trunk and larger branches
about it for certain is this:-Before are cylindrical, but the younger
the year 1638—that is to say, 150 boughs are tetragonal, covered with
years subsequent to the discovery of the cicatrices
America — not which corre
even the Spaspond to the
niards were acpresence of for
quainted with mer leaves and
the febrifuge stipules. The
qualities of cinbark, which is
chona bark; bitter, contains
but in this year, two alkaloids,
or thereabouts, quina or qui.
the Countess nine, and cin
del Cinchon, the chona or cin
wife of the chonine. The
Spanish viceroy wood is white,
of Peru, was becoming yel.
cured of a violow with age;
lent intermitthe leaves are
tent fever by opposed, entire,
drinking an inveined, petio
fusion of the late; the cells
bark, and this of their epider
led to its intromis being in
duction into many speeies
Europe. Were swollen by a
the natives 183 liquid, giving
themselves acrise to small
quainted with conical eleva
it? Humbolalt tions. The petiole is short and
answers this question very positively semi-cylindrical ; the stipules are
in the negative, and refers the discaduceous, ordinarily free, cleft at
covery to the Jesuit missionaries, the internal portion of their base
who, being in the habit of tasting by small lanceolated glands, which
the bark of every troe they hewed secrete & gummy-resinous matter;
down, at length discovered the prethe flowers are disposed in terminal
cious febrifuge. Other authors of panicles; the corolla is white, roseate, 183
83. THE YELLOW CINCHONA (CINCHONA CALISAYA) :-a, ITS or purple, and of a delicate odour;
FLOWER; b, PISTIL; C, COROLLA OPENED; d, FRUIT; , SEC. cinchona bark were known to the uue pedicels are bracteolate at their TION OF FRUIT, SHOWING SEED. 181. THE GREY CINCHONA Indians long before the advent of (CINCHONA CONDAMINEA OR MICRANTHA).
the Spaniards; but the question In commerce the varieties of cin
again arises, how they first became chona bark are very numerous. They are all comprehended, acquainted with its properties ? To account for this the ridicuhowever, under the four general heads of yellow, grey, white, lous tale has been invented, that certain animals, while labouring and red bark.
| under fever, happened to gnaw the bark of one of the cinchona The tree which yields the Cinchona Calisaya (Fig. 183), or trees, and were cured forthwith. Far more probable is it that some Toyal yellow bark, bears oblong, lanceolate, ovoid leaves, obtuse cinchona trees having been laid prostrate by tempests in a pool of at their points, tapering off towards their base, marked with water, and the latter becoming charged with the medicinal prin. clefts at the bifurcation of the veins; filaments considerably ciple, some person labouring under fever drank of this water, shorter than the anther; capsule ovoid, scarcely equal in length was cured, and published the result. But however this may be, to the flowers. The bark of this species is preferred to that of it is certain that the remedy first became popularised in Europa all others, on account of its containing more quina and less through the agency of the Count del Cinchon, viceroy of Peru, cinchona, the latter alkali not being so valuable as the former. whose wife, as we have said, was cured of intermittent fever by
The grey cinchona of Losca (Cinchona Condaminea of Humboldt its administration. and Bonpland) has lanceolate, oval, or pointed leaves, glabrous, The new remedy, however, was badly received in France and and shining above, marked with furrows inferiorly corresponding | Italy. The faculty set their faces against it. Physicians who with the bifarcation of the veins. The indentations of the dared to prescribe its use were persecuted, and it was onl-calyx are triangularly pointed or lanceolate ; filaments equalling patronage of Louis XIV. which ultimately rendered it
in France. This monarch, suffering from intermittent fever,
And lull them to a cradle calm ; but thou was cured by an English empiric named Talbot, by means of a
With everlasting, undecaying tide, secret remedy. This was no other than cinchona bark. Louis
Doth rest not, night or day. The morning stars, XIV. purchased the secret for the sum of 48,000 livres, and
When first they sang o'er young creation's birth,
Heard thy deep anthem; and those wrecking fires bestowed yearly a pension of 2,000 livres on the Englishman,
That wait the archangel's signal to dissolve besides giving him letters of nobility. Three years subsequently
This solid earth, shall find Jehovah's name the remedy was published; it was a highly concentrated vinous
Graven as with a thousand diamond spears, tincture of cinchona bark. Cinchona trees grow in the densest
On thine unending volume. forests of Peru. The task of discovering them, removing their
Ev'ry leaf, bark, and conveying the latter to the place of export, is trouble
That lifts itself within thy wide domain, some, difficult, and dangerous. In these forests there are no
Doth gather greenness from thy living spray, roads. Frightful precipices intersect the path of the cascarillero,
Yet tremble at the baptism, Lo!--yon birds or bark-gatherer, across which it is difficult to pass, even whilst
Do boldly venture near, and bathe their wing
Amid thy mist and foam. 'Tis meet for them unembarrassed by a load. So soon as the treasure of bark has
To touch thy garment's hem, and lightly stir been secured, these difficulties and dangers proportionately
The snowy leaflets of thy vapour wreath, increase, so that the comparatively low price at which cinchona
For they may sport unharmed amid the cloud, bark may be procured is in itself a matter of surprise.
Or listen at the echoing gate of heaven,
Searce lawful, with our broken tones, to speak
Familiarly of thee. Methinks to tint
Thy glorious features with our pencil's point,
Or woo thee to a tablet of a song,
Were profanation. tund quality," or full, round, and forcible voice, which belongs to
Thou dost make the soul energetic and declamatory expression.
A wondering witness of thy majesty;
But as it presses with delirious joy tone should prevail throughout the reading or recitation of such
To pierce thy vestibule, dost chain its step, pieces.
And tame its rapture with the humbling view
Of its own nothingness; bidding it stand [oro.q.] Ay, tear her tattered ensign down!
In the dread presence of the Invisible,
As if to answer to its God through thee.-Sigourney.
The following specimen of descriptive humour requires the
“ lively movement” in its rate of utterance. The voice is, in And burst the cannon's roar;
this instance, accelerated beyond the rate of serious communicaThe meteor of the ocean air
tion in any form, although it does not possess the rapidity Shall sweep the clouds no more !
which belongs to the excited style of lyric or dramatic poetry, Her dock,-once red with hero's blood,
in the most vivid style of humorous expression. This lesson Where knelt the vanquished foe,
combines, also, an exemplification of "moderate " force and When winds were hurrying o'er the flood,
“middle” pitch. The object in view in the practice of such And waves were white below.
exercises as this is to gain animation and briskness in utterance. No more shall feel the victor's tread,
A lagging or drawling tone is utterly incompatible with humorOr know the conquered knee;
ous delineation. Mere rapidity, however, will not succeed in The harpies of the shore shall pluck
imparting liveliness to style : the utterance must be slow enough The eagle of the sea !
to be distinct and spirited.
XII. WOUTER VAN TWILLER.
The renowned Wouter (or Walter) Van Twiller was descended from
a long line of Dutch burgomasters, who had successively dozed away Nail to the mast her holy flag.
their lives and grown fat upon the bench of magistracy in Rotterdam, Set every threadbare sail;
and who had comported themselves with such singular wisdom and And give her to the god of storms,
propriety, that they were never either heard or talked of-which, The lightning and the gale !-Holmes.
next to being universally applauded, should be the object of ambitiou
of all ages, magistrates, and rulers. The following piece is designed for practice in the "slow" |
His surname, Twiller, is said to be a corruption of the original utterance which characterises the tones of sublimity and awe. Twijfler,* which, in English, means Doubter--- Dame admirably de The "rate" of voice is not altogether so slow as will be required scriptive of his deliberative babits. For, though he was a man in some pieces; yet it retains much of that effect which cannot be shut up within himself, like an oyster, and of such a profoundly regiven without slowness of movement and full pauses. The flective turn, that he scarcely ever spoke except in monosyllables, yet note, in the style of this lesson, continues low, although not so
did he never make up his mind on any doubtful point. This was remarkably deep as in the preceding. The principal object of
clearly accounted for by his adherents, who affirmed that he always practice, in this instance, is to secure that degree of “slowness"
conceived every object on so comprehensive a scale, that he had not which marks the tones of wonder and astonishment.
room in his head to turn it over, and examine both sides of it; so that he always remained in doubt, merely in consequence of the astonishi
ing magnitude of his ideas.! XI. NIAGARA.
There are two opposite ways by which some men get into potice.. Flow on for ever, in thy glorious robe
one by talking a vast deal and thinking a little, and the other by holda Of terror and of beauty! Yea, flow on
ing their tongues and not thinking at all. By the first, many Unfathomed and resistless! God hath set
vapouring, superficial pretender acquires the reputation of a mano His ninbow on thy forehead : and the cloud
quick parts; by the other, many a vacant dunderpate, like the why Mantied around thy feet. And he doth give
the stupidest of birds, comes to be complimented by a discerning Thy voice of thunder, power to speak of Him
world with all the attributes of wisdom. This, by the way, is a me Eternally,--bidding the lip of man
casual remark, which I would not for the universe have it thought I Keep silence, and upon thy rocky altar pour
apply to Governor Van Twiller. On the contrary, he was a very wise Incense of awe-struck praise.
Dutchman, for he never said a foolish thing, and of sach invi Ah! who can dare
gravity, that he was never known to langh, or eveu to smile, tan To lift the insect-trump of earthly hope,
the course of a long and prosperous life. Certain, however, it is Or love or sorrow, 'mid the peal sublime
there never was a matter proposed, however simple, and on which Of thy tremendous hymn ? E'en Ocean shrinke
your common, narrow-minded mortals would rashly determine at Luks Back from thy brotherhood, and all his waves
first glance, but what the renowned Wouter put on a mighty mysterio Retire abashed. For he doth sometimes seem
vacant kind of look, shook his capacious head, and having smoked 10 To sleep like a spent labourer, and recall His wearied billows from their vexing play,
* Pronounced Tweefler.