on an air of familiarity, and smiling, or rather laughing, said, “There is an opinion among some people, that you are not the most attached of all your countrymen to the manners of France. I was surprised at this, because I thought it an indiscretion, and a descent from his dignity. I was a little embarrassed, but determined not to deny the truth on one hand, nor leave him to inser from it any attachment to England on the other. I threw off as much gravity as I could, and assumed an air of gayety and a ione of decision, as far as it was decent, and said, “That opinion, Sir, is not mistaken. I must avow to your majesty I have no attachment but to my own country.' The king replied, as quick as lightning, An honest man will never have any other.'

“ The king then said a word or two to the secretary of state, which, being between them, I did not hear; and then turned round and bowed to me, as is customary with all kings and princes, when they give the signal to retire. I retreated, stepping backwards, as is the etiquette, and making my last reverence at the door of the chamber, I went my way; and the master of ceremonies joined me at the moment of my coming out of the king's closet, and accompanied me through all the apartments down to my carriage. Several stages of servants, gentlemen porters, and under-porters, roared out like thunder as I wen: along, Mr. Adams's servants, Mr. Adams's carriage,'” &c.

In 1788, having been absent nine years, he returned to America, landing in Boston the 17th of June. In March, 1789, the new constitution of the United States went mto operation, and Mr. Adams became the first vicepresident, which office he held during the whole of Washington's administration. On the resignation of Washing, ton, John Adams became, March 4, 1797, president of the United States. He occupied this station four years, and then was succeeded by Mr. Jefferson, who was elected by a majority of one vote only. This was the termi. nation of his public functions; and he spent the remainder of his days upon his farm in Quincy, occupying himself with agriculture, and obtaining amusement from the literature and politics of the day. He died on the fourth of July, 1826, with the same words on his lips, which


fifty years before, on that day, he had uttered on the floor of Congress—" Independence forever.” His principal publications are, Letters on the American Rev. olution-Defence of the American Constitutionsan Essay on Canon and Feudal Law-a Series of Letters under the signature of Novanglaus--and Discourses on Davila.


Third president of the United States of America, under the constitution of 1789. He passed two years at the College of William and Mary, but his education was principally conducted by private tutors. He adopted the law as his profession. He was a member of the legislature of Virginia, from 1769 to the commencement of the American revolution. In 1775 he was a delegate in Congress from Virginia. May 15, 1776, the convention of Virginia instructed their delegates to propose to Congress a declaration of independence. In June, Mr. Lee made the motion for such a declaration in Congress, and it was voted that a committee be appointed to prepare one. The committee was elected by ballot, and consisted of Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman, and Robert R. Livingston. The Declaration was exclusively the work of Mr. Jefferson, to whom the right of drafting it belonged as chairman of the committee, though amendments and alterations were made in it, by Adams, Franklin, and other members of the committee, and afterwards by Congress. Mr. Jeffer. son retired from Congress in September, 1776, and took a seat in the legislature of Virginia, in October. In 1779, he was chosen governor of Virginia, and held the office two years.

He declined a foreign appointment in 1776, and again in 1781. He accepted the appointment of one of the commissioners for negotiating peace, but before he sailed, news was received of the signing the provisional treaty, and he was excused from proceeding on the mission. He returned to Congress. In 1784, he wrote notes on the establishment of a money-unit, and of a coinage for the United States He proposed the money-systein now in use. In May, 1784, he was appointed, with Adams and Franklin, a minister plenipotentiary to negotiate treaties of commerce with foreign nations. In 1785, he was ap. pointed minister to the French court. In 1789, he returned to America, and received from Washington the appointment of secretary of state, which he held till December, 1793, and then resigned. On some appointment being of. fered him by Washington, in September, 1794, he replied to the secretary, “ No circumstances will ever more tempt me to engage in anything public.” Notwithstanding this determination he suffered himself to be a candidate for president, and was chosen vice-president in 1796. At the election in 1801, he and Aaron Burr having an equal number of the electoral votes, the House of Representatives, after a severe struggle, finally decided in his favor. He was re-elected in 1805. At the end of his second terin, he retired from office. He died July 4, 1826, at one o'clock in the afternoon, just fifty years from the date of the Declaration of Independence, aged 83. Preparations had been made throughout the United States to celebrate this day, as a jubilee; and it is a most remarkable fact, that on the same day, John Adams, a signer with Jefferson of the Declaration, and the second on the committee for drafting it, and his immediate predecessor in the office of president, also died. Mr. Jefferson's publications were, Summary View of the Rights of British America, 1774; Declaration of Independence, 1776; Notes on Virginia, 1781 ; Manual of Parliamentary Practice for the use of the Senate ; Life of Captain Lewis, 1814; some papers in Am. Phil. Trans. IV. His works, chiefly letters, were published by his grandson, Thomas Jeffersor Ran. dolph, 4 vols. 8vo., 1829


Fourth president of the United States, was the son of James Madison, of Orange county, Va., and was born March 16th, 1751. He studied the English, Latin, Greek, French, and Italian languages, and was fitted for college under the instruction of Mr. Robertson, a Scotchman, and the Rev. Mr. Martin, a Jerseyman; was graduated at Princeton, N. J., in 1771; and afterwards reinained a year at college, pursuing his studies under the superintendence of Dr. Witherspoon, the president. His constitution was impaired by his close application to his studies, and his health was for many years feeble. In 1776, hc was elected a member of the general assembly of Virginia; in 1778, of the executive council; in the winter of 177980, of the continental Congress, of which he continued a member till 1784; in 1787, a member of Congress, and in the same year a delegate to the convention at Philadelphia, which formed the present constitution of the United States. He continued a distinguished member of Congress till March, 1797, the end of Washington's admin. istration. On the accession of Mr. Jefferson to the presi. dency, in 1801, Mr. Madison was appointed secretary of state, which office he held during the eight years of Mr. Jefferson's administration; and, in 1809, he succeeded his friend and coadjutor as president of the United States. After having filled the uffice for two terms, he retired to his seat, Montpelier, where he passed his remaining years chiefly as a private citizen, declining political office, except that he acted as visiter and rector of the Univer. sity of Virginia. He was distinguished for his great talents and acquirements, for the important offices which be filled, and for his viriues in private lifs. Mr. Madison was the last surviving member of the convention that formed the constitution of the United States; he was one of its most distinguished champions, and at the time of its adoption he was associated with Hamilton and Jay in the production of the celebrated work entitled the "l'ederalist.” Mr. Madison left, in manuscript, “A careful and extended Report of the Proceedings and Discus

sions " of the convention of 1787, that framed the constitution of the United States, which he directed in his will to be published under the authority and direction of his widow. Mr. Madison died June the 28th, 1837, in his

86th year.


FIFTH president of the United States, was a native of Virginia. He was educated at William and Mary Col. lege, and in 1776, joined the army in the American rev. olutionary struggle, and continued with it till 1778, when he retired, and engaged in the study of the law. In 1780, he held the office of military commissioner for Virginia, and in that capacity visited the southern army. În 1782, he was a member of the Virginia assembly, and in 1783, a member of Congress. În 1788, he was a member of the convention in Virginia to deliberate on the proposed constitution for the United States. In 1790, he was elected a senator of the United States from Vir. ginia. In 1794, he received the appointment of minister plenipotentiary to France, and was recalled in 1797. In 1799, he was elected governor of Virginia. In 1802, he was sent on a special mission to France, which resulted in the purchase of Louisiana. In 1803, he was appointed minister to England. In 1805, he was associated with Mr. Charles Pinckney to negotiate with Spain. During his residence in England, he and Mr. William Pinckney negotiated a commercial treaty with Great Britain, but it was never submitted to the senate by Mr. Jefferson. He returned to America in 1808. In 1811, he was governor of Virginia, and the same year received from Mr. Madi. son the appointinent of secretary of state, which office he held till his election of president, March 4, 1817. During a part of the time, in 1814 and 1815, he also performed the duties of secretary of war. He was again clected president in 1821. He died July 4th, 1831.

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