Bamberg, totally abandoning a very Marshal Broglio, toward the large tract of country.

close of the last campaign, had been Hitherto the affairs of the allies obliged, by the enterprises of the proceeded alinoft in

uninter- hereditary prince, to detach from rupted course of prosperity. It was his army in Hesse a large body to indeed a degree of prosperity the Lower Rhine. He now found altogether aftonishing, and which it equally proper to recal this body as at first it could fcarcely have together with further reinforcebeen expected, so there was ments, in order to maintain his reason to imagine it would have ground in the country northward any long continuance. For the al- of the Maine, where he was closelies on the side of Saxony, where ly pressed by the allies, and which M. Sporken acted, in proportion he must be compelled shamefully as their activity and success carried to relinquish, if Callel was not rethem forward, left the countries lieved in time. Sensible of this, on their rear more and more un with whatever difficulty, he called covered, and exposed, without any, in his most distant polts, embodied or with a very insufficient defence, his army, inspired them with new to the attempts of the powerful spirit, and made the capable, by garrison of Gottingen. The count a more exact order in their disci. de Vaux, who commanded that pline, and a great fuperiority in garrison, is a very able and enter their numbers, of attempting tômeprising officer. And he no sooner thing considerable. perceived, that the allies

On the other hand, the hopes wholly intent upon driving their of the allics depended on the efenemies from the Werra and Un- fect of their firft impression ; they ftrut, and on pushing the advan were obliged to attempt too many tages they had acquired to the ut- objects at the same time, and these most, than he marched out of Got. too arduous for the number of which tingen with a strong detachment, their army confifted. For it was attacked and routed an Hanoverian necessary that they should keep one convoy, fell upon the town of Du- army, and that no small one, emderstadt with the utmost violence ; ployed on the fiege of Caffel; anoand though he failed in his first at-ther was occupied in the blockade tempt, he repeated it with so much of Zigenhayen; a third was em{pirit, that at length he carried that played to the eastward of the Fultown, and afterwards some of the da; and still a fourth was necessary most considerable places near it. to cover and sustain all these va. By these successes he prevented rious operations, and to oppose itM. de Sporken's corps from return self to the attempts of marshal Broging by the way they had advanced, lio. It was but too plain, that when and indeed absolutely disqualified the whole of the French Force was them from acting separately from collected in one point, it could never their main army ; to which foon be reafted by a part only of the alafter' these events, they were ob- lied army ; if they should attempt liged to join themselves. This to draw away any of the separate junction now became necessary on corps from the critical service upon another account.

which it was employed, the entire



purpose of their labours was given genhayn ; and foon after raised the up. In a word, prince Ferdinand liege of Caffel, after twenty-seven had three strong posts of the enemy days open trenches. They evacuaton his rear, and their grand army ed the whole country of Hesse, , renow perfe&tly united on his front, tiring behind the Dymel, and falland his fituation, which was far ing back nearly to the quarters they from advantageous, obliged him to poffeffed before this undertaking. callin M. Sporken's body which had Thus ended an expedition which effected its purpose, and could best was carried on against many diffibe spared. However the prince kept culties, with much spirit, and which his position as long as possible ; and

at first excited great hopes. It the siege was carried on with, as failed indeed in some of its objects; much vigour as a winter operation, but it produced its effect in the toand the spirited defence of a great tal of the operations of the year. garrison ably commanded, would The French, by the destruction or admit.

seizure of so many of their princiBut marshal Broglio, as soon as pal magazines, were for a long time he had collected his army, advanc- disabled from taking any advantage ed without delay. He caused the of their successes in the preceding troops under the hereditary prince campaign, or from their late victoto be attacked near the village of ry. It was not until the season Stangerode, in the neighbourhood of was a good deal advanced that they Grunberg, where he was advanced were in a condition to act.

This in front of the beforementioned ceffation was not dearly bought even line of the allied army. The at- by the loss we sustained at Stangetack was made by the enemies dra- rode, and the extreme hardships the goons, the very first lhock of which troops had endured during the broke the whole foot, consisting whole service; for circumstanced as of nine regiments, Hanoverians, both armies were at their quitting Hellians, and Brunswickers. The the field, without this seasonable French on this occasion made two check, it is probable we should thousand prisoners, and poffefled have at this day no footing in Gerthemselves of several trophies of many. Both armies, as it were by victory ; few were killed or wound. consent, lay quiet in their winter ed on either side,

quarters. During their inaction, the After this blow the allied army negotiation at London and Paris, could no longer think of making whose commencement we have rear head against the French, or of lated in the first chapter, was pursue maintaining their ground in Hesse. ed without interruption. They broke up the blockade of Zie.

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The negotiation continued. Proposition of uti poflidetis. Debate concern

ing ihe periods. Belleisle described. English repulsed at Lochmaria bay. They make good their landing. Palais besieged." Town abandoned. Citadel capitulates.

must be observed, that after discullion. On the other hand, the judicious separations which France, continuing in possession of had been made of the interests of the places she had conquered, would the several powers at war, there have acquired no advantage that still remained a sufficient fund of in- could at all countervail the expence tricacy and altercation in each par- of keeping them; at the same time ticular discussion. In order there. that he would be exposed to end. fore to make the way to peace as less altercations, and would afford smooth as possible, it was resolved matter of the highest jealousy, inpreviously io establish some certain dignation and discontent, even to and fimple points that might serve her neareft allies. This bafis being to direct and keep steady the whole therefore settled, although it was negotiation. These points were but evident, that the treaty could not two ; indeed they were so insepa- reft upon this basis solely, England rably connected with each other, had certainly a great superiority in that they seem rather members of the negotiation, and might rationally the same proposition than separate expect (when they should come to articles. The first was, that the talk of restitutions) to purchase the two crowns hall remain in pollef- evacuation of the French conquests fion of what they have conquered one in Germany, at a much smaller from the other.". The second im- price than their apparent magnitude ported that “ the situation in which might seem to demand. However

ihey shall fand at certain periods, these were still a matter of so much fall be the position to serve as a basis anxiety, and the nature of the prefor the treaty which may nego

cise ftipulations were still so uncertiated between the two powers. tain, that the negotiation, though it

As France was known to have proceeded with strong appearance had the worst in the war, a propo- of a desire for peace, met with

very fition of ftatu quo, coming from frequent checks and delays. Both her, must have appeared an instance parties were indeed unanimous in of moderation, altogether surprising the article of uti poflidetis : than to our minifters. It is certain, that which, it must be admitted, there had peace been concluded at that could not be a better ground to instant, and upon the sole founda- treat upon.

But as' the war still tion of this article, England would continued, and whilft it continued then have possessed all the conquests might make a daily alteration in he had made, every one of which the fortune of the contracting powwas in a very high degree advan- ers, it was necessary to fix upon tageous to her commerce, and her fome epochas to which this posterpower, and none of which could be sory article Tould refer. considered as a subject of future




The French on this head pro bability to guess at the nature proposed, that the situation in which or the value of the possessions which they mall pand on the first of Sep by such an article should be mųtember in the year 1761, in the tually given away. And if these East Indies, on the first of July difficulties occurred in the fimin the same year in the West Indies, plicity of a pofleffory article, they and in Africa, and on the first of must be increased tenfold upon May following in Europe, should be every other, and must come to the position, which fould Jerve as fuch an height as to preclude all a bafis to the treaty which may be possibility of negotiotion on things negotiated between the two powers. of so intricate a nature as exchanges They added further, that as these and equivalents. The French in epochas might seem too near or their memorial insisted so strongly too distant for the interest of Great on the propriety of establishing these Britain, they were extremely willing periods, that they threatned to to enter into a negotiation upon recal the whole propofition, if they that object.

were not agreed to. The English ministry received It must doubtless appear at first this proposition with less satisfac- View surprising, to fee France, tion than its apparent fairness de whose actual situation

very ferved. They entirely rejected the indifferent, contending for a near French epochas; and declared that period, and England, whose affairs they could not admit, without pre at that time apparently in judice to themselves, any other epo a prosperous situation, postponchas than those which have refe ing the uti posidetis to one more rence to the day of ligning the treaty remote. But the truth is, that in of peace. Had this resolution been that particular neither party conItrictly adhered to, it was evident sulted their presant condition. They that the negotiation was that mo- acted wholly on foresight. For ment at an end: For though what though the English, on the 25th was asserted in the French memo- of March, when this proposition rial in reply to this declaration, was made, were carrying on the (that the basis of the proposition of siege of Caffel, and the other strong uti poffidetis was necessarily connected places in Heffe, and the enemy had with the particular epochas proposed) no army in that courtry to oppose is by no means to be admitted ; it them, it was notwithstanding eviis on the other hand not easy to dent, that from the flow progrefs deny the validity of their fúbfe- of those fieges, and from the alacri. quent affertion, “ that if not these, ty of marshal Broglio, in collecting at leaft some certain periods during his troops, they must be shortly the war, ought to be fixed; and obliged to abandon the enterprise ; that the uti possidetis could not sea it was evident that France must Sonably have reference only to the be reinstated in the absolute poftime of figning the treaty of peace.” feflion of her former conquests long For if the contrary principle were before the epocha of the first of once admitted, it would become May, the period which they fixed difficult to know, or even with pro-, for Europe. Both courts were fully



apprized of this. It was therefore either in being exposed, shallow, the interest of France to offer, and or dangerous at the of England to reject this near The only branch of trade carperiod, especially as the fate of ried on here is the caring pile the design on the coast of France chards. was then depending, and our ad From this state of the island, ministration seemed to have con poor in itself, capable of little imceived no mean hopes of its suc- provement, and so ill circumcess, and no small opinion of its stanced in point of harbours, a importance in the negotiation. sort of a dislike to the expedition

The fleet employed in this expedi- began to arise. Several did not fee tion failed from Spithead on the 29th of what considerable service such of March, and it was soon discover a conquest could be of to England ed that Belleille was the object. in time of peace, or of what pre

Belleille, the largest of all the judice to the enemy in time of European islands belonging to the war. They foresaw that it could French king, is between 12 and not be taken without considerable 13 leagues in circumference.

loss, or kept without considerable The island originally belonged expence ; and on the whole they to the earl of Cornouaille, but has apprehended that when exchanges been fince yielded to the king : it came to be made, France would contains only one little city, cal- lay no great stress upon it. On led Le Palais, three country towns, the other hand it was urged, that 103 villages, and about 5000 in- though the harbours were bad, habitants.

yet Imall privateers might issue The town of Palais takes its from thence, greatly to the moname from a castle belonging to the leftation of the French coafting duke de Belleifle, in its neighbour- trade; and that the fleet of England hood, which is now converted into might ride between it and the cona citadel, which is a regular and tinent in a well protected road. ftrong fortification, fronting the They imagined the possession of fea, composed principally of horn- this ifland, if not of great detriwork, and is provided with two

the interest of France, dry ditches, the next the would be a grievous wound to her counterscarp, and the other fo pride ; and that those circumcontrived as to secure the interior stances which had formerly indu. fortifications. This citadel is di. ced her to expend money on the vided from the largest part of the fortifications here, and on the aptown by an inlet of the sea, over prehension of an invasion to fill which there is a bridge of com

them with a powerful garrison, munication, from the other part would likewise persuade her to set of the town, and which is most a value on the place when it came inhabited, it is only divided by to be estimated in the treaty. its own fortifications, and a glacis. Whilst chey reasoned in this man. There are three nominal hare ner in England, the fileet under the bours in this island, Palais, Sauzon command of commodore Keppel, and Goulfard. Every one of which and the land forces under general labours under fome capital defect, Hodgson, arrived before Belleille

ment to



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