though he was to the southward of The vessel was at one time watcrCapra ; and instead of running as logged, the sails were torn to pieces, he thonght into the bay of Naples, the foremast sprung, and with only a he was running down the gulf of close-reefed fore top sail, we tried to Salerno. A storm came on towards keep off the shore ; f10 one had aliy night of the most furious kind, lope that we should be able to do this such as the sailors call white squalls, long, and every preparation was The flashes of lightning were ex- made to be ready to save ourscives tremely vivid, and the utmost exer' when the vessel struck, which thro' tions were used to clear the land. the whole night was constantly exThe next day the Lipari islands pected. When day light came the vere in sight, and the vessel was 'shore was still a league distant. tossed about on mountainous waves. The gale had moderated, and the I have observed, that the seas are swell began to lessen ; we were now much shorter, according to the sai- near the bay of St.Eufernia. After lors' expression, in the Mediterra, five or six days beating about, we nean than in the ocean ; and the again found ourselves opposite the only advantage of a storm in the bay of Naples, in the same place former is, that the swell subsides wliere we had been more than a sooner after the storm is past. But fortnight before. The weather was it is a treacherous sea'to navigate, pleasant, but the wind determined and fraught with more perils to to vex us to the last moment; and navigation than the ocean. Violent though we were only two hours sail squalls often arise very suddenly, from the port, we did not arrive till and I was convinced that the mode the next day. My pleasure on arriof rigging vessels in the fashion of ving was much increased by conpoleacres is well calculated for this templating the beauties of this bay, sea. They are enabled to drop their of whiclı description has so often sails all at once, when a vessel with a attempted in vain to give an idea. mąst in three pieces might be dis. The second day of this month Inasted before she could take in sail. the vessel was anchored within the

At night, when the vessel was mole. Though we had made a not more than four leagues from winter passage of sixty days, from Stromboli, I observed it burning, a country perfectly healthy, the inIt threw out flames to the height genuity of the health-office thought apparently of twenty feet; this proper to impose a quarantine of would last a few minutes, and thus twenty days upon the vessel. Beit continued the whole night at in- ing now in a place of safety, after tervals. During the day it appeare having escaped so many dangers, I ed smoking, but owing to the dis- consider this as the last vexation of tance and the light I could see no the voyage, and endeavour to supflames. Whilst beating off this isl. port it patiently, as it will soon terand, and trying to regain the bay of minate ; though I have so long Naples, another storm drovę us up- enjoyed the society of the captain on the coast of Calabria. I do not and mate that I begin to grow tired know any Juno that I have offend- of it. The latter asked me the othed, but olus did not torment the, er day, with a silly hesitating grin, Trojan hero more than myself, and to guess how much money he had very often I thought of Virgil's an. spent since our arrival. I confesscient description of the storm.. cd my inability to fix any sum. Vaa Eurique Not usqu ruunt creberque procellis, « Why we have been here only ten

days, and I have spent almost a under the stern, till something was doilar."

obtained ; the serenade finished, The first day after our arrival we a woman with three or four misera: were besieged with beggars of eve: ble children would be screaming for ry sort. They come off in boats something. These scenes are sa and surround the vessel. One mo, new to an American, that we always ment a capuchin would extend his gave them; and in consequence cowl, and in a submissive attitude were so surrounded with suppli: ask our charity ; hardly rid of him, cants, that we were obliged at last before a band of musick would be to refuse our charity altogether.


(From Dş. Arthur Browne's Miscellaneous Sketches. ) MY own opinion always has been, do newspapers contain ?...false news, that the present state of illumination false principles, false morals, en, and refinement will be succeeded deavoured to be impressed on the by second darkness and Cimmerian publick by contending parties, with. night, equally gloomy with the out the least regard to truth, to vir, cloud raised by the crush of the tue, or publick utility; and who Roman empire. The reply of are the compilers of these vehicles those to whom the idea was sug- of instruction (the only lessons gested uniformly has been, impossi. learnt by the vulgar)? often the low. ble ; the art of printing renders est, and vilest, and most ignorant of such fears groundless. I answer : mankind. Socrates, Plato, and Ari. the art of printing itself may be- stotle taught the Athenian people. come exclusively the engine of wick. The people of London are taught edness, of vice, of folly, of irreli- by the compilers of newspapers, gion. If the fashion or madness of the engines of the mob or of the the times should produce a relish court. for corrupted food, we may be filled That the common people ought with writings to satiety, yet swallow not to be taught to read, as is said nothing but poison ; what infinite by some, is justly thought a mon. mischief has the press produced in strous position, yet it might be renour own days! In France, the ve dered true, if all they read tend to hicle of every crime, it has been the mislead and to darken them. easy propagator of blasphemy, of Does the press improve their massacre, of anarchy: Whether it civilization that press which pours shall finally be a blessing or a curse, forth every day, for the improve. must depend on the taste of man- ment of our young men, the scenes kind ; and if that taste be vitiated, of a brothel, illustrated with drawand feeds upon venom, the more ings ; and for its maidens, the deit consumes the sooner will we per- lusions of a novel, or the evidence ish. The press without morals of a trial for adultery? Query, will not preserve civilization ; and whether the publications of moraliimmorality will make it the vehicle ty and religion, numerous as they of barbarism.

are, countervail the advantage What do the common people which Satan derives from the art now read?..newspapers; and what of printing?

Suppose a nation should take it from their phrenzy to common in their heads to condemn all old sense ; but nations will not always systems and all old books, because recover from their phrensies, and they contain old systems ; sup in progress of time my fears may pose they should include the Bible be realized. France in its wild in the number ; suppose they deliriums has astonished the should prevent the reprinting of world ; they may be outdone by all present learning, and insist some more outrageous fever, that nothing should be published which may finally end in the exexcept their own new-fangled doc- tinction of light and life. Human trines, and that these doctrines nature, insolent and presuming in tended to unhinge all civilized so- its own strength, spurning the fiety. Reader, are my suspicions aids of divine revelation, and even wild? know then, if you know it of ancient learning, may relapse: not already, they were realized in after convulsions into lethargy, our own day; they were realized in and till the impossibility of such France within these five years* ; events be proved by some better they were realized by the tyrant argument than the invention of Robespierre ; by Robespierre printing, I shall ever, from data worse than Omar, for Omar act- afforded by the history of modern ed not from enmity to learning, times,' believe their probability. but from friendship to Mahome. The age of pretended self suffi. tanism.

cient reason will become the age It has employed the whole vig- of absurdity ; irreligion will sub. our of the French nation to return vert all government, and anarchy These sketches were published in 1998. lead to barbarism.



THE immense archives of an: it stopping a bunghole; the world, cient learning in the famous libra with insufferable credulity, and Ty of Alexandria, since the publi- without troubling themselves to cation of the Latin version of the reason at all, have traced the parch. Dynasties of Abulpharagius, have ments of the Alexandrian library generally been supposed to have till they found them distributed by been destroyed by the inconside- the comniand of an ignorant fanarate, infuriate zeal of the Mahom: tick to the four thousand baths of etan Arabs, on their invasion of the city, and, such being their ina Alexandria under the command of credible number, that six months Omar, and 4 every scholar, with were scarcely sufficient for the pious indignation, has deplored the consumption of this precious fuel. irreparable shipwreck of the learn. Many writers in different parts of ing, the arts, and the genius of Europe have lately denied the au, antiquity." If Hamlet, in 'the thenticity of the fact, which is inravings of his imagination, did so deed marvellous. In 1794 M. K. force his thoughts to his own con- Reinhard published a dissertation ceit, as to reason himself into in the German language, in which a belief, that he could trace the no- he attempts to prove, that the li.. ble dust of Alexander, till he found brary was demolished long before

the year 640, the time when Alex, the writings of their predecessors ; andria was taken by the Saracens. nor can it fairly be presumed that In the Spectateur du Nord, for any important truth, any useful September 1798, I find an article discovery in art or nature, has on this celebrated library, written been snatched away from the cu. by some one who signs himself riosity of modern ages.” V*****, whom I presume to be Without entirely rejecting the Volney, the celebrated traveller opinion of Gibbon on this subject, into Egypt, and who confessedly we cannot however but believe, avails himself of the materials of that our literary treasures would M. K. Reinhard. Thinking that have been greater, if we still could it might afford some amusement have recourse to the library of the to the readers of the Anthology, I Serapion. By whatever means it have made a translation from the was destroyed, by the worms or French and now send it to you for by the flames, by neglect or fa. publication,

naticism, it is very certain that it Whatever was the ulteriour des. would have furnished us with the tination of the Alexandrian libra- works of Aristotle complete and ry, we may ask, Have the learned correct; of Menander; all that is world much reason to regret its wanting of Æschylus; of Euripidestruction? Gibbon, in his his. des; the poems of Empidocles, tory of the decline and fall of the and of Stersichorus; a variety of Roman empire, [Amer. edit. vol. philosophical. writings of Theo6, page 368] seems to answer the phrastus, Epicurus, and many question in the negative. “I sin, others; and a multitude of histor, cerely regret, says he, the more ick facts, of which we are now valuable libraries which have been forever deprived. These losses involved in the ruin of the Roman ought certainly to occasion some empire ; but when I seriously regret to the friends of the sciencompute the lapse of ages, the ces and the muses, waste of ignorance, and the calam But I am willing to acknowlities of war, our treasures, rather edge, in deploring the loss of the than our losses, are the object of great library in the temple of Se. my surprise. Many curious and rapis, we may view with indiffer, interesting facts are buried in ob- ence the parchments, burnt by livion ; the three great historians Amrou, if indeed he burnt any, of Rome have been transmitted It will be clearly demonstrated in to our hands in a mutilated state, the following dissertation, that, in and we are deprived of many his time, the collection of the pleasing compositions of the lyrick, Ptolemies could no longer have iambick, and dranıatick poetry of existed; and all the historians af. the Greeks. Yet we should grati. firm, that, for the two or three fully remember, that the mischan- centuries preceding the arrival of ces of time and accident have the Musselmen, there had appeara spared the classick works to ed an enormous quantity of polem, which the suffrage of antiquity had ical writing, produced by the adjudged the first place of genius Gnostics, the Arians, the Monog and glory : the teachers of an; sophists, the Monotelites, &c. &c, cient knowledge, who are still ex differents sects, which much; agi. tant, had perused and compared tated the empire, and particularly.

Alexandria. It is very probable, opinion, with Mr. Gibbon, that that the houses of the patriarchs they were ultimately devoted for and the churches were very full of the benefit of mankind. these writings“; and if they afford

. SAMPSICERAMUS. ed fuel to heat the baths, we are of



ALEXANDRIA, almost at the brary in the temple of Serapis, calcommencement of its foundation led the Serapion, situated at some by the conqueror of India, became distance from the Bruchion, in anoaffluent and powerful, and its pro- ther quarter of the city. These gress was still more rapid under two libraries were for a long time his royal successors. It was divi- called the mother and daughter. ded into many quarters, which Cæsar, during his war in Egypt, were like so many towns. Ope burnt the royal fleet in the great of these quarters, the Bruchion, bay of Alexandria, and the fire situated on the banks of the sea communicated to the Bruchion; near the grand harbour, included the mother library was consumed, all the edifices attached to the and if any of the manuscripts were basilicum, or palace of the king, rescued from the flames, they the great college, and many oth- were probably deposited in that of ers. The first of the Ptolemies, the Serapion, which in future can Lagus, did not confine his efforts be the only subject in dispute. to render Alexandria one of the Evergetes, and the other Ptolemost beautiful and commercial mies, successively augmented the cities, he wished that it might also library. Cleopatra there depositbecome the focus of the sciences ed two hundred thousand manuand philosophy. In conjunction scripts of the Pergamean library, with Demetrius of Phalaris, an with which she was presented by Athenian emigrant, this prince Mark Antony established there a society of wise Let us now follow the traces of men, similar to the modern French the existence of the library. . Auacademies and institutes. He lus Gellius and Ammianus Marbuilt for their accommodation that cellinus seem to intimate, that the celebrated museum, which was an contents of the Alexandrian library additional ornament to the Bru- were burnt by the fire in the time chion; there was placed that of Cæsar. The first declares in Donderous library, which Titus his Noctes Attica, “that the numLivy styles, elegantiæ regum curæ, ber of the books, collected in Ægypt que egregium opus.

by the Ptolemies, was immense, Philadelphus, successor of La- amounting even to seven hundred gus, seeing that the library of the thousand volumes, but they were all Bruchion contained four hundred burnt in the war which Julius Cx. thousand volumes, either that the sar waged with the inhabitants of place could not contain a greater Alexandria, not with premeditated number, or that he was ambitious design, but by the soldiers who for a similar monument to eternise were perhaps auxiliaries." (Lib. his own name, founded a second li. 6. Cap. 17.]

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