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Concerning the island of Guada- berty mutually; to impart to their loupe, Marigalante, Minorca, and German allies, or of the place in Belleifle, no great controversy had which such fuccours should be emfubfited from the beginning. It ployed. As to Wesel and Gueldres, had all along been agreed, that the French obftinately refused to these conquests should be recipro- restore thofe places. They decally, restored. Neither did the clared that such a cession would be French scruple to adopt our propo- directly against the faith by which fal concerning the affairs of the they were bound to the ema's East Indies, nor to make satisfacto. press queen of Hungary, for whom: ry declarations concerning Oftend they infifted that these places had and Neuport.

been conquered, and in whose name So many delicate and interesting alone they were governed, though points were settled, that it does not they had been reduced by the at first appear what it was that French arms, and were at that mocould have retarded the peace. A ment held by French garrifons. discussion of the separate interests

As to the second point, namely, of two powers only that are in ear- the restitution of the captures made nelt to agree, may be settled with previous to the declaration of out any very confiderable difficul. war, the negotiating powers were ty. The hard and almost inextri. equally positive, the one to demand, cable part of the knot, is that the other to refuse it. The English wherin the cross concerns and argued, that this claim had 'no fort interests of allies intervene. There of foundation in the law of nations, were two points upon which, if we neither was it grounded on any parmay form a judgment from appear. ticular convention. That the right ances, this negotiation unfortunate- of all hoftile operations results, not ly broke off. The first was upon

from a formal declaration of war, the manner in which England and but from the hostilities which the France might be at liberty to assist aggressor has first offered ; that the their refpečtive allies; and on the contrary of this proposition is at reftitution of Welel, Gueldres, and leaf extremely conteftible; and fach other places, as the French fince it can by no means be clearly had conquered from his Pruffian establifhed, it follows, that the des majesty.

tainment of those captures must be On the firft member of this prin- considered, on the side of Engcipal point, the repeated proposals land, as part of the uti poffidetis, of France for a neutrality in Ger- originally proposed as the basis of many had been uniformly and po

this treaty. fitively reje&ted by our adminiftra France, on the other hand, feem. tion. They considered therefore as fo ed as fully convinced of the justice many attacks upon national integri.. of her pretenfions, and the deemed ty. This scheme therofore not being the arguments with which the sup. admitted, they would or could come ported them to be fo unanswerable, to no agreement, and scarcely to that the offered to submit them to an intelligible explanation either of the justice of the Englifh tribunals. the mode or the quantity of the af- They urged that this claim of reftifittance which they should be at lie tution was founded on the law of

nations,

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nations, and upon particular con- authorised judge, the weight of vention ; on particular convene the several pretensions commonly tion ; by the i9th article of the depends upon the power of the para peace of Utrecht ; and by the fe- ties to enforce them. On these two cond article of the treaty of com- points therefore, the renunciation, merce; and that this was ftrength. of German alliances, and the reftiened by the 3d article of the treaty tution of captures, the negotiation of Aix la Chapelle, which renews from the beginning was at a stand; and confirms those articles in the and on these, at length, to all appreceding treaties.

pearance, it finally broke off. By these articles a protection is Not but we are fully satisfied that allowed to the respeãtive subjects the disagreement even on thefe who may have fhips in the ports of points might have been only the of. either of the powers, because hav- tensible cause of the rupture. The ing no opportunity of knowing that true cause of the breach seems to a rupture is fallen out, they failed have been the anseasonable intere under the security of peace, and un- position of the Spanish claims. For der the faith of treaties. By a pa. could France be fapposed in good rity of reasoning, the ships not actu- earneft to desire peace, that is, to ally in those ports ought to enjoy desire such a reasonable peace as the same security ; else, as they are her circumstances, might demand, included in the fame parity of cir- when the officioufy mingled with cumstances, it would follow, con- our particular debate, the affairs of trary to the principles of humanity a foreign and neutral power, which and right reason, that the fové had not the smallest connection with reigns had provided for the prefer- those that were at this time propervation of one part of their subjects ly under deliberation. It was ridifrom the miseries of a sudden rup- culous to urge, that this was done ture, to which they expose the reft. from a prudent forelight, and to The particular conventions of these prevent a future war, which these treaties, they said, had their foun- disputes might possibly occafion. dation in general equity, and the The business was to put an end to law of nations ; fince, as it is im. the war, which then actually subfiftpracticable for belligerent states to ed; and nothing could be farther agree among themselves which is from asiting this design than to inthe aggressor, it is proper that the crease the subjects of debate. France subjects should receive previous no. must be sensible of the weight of tice of the rupture, in order that this argument, who herself propofthey may be able distinctly to know ed in the very beginning of this when they are, or are not in. fecu- treaty, as a means almost necessary rity, or when they may, or may for carrying it on with effect, that not rely on the treaties which fub- their particular dispute should be fil between their sovereigns. separated from those of their Ger

These topics were, as usual, ban- man allies, with which it certainly died, to and fro with great heat and had a more natural connection thane little effect; and as in such discuffic with those that sublisted between ons the arguments on both sides England and Spain : as all the forare plausible, and there can be no mer parties were then engaged di

rectly

tealy or indirectly in the war, to ties separated with intentions more which Spain had then no manner hoftile, and opinions more adverse of relation.

than ever ; and the war was soon The English miniftry finding the spread to a much greater extent by French immoveable on the two ca the taking in of a new party, and pital points above mentioned, and may polbly spread, still more having no opinion of the fincerity widely, by laying open new sources of their procedure, fent directions of contention which may gradually :* to Mr. Stanley to return to England, draw in other powers, and finally and to defire that M.Busly should, on involve every part of Europe. It

the part of his court, re. was also a means of producing 20th Sept. ceive the fame orders. changes in England, which at a An end was thus put to this negoti-' time of less tranquility, and in ciration, (from which Europe had con- cumstances of less internal strength, ceived such fanguine hopes of the might have been productive of the

allevia:ion of her miseries) after it moft fatal consequences. But these chad continued near six months. So matters are reserved for the subject i far indeed was it from producing of the ensuing chapter.

the happy effects that were pro The leading negotiation in Lonposed from it, fo far was it from ap- don and Paris being thus broken. pealing the animofities of the powe, off, that which was proposed at. ers originally engaged, or from ex. Augsburg never took place. tinguishing the old war, that the par

CHAP. VIII.

Conduet of Spain during the negotiation. Spanish minifter's memorial.

Treaty between France and Spain. Difference in the English ministry.
Mr. R. resigns. Mr. P. letter. Dispute concerning the resignation.
Addrefes. Parliament meets. The German war continued.

S nothing could have been in London, from whom no fort of

more unprecedented, fo no- intimation had been previously rething was more alarming than the ceived of such a design,

proceeding of the court of Spain in That proposal not only marked E the negotiation. It was altogether out a want of sincerity on the part,

extraordinary to see a proposal for' of France, but it manifested so accomodating disputes that subfisted ftrange and irregular a partiality on between friends, coming through the part of Spain, that it would very the channel of an enemy. It was little have become the dignity of extremely fingular to see points of the king of Great Britain, or his such consequence formally commu attention to the safety of his subnicated and proposed for delibera- jects, to let it pass without a full tion by a French agent, commission and satisfa&tary explanation. Aced only to negotiate a particular cordingly the Spanish ambassador and distinct business, when the Spa- was called upon to disavow this irniards had an ambaffador residing regular procedure; but he returned

à verbal, and soon after was autho.. that account was absolutely inevitarifed by his court to return, a writ. ble; and if, for the present moment, ten answer, in which he openly a-. the Spaniards rather delayed their vowed and justified the step taken declaration of war, than laid aside by the French agent, as entirely their hostile intentions, it was in agreeable to the sentiments of his order to strike the blow at their master. 'He declared that the kings own time, and with the greater efof France and Spain were united fect; that therefore their reasons not only by the ties of blood, but for delaying to act were the very by a mutual interest. He applauded notives, which ought to induce us the humanity and greatness of mind to act with the utmost speed, and which his most christian majesty utmost vigour. That we ought to demonstrated in the proposition consider the evasions of that court that was complained of. He infift as a refusal of satisfaction, and that ed much on the fincerc desire of refusal, as a declaration of war. peace, the only motive which in- That we ought from prudence as fluenced the conduct of the two mo well as from spirit to secure to ournarchs; and he added, haughtily, selves the first blow; and to be that if his master had been govern- practically convinced that the early ed by any other principles, “ his and effective measures, which had Catholic majesty giving full scope, so large a share in reducing France to his greatness, would have fpo- to this dependence upon Spain, ken from himself, and as became would also be the fittest for deter.. his dignity."

ing or disabling Spain from afford. It appeared evidently from the ing any protection to France. That, whole of this paper, that the court to carry on this war with vigour, of Spain was regularly, as a sort of it was only necessary to continue party, apprised of every step that our present efforts ; no new armawas taken in the negotiation; that ment would be neceffary; and chat, her judgment was appealed to up- if any war could provide its own reon every point, and her authority sources, it must be a war with Spain. called in aid to force the accept- That their flota had not yet arrived, ance of the terms which were offered and that the taking of it, would at by France ; in a word, that there once disable theirs and strengthen was a perfect union of affections, our hands. This procedure fo fuit. interefts, and councils between ed to the dignity of the nation, and these two courts, and the minifter the insults it had received, would be of the former, só far from denying a lesson to Spain, and to every other or palliating this conduct, seemed power, how they should presume to glory in it.

to dictate in our affairs, and to inMr. P. who then took the lead termeddle with a menacing medias in the ministry, was fully satisfied tion, and an officiousness as infidithe intentions of Spain were by no ous as it was audacious. That he ineans equivocal, and that this parti- would allow our enemies, whether ality, which they strongly avowed ' secret or declared, no time to think. not only by declarations, but by and recollect themselves. facts, would drive them into all the These sentiments, fo agreeable to measures of France. That a'war on the resolute and enterprising cha

racter of this minifter, appeared of that deliberation it might be exshocking to almost all the rest of pected to be safe in its harbour ; and his collegues. They admitted that perhaps if we could fucceed in we ought not to be terrified from seizing it, we might perform a ferthe affertion of our just demands, by vice-not very agreeable to neutral the menaces of any power. They nations, and as little advantageous owned that Spain had taken a very to our own commerce. If Spain, extraordinary and very unjuftifiable, blind to her true intereits, and mir Itep; but that we ought to admit, led by French councils, lhould. and even to wilh for, an explanation;, give in a more decisive manner this court upon a sober, yet spirited, into the designs of that court, and remonstrance, might recall that obstinately refuse a reasonable farash proportion into which they. tisfaction, it would be then the true bad been perhaps unwarily few time to declare war, when all the duced by the artifices of Francc; neighbouring and impartial powers that to Thun war upon a just oc were convinced that we acted with casion was cowardice, but to pro., as much temper as resolution, and voke or court it was madness. And, when every thinking man at home if to court a war was not in ge-, should be fatisfied that he was not peral a very wise measure, to delire hurried into the hazards and exit with Spain, if possibly it could pences of war, from an idea of chi, be avoided, was to overturo the, merical heroism, but from inevitable most fundamental principles of the necessity; and that in such a case policy of both nations. That this we might depend upon the utmost desire of adding war to war, and support which the nation could give enemy to enemy, whilst we had our to an administration that depended hands already as full as they could, upon its strength, and yet dreaded hold, and whilst all our faculties to waste it wantonly, or to employ it. were ftrained to the utmost pitch, unjustly. The minister, warmed was ill to calculate the national by this opposition, declared that, frength of our country, which, " This was the time for humbling however great, had its limits, and " the whole house of Bourbon; that was not able to contend with all the " if this opportunity were let slip, world ; that whilst we were calling" it might never be recovered ; and for new enemies, no mention was “ if he could not prevail in this inmade of new allies, nor indeed of “ stance, he was resolved that this any new resource whatsoever. To ". was the last time he should fit in plunge into fuch meusures, in the “ that council. He thanked the manner proposed, and upon " ministers of the late king for their better grounds, could not fail to. “ fupport; said he was himself fcandalize and to alarm all Europe ;, “called to the ministry by the and we could possibly derive no ad “ voice of the people, to whom he. vantage from this precipitate con " considered himself as accountable duct, which would not be more than “ for his conduct; and that he counter-balanced by the jealousy “would no longer remain in a fitu-. and terrorit would necessarily create. “ tion which made him responsible in every nation near us. As to the “ for measures he was no longer seizure of the flota, it was not to

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