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Blockade of Pondicherry. Difress of the French. Fleet dispersed in a form. Fleet returns. Town fürrenders.- Mahie taken. Enterprises
of Mr. Law. Mogul army defeated by Major Carnae. - Nabob of Bertigal deposed. Coast of Sumatra ravaged by the count ä' Ejlaign. Do: minica taken by lord Rollo and Sir James Douglas.
FTER the defeat of the by a good garrison, and by an offi
French near Wandewah, the cerable and resolute,and whose pride taking of the city of Arcot, and and obstinacy so prejudicial on all the reduction of the fortreffes of other occasions, would have made Chitteput and Carrical, Pondicher. him, as in effect they did make him, Ty was the only place of conse- persevere to the very last moment fequence which remained to our in the defence of the last stake, enemies in India. This town beau- which the Erench had left in India. tifully built, strongly fortified, and The blockade being therefore chofour leagues in circuit, fermed ra- fen as the most eligible for the time, ther the capital of a kingdom, than was continued with the best disposi. a trading establishment. It is situ- tions, and the most extraordinary ated on the coast of Malabar, about patience on both sides, for full seven forty miles from our settlement at months. In this time the garrison Madrass, which in the days of its and inhabitants fuffered forely by faprosperity, is rivalled, if not ex- mine. Colonel Coote, in order to ceeded in trade, opulence and splen- augment their distress, erected batte-dor; and it still remained the de ries at a distance, not with a view of
pofitary of whatever wealth was ruining the walls, but to harrass the "left to the French, after their res eremy by an increaseof garrison duty. verse of their fortune in war.
At length when the weather apAs sớon' as the fortresses adjacent peared settled, four batteries were to this important place had been raised at some dittance to enfilade reduced, and the inland country the ftreets of Pondicherry, whilft brought perfe&tly to our interests by others were advanced nearer, in orthe total expulsion of the French, der to play upon the works. These the blockade of Pondicherry was 'operations, though the fiege was 'commenced by the land forces under not yet formally undertaken, comcolonet Coote, and the marine under menced on the 25th of November, admiral Stevens. A regular fiege 1960, but as the season of the rains was at that time impracicable on and winds was not yet quite over, account of the periodical rains, much was fuffered from storms, which were daily expected ; and which ruined the batteries and apteven under more favourable cir- proaches. They were however al. cumstances it would have proved a ways repaired with the utmost alacrity task of infinite difficulty to attempt and speed, and the liege suffered no by any army that could be fup. intermiflion. So that the befeged, ported in India, the taking of a who eagerly expected the arrival of place so strongly fortifed, defended their feet to their relief, were re
duced to the most extreme distress. verse fortune. General Lally seeing They lived on camels, elephants, the port clear, sent an express withdogs, and cats. The extreme scarci. out delay to the French agent in ty and dearness even of this wretched the neighbouring neutral fettleprovision, increased their misery. ments, that this was the time to Sixteen roupies (half crowns) had throw in succours; he seemed fanbeen paid for the Aeth of a dog. guine and full of vigour. The
In the midst of this diftress their letter, which was intercepted, is hopes were suddenly revived, and printed below *, as it may tend to those of the besiegers, notwithstand. furnith some idea of the character ing the progress they had made, of this fingular man. almost totally depressed.' On the But admiral Stevens, and those first of January 1761, one of those who commanded under him, exterrible storms, so frequent in the erted themselves with unparalleled Indian sea, and fo ruinous, drove diligence and celerity, appeared the English squadron from before again before Pondicherry in less than Pondicherry. Two thips of the four days after the storm, with eleline were wrecked, and their crews, ven tips of the line and one frie with the exception of two or three gate, and the blockade was as commen, entirely perished. Two others' pleat as ever. No succours had of the same class were driven alhore, been thrown in, and admiral Stevens and beat to pieces. The men fortu. in order to prevent the ill imprefnately escaped. The real damage fion which the late disaster might which our Aeet suftained on this oc have occasioned, sent a message to casion, together with the idea of a the neighbouring Dutch aud Danish far greater, suggested by their own fettlements, of the good condition desires, and justified by the violence and strength of the remiander of of the storm, elevated to the highest his fleet, and affured them he would pitch the fpirits of the garrison, make prize of such vessels as he funk by disease, famine, fatigue, found infringing the neutrality by and an uninterrupted train of ad- attempting to supply the enemy.
* Translation of an intercepted letter from general Lally to M. Raymond, French sesi
dent at Pullicat, dated Pondicherry the 2d. of January 1761. " * Mr. RAYMOND, :
The English squadron is no more, Sir; out of the twelve ships they had in our road, seven are lot, crews and all; the four others dismafted; and it appears there is no more than one frigate that hath escaped ; therefore don't lose an instant to send us chelingoes upon chelingoes loaded with rice : the Dutch have nothing to fear now; befides (according to the law of nations) they are only to send us no provisions themselves, and we are no more blocked up by sea.
The saving of Pondicherry hath been in your power once already; if you miss the present opportunity, it will be entirely your fault: do not forget allo some small chelingoss; offer great rewards; I expect seventeen thousand Morattoes within these four days. In short, risque all, attempt alle force all, and send us fome rice, should it be but half garse at a time.
Notwithftanding this mortifying ces of the country confidered us disappointment, M. Lally made no with an awful segard, and nothing proposal to surrender. The fiege but a ligle French fettlement on the was carried on with redoubled ala. coast of Malabar, called Mahie, çrity; and at length a large battery (and which was soon after reduced) being advanced within four hundred, opposed our commanding the whole and fifty yards of the rampart, a trade of the val peninsula of India, breach being effected, and not more from the Ganges to the Indies, the than one day's provision of any kind mon extenfive and profitable sphere semaining, a signal was made for a of commerce in the world. ceffation, the principal of the je Wbilft every thing was giving foits, together with two civilians way to our arms in the southern came out, and offered terms of ca. parts of this peninsula, the affairs pitulation. The governor preserv. of France, which in Bengal had ing all his haugbriefs, which nei- been to all appearance totally supther his errors nor misfortunes could pressed, rose up again for a moin the least abate, declined to offer ment from a quarter, and in a Jan. 15th.
any termsa he sent out maones, which was little expected.
a paper full of invect- After the taking of Chandenagore ives against the English, for the by admiral Watson in the year breach of treaties relative to India; 1757, Mr. Law, (nephew to that he alledged that those breaches dif. Law who had made himself fo well qualifed him from proposing any known by the Milifippi fcheme) terms; and in consequence he ra- put himself ar the head of a party ther soffered our troops to take por- of French fugitives, which was feffion of the place, than formally augmented from time to time to surrendered it. As the governor re
about two hundred men.With'. fused to capitulate, the proposal of this small party he threw himself the inhabitants was little regarded, into the heart of the country, and and the city of Pondicherry, with a joining himself fometimes to one, garrison of about fourteen hundred sometimes to another of the na. European soldiers, a valt quantity tive princes, as his intereft led of military stores, and great riches; him ; he rendered himself confiderwas given up at discretion to our able by several ftriking services, and victorious arms.
supported the credit of his little Nothing can be faid too highly corps with a very high reputation. of the conduct, perseverance, and The Great Mogul having some unanimity of the land and fea fer- time since been deposed by an irvices during a tedious fiege and ruption of the Marattas, and dying blockade of eight months, in a roon, after, one of his sons, Sha climate so unfavourable to all mili- Zaddah, assumed the title, and was tary operations. Colonel Coote supported by some of the provinces gave the final blow to the French of that extensive and disunited em.
he was now undif- pire; he was opposed by others; puced master of the rich coast of and though he was at the head of Coromandel; the French power was a royal army of his native subjects, wholly extirpated; the neutral na- such is the state of the military in fior's were contemptible; the prin- that part of the world, that he con
power in India;
fidered an handful of European fe not yet known with certainty, in gitives, as an acquifition of the what manner they mean to dispose greatest importance, and such as of their captive monarch. It was might turn the ballance against any, fome heightening to the fatisfaction weight of Indians, which might of this great event, that it happenbe thrown into the oppofite scale ed on the same day in which the In fact, it was to Mr. Law
French agreed to the surrender of tributed the reduction of several Pondicherry. confiderable provinces to his obe. "A little before this, Jaffiar Ali dience.
Cawn, the Nabob who, in
1757) Elated with these faceeffes, Law had been placed in that dignity by persuaded him to turn his arms general Clive, notwithstanding the againt Bengal, which had not ac- terrifying example of his predeces: knowledged him; it was a rich and for, by his weakness and mif-goflourishing country, and the pof-' vernment, drew on himself the fefsion of it, would undoubtedly hatred of his subjects, and lost the contribute more than all the rest to protection of the English. But as fet him on the throne of the Moá his ambition was the feeblest of guls. Here, unfortunately for Him, his passions, he consented quietly to the evil genius of Law impelled him quit the throne. 'The revolution was to encounter again with those arms, effected without bloodshed, his son: by which the interest of his coun- in-law was appointed in his room s try had been before ruined in this and as the whole transaction was part of the world, and which in. with the consent and co-operation deed were those only, from which of the English governor Vanfittart, he had a great deal to fear. Sha the old privileges of the company Zaddah entered the kingdom of were confirmed, and new were acBengal, at the head of an army of quired.: the English in Bengal were 80,000 Indians, and something become necessary to the government more than 200 French,
of that country, and every change The French support was more produces fomething to their adprejudicial to his title in the eyes of vantage. the English, than any other ob It is certain, that the period of jection, and as they were now be. this war in the East Indies, has come the arbiters of crowns in the been marked by as many ftriking East, they joined the Nabob. of events, uncommon circumstances, Bengal to oppose his progress and fingular reverses of fortune, as About 20,000 blacks, fupported by any that have happened from the 500 English soldiers, formed the time of our knowledge of this part army against him. A major (major of the world. We are sorry that Carnac) commanded that body, the accounts we have hitherto had which engaged, and totally routed are so broken and imperfect, that an army of fourscore thousand men, it is impossible to treat of them in commar.ded by the Mogul in per a manner in the least suitable to son That prince was taken pri. their dignity and importance. Here foner; Mr. Law was also taken, we only touch them slightly, and the party of French adven It can hardly be said, that this turers dispersed for ever. It is series of prosperity was interrupted
by the successful attempts of the honour from the vigour of his en-
This bold adventurer, harvest. however, could not derive so much