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come fond of brandy and water, to an extent that involved his character and his peace, Mr. Hall, by a premeditated effort, when the brandy-bib. ber asked for the favourite beverage, replied, “ Call things by their right name, and you shall have as much as you please.” “Why don't I employ the right name? I ask for a glass of brandy and water.” “ That is the current, but not the appropriate name; ask for a glass of liquid fire, and distilled damnation, and you shall have a gallon.” The poor man became pale, and seemed struggling with anger.
Hall,“ knowing I did not mean to insult him, he stretched out his hand and said, “ Brother Hall, I thank you from the bottom of my heart;" and from that time he ceased to take brandy and water. To a lady who told that she had put on her nightcap, and lain down with her little girl, to get her to sleep, pretending she was to sleep with her, Mr. Hall said, “Excuse me, Madam: do you wish your child to grow up a liar?” When the lady pro. tested not; “ Then bear with me while I say, never act a lie before her: children are very quick observers, and soon learn that that which assumes to be what it is not, is a lie, whether acted or spoken." And this was uttered with a kindness which precluded offence. In his own system of education, Mr. Hall does not appear to have been either active or strict. He had no laid-down plan of training or discipline. “He was," says his biographer, “remarkably affectionate, and indulgent; but he did nothing systematically to correct defects, to guide or excite their minds. Now and then he recommended a book to his daughters ; one, perhaps, which he had read himself with peculiar satisfaction.” There are one or two more points on which we should have liked to mention the opinions of Mr. Hall; and among these is the modern system of “re. viewing,” of which, from feeling and principle, he had a fixed and con. scientious detestation. Nothing annoyed him so much as some intrusive friend or brother soliciting his pen to usher a volume into the world -as “the review," written by so eminent a person, threw over the work a reflected lustre. “ With respect to the reviewing Mr. -'s Sermon,” he writes to a friend, I must be excused. I have entirely done with reviewing. It is an occupation, of all others, I dislike. If you wish me to publish, you should never wish me to review ; for you are not aware what a serious interruption it is.” Another unanswerable reason follows : “ I have read Mr. —'s Sermon with much pleasure. It is judicious, serious, and affecting; but I am well aware how extravagantly his friends at · have always over-rated his talents; and were I to review, and express myself in such terms only as the occasion would justify, I should mortify instead of gratifying. In truth, reviewing at the request of particular friends is a snare for the conscience. I never wished any person to review for me."
As frequent exactions of this kind were made upon Mr. Hall, we find, in his correspondence, many remonstrances against the unreasonableness of such demands, as a mere inroad on time; besides that repugnance which, in his mind, became an almost morbid feeling. In a letter to Mr. Josiah Conder, who had been assailing him for some special (not personal) object, he says, among other strong things, “ Were such things determined by choice, it is my delibe. rate opinion, I should prefer going out of the world by any tolerable mode of death, rather than incur the necessity of writing three or four articles in a year. I must, therefore, beg and entreat I may not be urged again upon a subject so ineffably repugnant to all the sentiments of my heart." Mr Hall's apprenticeship to the review.. ing craft was served in the ECLECTIC Review; and we see how he took to the trade. This Review began about 1804 ; and in 1824 Hall protests--he “never looks into either the Eclectic, or any Review"_Edinburgh and Quarterly included no doubt—and wishes “ the whole tribe could be put an end to.” The Westminster and Tait's Magazine must rejoice in not having been in existence when this stern denunciation was made, with some other fell curse, conveyed by Dr. Gregory in a series of porten. tous stars, shedding lurid light over page 539, vol. v. In the same volume Hall asserts, that, under the then regime, we were "doomed to receive our first impression and opinion of books from some of the wickedest, and others of the stupidest of men; men, some of whom have not sense to write upon any subject, nor others honesty to read what they pretend to criticise ; yet sit in judgment upon all performances, and issue their ignorant and foolish oracles to the public.” The shameless want of principle in the system of reviewing, justly stigmatized by Hall, has, like every other wickedness which becomes excessive, tended to correct itself. Reviewing is still far from perfect : but arrogance, petulance, flippancy, gross ignorance, and intolerable insolence, have received a decided check.
It would be unjust to take our temporary and reluctant leave of this most important work without acknowledging our deep feeling of the affectionateness and reverence with which Dr. Gregory has fulfilled the most delicate office which one friend can perform to another. There is, as we have intimated, in a solitary instance, either an extreme caution, or a cast of thought, which we, as fervent admirers of the manly-minded, though not all-perfect preacher, cannot approve. There are, moreover, à want of concoction, and sundry faults of arrangement, sufficiently explained by the circumstances under which the work is brought out, and which, in a second edition, may easily be removed ; but the right spirit is here, and to us this is all in all.
THE SLAVE TRADE.--VOYAGE TO WESTERN AFRICA.*
The gracious speech of his Majesty at the opening of Parliament, has produced, at least, one disappointment. It gives no echo to the long and loud professions of the Whig party generally, nor yet to those of the individual members of the Whig administration, who formerly took a lead in the emancipation of British Colonial Slaves. This, in the mani. festo, so to speak, of a liberal government to a new and reformed Parliament, and to a people now first enjoying a large measure of representative freedom, is a singular omission; and we can easily conceive the disappointment to thousands in both kingdoms, and particularly to those English dissenters in the North of England, in whose ears the eloquence of Mr. Brougham, in the last popular oration he ever made, is still ringing, when they perused a royal speech, made at the most august period of our history, the assembling of a free Parliament, and found no allusion to the existence of the monstrous iniquity, the national sin, of Colonial Slavery. There may be reasons for this silence ; but they should not, and cannot, prove satisfactory.
To the actual state of slavery in the Colonies, which presents nothing to make the friends of emancipation abate one jot in their efforts, we
• A Voyage to Western Africa, By P. Leonard. Edinburgh : W. Tait.
may soon have occasion to recur. At present, our attention has been drawn to the state of the trade,—the fountain-head of the iniquity, in which it must be vigorously attacked, if it is to be successfully attacked at all,—by a highly meritorious volume, drawn up from actual observation; in which the traffic, not of past times, but as it exists, in defiance of all our Treaties and Acts of Parliament, at the present moment is depicted. This simple re. cord of facts is worth volumes of eloquence. In September, 1830, the writer, Mr. Leonard, sailed from England for the Western Coast of Africa in the Dryad frigate, commanded by Captain Hayes, who had been appointed to the African station for suppressing the Slave Trade. The early objects seen by the voyager are described with liveliness and force; but, to us, these are of minor importance ; and the first event demanding notice is the Dryad meeting, near Sierra Leone, the brig Plumper, which had just examined a vessel under French colours, with 300 slaves on board, bound for Guadaloupe. And, now, mark the efficiency of our treaties to suppress the Slave Trade: neither British ships, nor those of any other power, are permitted the right of search in French vessels ; the French prevention squadron shows no gre zeal in the service; and, accordingly, this slave ship, like many others, sailing at one time under the white fag, but now under the tricolor, could not lawfully be detained, and so proceeded in peace to the end of her voyage. The colours of France, and fictitious French papers, are continually employed by the Spanish and Portuguese slavedealers to give impunity to their nefarious speculations. It is also stated by our author to be the general opinion in Sierra Leone, that the French Government has never yet sincerely wished to destroy the traffic. Before the Dryad arrived on the coast, there had been several rather desperate actions between British vessels and slavers ; the crews of the latter, from the nature of their engagement, having every motive to defend their ships to the last extremity. The basis of the agreement is exactly the old Buccaneer principle—no prey, no pay. Mr. Leonard says,
“ They defend themselves to the utmost, as they receive no part of their wages, which is from thirty to sixty dollars a month, according to the rank they hold, until their live cargo is safely disembarked at the destined port; when they have a certain number of dollars additional, according to the number of slaves landed alive; and, in the event of capture, they forfeit every thing."
There is injustice in passing, in total silence, those parts of the Voyage which shows the author's descriptive powers to advantage; and which, with many readers, will form the main attraction of his work; but we have already declared our object, and must be contented with indicating, that general readers will find much to gratify them in this volume. This premised, we proceed :-The low place the African holds in the scale of being is an opinion not confined exactly to those who would palter with conscience, to gloze over their dealings in the flesh and blood of their fellow creatures. There was no evidence of this inferiority, in our sootycomplexioned brethren, visible to Mr. Leonard. In the settlement of Sierra Leone, the various clans of negroes hold as high a place in the scale of intellect, as any of the other tongues and tribes that people that singular place.
“ I examined,” he says, “ several classes in each school, and studiously compared the acquirements of the liberated African with the other children. There was no perceptible difference. The lights and shades of intellect seemed to bear much the same proportion among them, as among the children of our own labouring classes at home. For the age of these children, their progress, under the system of education adapted, seemed to be very rapid."
We have been long blessed with a Government, which, whether at home or in the Colonies, was always far superior to the meanness of calculation about pounds, shillings, and pence. In Freetown, is a church which cost from £50,000 to £80,000 ; which naturally being found far too large for the purposes for which churches are presumed to be intended, was converted into the uses of the synagogue at Jerusalem, a place for wrangling and bargaining. It is now undergoing reduction, and may, after the expenditure of a few more thousands, be a church at last.
Travellers and voyagers, go where they will, appear to entertain a prejudice against the Missionaries. From this Mr. Leonard is not quite exempt, and it has led him into occasional injustice. The infamous case which he mentions of the seduction of an English girl, is bad enough ; but there must have been some better reason for other missionaries refusing longer to superintend the schools of the liberated Africans, than sympathy with their fallen brother. Mr. Leonard's description of Kissey, a village of liberated Africans, in the neighbourhood of Freetown, the capital of Sierra Leone, exhibits a picture of the free settlements, which it is delightful to contemplate. It is full of promise.
“During our stay here,” he says, “among other liberated African villages, I visited Kissey, situated about four miles to the eastward of Freetown, on the side of a gentle acclivity, about a mile from the river side. There is an excellent road to this village, and Wellington, situated a little farther on, winding round the base of those lofty mountains behind Freetown, here still embellished with rich foliage, and diversified with valleys and ravines, clothed in the gayest manner imaginable. On the left hand, the wide, still, and expansive river is seen at a little distance, slowly stealing towards the sea. All between the road and its sloping bank is covered with long grass, yellow with the sun, appearing like ripe corn, waving in the gentle breeze, interspersed with groves and solitary trees, and the straggling, thatched huts of the manumitted slaves. The base of the hills on the right is embraced by several European villas and farms, well laid out, and ornamented with hedgerows of pine-apple plants, which grow wild here in every direction; and close to the road, on both sides, throughout its whole extent, numerous cottages are placed, each surrounded by a piece of well cultivated ground, full of cassada, cocoa plants, and fruit trees, ar hedged in, and ornamented with several kinds of creeping plants, the residences of liberated Africans, who have been some time in the colony.
“On approaching Kissey, the only striking objects which present themselves are the church, a large unoccupied government house, and two or three other civilized looking buildings, residences of the liberated African manager, and a few missionary assist. ants. All the rest has the appearance of a complete Indian village; the huts, peeping through groves of plantain and banana trees, formed of poles stuck in the ground, interwoveu with twigs of niangrove, after the manner of a basket, the crevices filled up with clay, and the roof thatched with rank meadow grass. They are separated from each other by the pieces of ground allotted to each inhabitant, and by streets of respectable width; and consequently, although the whole contain only from eight hundred to one thousand persons, they are scattered over a very considerable extent of surface. All the liberated African villages in the colony are very similar in appearance. Of these, Regent's Town, in the mountain district, about three miles froin this, is considered the finest.
“ During my visits to Kissey, I occasionally entered the church,—a large unfinished building, capable of containing nearly one thousand persons, while the negro children were singing at the pitch of their shrill voices, a diurnal song of praise, superintended by a black missionary assistant, belonging to the village. When I entered, they, of course, all looked round and smiled, but continued, with open mouths and teeth of ivory, to scream their canticle to the end of the verse ; when all was hush, and, at a given signal from the teacher, a hundred little voices squeaked “Good evening, Sir !" repeating the salutation two or three times. As my visits were always accidental, the children were, of course, quite unprepared ; and I cannot speak too highly of the progress they appeared to have made in reading and writing, of their clean and neat appearance, and the intelligent smiles of health, pleasure, and curiosity, that beamed from every countenance. In the discipline of these village schools, hou ever, so far as I could learn, there is too much time lost in singing psalms and hymns ; the greater part of the day being passed in this exercise.
“ The view from the upper part of the rising ground in which Kissey is situated, embraces some striking and beautiful objects."
Trade here is fairly begun; and from the happy village, and the fair landscape, we turn, with increased pleasure, to the first indications of a solid basis on which rest our flattering hopes of African civilization.
“ At present,” says our author, " there are no fewer than fifteen or twenty ships in this, the Mellacoree and Scarcies rivers, embarking cargoes of timber for England, and alunost every week adding one or two to the number. The trade of the colony employs about fifty thousand tons of shipping annually. Since the suppression of the Slave Trade in these rivers, that system of vassalage and enlistment, under the banner of a chief, which was so necessary for personal protection during its conti. nuance, has ceased to exist ; and the sun of freedom having poured his benignant and fertilizing influence on the desecrated soil, industry has been fostered, and every description of improvement has made rapid progress among the native tribes in the vicinity. The wood trade commenced in 1816, under the auspices of Mr. MʻCor. mack, a respectable merchant of Freetown, who, by much labour and perseverance, taught the native Bulloms and Timmannees to cut down the stately ancient monarchs of the forest, and prepare them for transportation to another land.
“ The untaught savages at first laughed at him, and even the Europeans at Freetown considered his attempt as a wild scheme; and nothing but the greatest exertions could have overcome the difficulties he had to encounter in the prejudices of the natives, the want of beasts of burden, of carriages, or roads of any sort, by which to convey the trees to the river side. Perseverance, however, surmounted every obstacle; and the timber trade of this colony has so rapidly increased, that the annual duties on the importation of it alone amount to a very considerable sum ; I believe about L.20,000. The wood, which is commonly called African oak or teak, from the resemblance it bears to them, although it is in some measure different from both, is now floated down the river in rafts, and deposited in factories, as they are called, or storehouses, erected in convenient places on the different islands, or on the main, to be in readiness for embarkation. Vessels, previous to going up the Sierra Leone river to take in a cargo, discharge their ballast at a spot near the Bullom shore, a little above Freetown, called from this The Ballast Ground.”
About Christmas the Dryad left Sierra Leone to cruise off the river Gallinas, a slave mart about a hundred miles to the southward, to look out for slave ships ; and so plentiful are these vessels on the coast, that several of them, fitted up for the human cargo they expected to obtain, were fallen in with, on the short cruise ; but as no slaves were yet on board, they could not be meddled with. Their practice is to stand “ off and on to the land, until their cargo should be collected, which is done by an agent on shore, who, as the slaves arrive, places them in a large shed, or factory, as it is called, where they are penned up like so many cattle. These vessels have often to remain for several weeks, before the number which they are capable of taking on board can be obtained. When this is done they run in-shore towards evening, seldom anchor. ing; and in the course of an hour or two, every thing being previously prepared, they embark their living cargo with the assistance of large canoes, when they immediately make all sail, and are generally many miles from land before daybreak.” It is a remarkable fact that, in a colony established for the suppression of the slave traffic, and maintained at great expense of life and treasure, there are persons deeply embarked in the trade ; and that it is a common occurrence for liberated negroes to be again kidnapped and re-sold. One instance was related to Mr. Leonard, of a man who had been three times kidnapped, and as often liberated from the transport ships, on board of which he was, being captured by the British vessels Brazen, Maidstone, and Esk, at periods some years distant. Schoolmasters have been known to sell their pupils, and European settlers sell African children whom they obtain as servants and apprentices. Many arts are put in practice to betray the unwary manumitted slaves; and for a decrease in the numbers of the colony, amounting to five thousand, Mr. Leonard can imagine no reason save kidnapping. He forgets, apparently, the numbers who take to the Bush; but that cases