figns at Madrid: but she was in determination of the treaty. They hopes, that every step she took in law, that after a severe struggle of the treaty, and every concession the five years, the affairs of our nearest should make, would prove a fresh allies were only not ruined. To incentive to the jealoulies and ap- say nothing of the condition of the prehenfious of Spain. Thus in king of Pruffia, the whole couneffe&t all the motions which France try of Hesse was in the actual porseemingly made towards peace were lellion of France : they likewise held in reality so many steps towards a the county of Hanau ; and by their new war; and whilft at London the occupation of Gottingen, the Habreathed nothing but moderation, noverian territory lay open to their and the most earnest desire of put. arms. If this quarrel should be ting a period to the calamities of considered as a cause not strictly Europe, at Madrid she was taking English (though the French in their the most vigorous measures for memorials contended it was), yet spreading them further, and conti- certainly the Hessians, and princinuing them longer.

pally the Hanoverians, were allies On the lide of England, though of so near a connection, and had there was far more good faith in done and suffered so much in the the public procedure, there were common cause, that it must have also, it must be admitted, many appeared fhocking to all Europe, if circumstances which co-operated to folely attentive to our own peculiar retard the peace. The great and advantages, we should patch up a almost unparallelled fuccess which peace without any provision in their attended our arms in this war, had favour: and it was very evident, raised a proportionable expectation, that this provision could not be made and inspired very high thoughts in- in the situation in which the last to the minds of the people. They campaign had left them, unless our thought it unreasonable to make government purchased it at a price almost any concessions to a nation that would be very grudgingly paid whose ambition and violence they by the English iubjects. had always found to correspond The ministry, perplexed between with its power, and whom they the natural expectations of their now considered as lying at their country, and the reasonable expecmercy. That this was the time tations of their allies, must have for reducing France, which if we found it not a little difficult to let pass, we could never hope again know what party they ought to to recover.

In these sentiments it take. In order to reconcile, must have fared ill with that admin much as possible, these contradicto. miftration, who should make a facri. ry desires, the only solution which fice of any of those objects on which could be found was to push the war the people had set their hearts. with the utmost vigour; and in the

On the other hand, it could not mean time not to hurry the negotihave escaped them, that the fituar ation; in hopes that during its protion of affairs in Germany, howe gress things might take such a turn, ver they might be artificially fepe as to enable them to purchase peace rated in the discussion, muft neceffa- for their allies out of the rily have an influence on the final quisitions they should have made




fuer the commencement of the and in this odd mixture of hostile treaty, and without being obliged and pacific measures, began the year to have recourse to their conquests, 1761, year more remarkable, perprevious to that æra. On this foot- haps, than any of those we have hiing they proposed to satisfy the de- therto described, for events which mands of the public faith, and at will be radically decisive of the future the same time to preserve the repu- prosperity or misery of Europe, but tation which was so necessary to less for those matters by which the itheir affairs at home. Accordingly magination of the reader is commonthe duke of Brunswick was to pro- ly affected. Having in this chapter fecute with the utmost vigour, the laid down, as far as we can conjecoperations which he had begun in ture, the political motives for the the depth of winter; and an expe. uncommon effort which was made dition, the object of which was in Germany, in our next chapter then secret, was prepared with equal we shall give an account of the 'mis diligence in England.

litary plan of this effort, the execu. In these equivocal dispositions, tion and the success of it,


Prince Ferdinand's plan. Allies enter into Helle and Thuringia. French

retire. Hereditary Prince repulfed at Fritzlar. Fritzlar taken. Seviral magazines taken. Blackade of Marpurg and Ziegenhayn. Siege of Caffel. Battle of Langensaltze, Broglio reinforced from the Lower Rhine, Hereditary Prince defeated at Stangerode. Siege of Casel, &c. raised. Allies retire behind the Dymel.

A ,

paign, the French had the German dominions. lay entirely open entire and undisturbed pofiefion of to their enterprizes. the whole territory of Hesse: a If we contider the situation of the country tolerably provided, and French armies, they will present which contains many tenable places. us with the idea of an immense Some of these they had strengthen- crescent, the two advanced points of ed with additional works; and they which were at Gottingen and Wesel had amassed immense magazines in and the body extended in Hesse: so the most convenient situations. This that being perfe&tly well provided was their condition in the front of with magazines, and, master of all their winter cantonments. On their the proper communications necefleft they had driven the allies from fary for their current subsistence, the Lower Rhine, where they kept with strong places in their rear, and a considerable body of troops, in both their Aanks: in the next which streightened our quarters, campaign they had anly to advance and checked our efforts on that their several polts in a manner to fide. On their right they pofleffed enclose the allied army, which, the town of Gottingen, in which without some signal success (from they had placed a very strong gar- their numbers and fituation, hardly şison ; and thus they shut us up on to be expected) would find it


[B] 4


felf entirely incapable of making sembled on the oth of February, any stand against them.

without suffering the enemy to have Prince Ferdinand was very fen any previous notice of their intenfible of these inconveniences of his tions. The next day the troops situation, and of the advantages the halted, and the duke communicatenemy had over him. It was ex ed to his generals the difpofition he tremely difficult to settle a plan for had made for the motions of the action; but no action could be at whole. tended with much worse consequen The center was led by his ferene ces, than inactivity in a bad con- highness in perfon; it penetrated dition. He knew from experi- directly into Heffe, and marching ence, that the French were ill qua- by Zierenberg and Durenberg, lified for winter operations in Ger made its way towards Cassel. The many, and that his own soldiers, right and left of the army were besides their superior hardiness, and each at a very confiderable distance their being inured to the rigour of from this body; but they were so the climate, could suffer but little disposed as fully to.

fully to co-operate in more from field fervice, especially the general plan of operation, which if attended with success, than they was very extensive. The heredimust endure from the badness of tary prince commanded the their winter quarters. It is true right: he marched by Stadbergen that there was something discourag- for Mengeringhausen; and leaving ing in the attack of a very superior the country of Hesse to the Eastbody of the enemy, poffefed of ward, as the alarm was to be as every advantage against him: but it sudden, and as widely diffused as was clear that this fuperiority, and possible, he pushed forward with these advantages would not leffen the utmost expedition into the as the summer approached. It was heart of the French quarters. Gen. clear, that every step the enemy Sporken commanded a corps at a gained on him, would render his greater distance to the left, and defence weaker and his resources penetrated into Thuringia, by Dumore scanty; and that if the enemy derstadt and Heiligenstadt. The found themselves in a condition to design of this movement was to commence this campaign where they break the communication of the had concluded the last, and that no. French with the army of the empire thing should hinder their proceeding to open one for ourselves with the in the earliest season, he could ne- Prussians, and to cut off all interver reasonably hope to protract the course between the grand army of war to another year. For to speak the enemy, and their garrison at the truth, this was the utmost, which Gottingen. in his circumstances he could pro By this sudden, extensive, and mise himself from the most judici- vigorous attack, the French were ous scheme of conduct.

thrown into the utmost confternaHaving therefore resolved to act, tion : they retreated, or rather fed he loft no time to act with vigour. upon every side. It could scarcely He appointed three places of ren have been imagined, that this was dezvous on the Dymel, the Rhume, the same army which had but just and in Saverland. His army af- closed the campaign with so much


success. Such has been the sport of and reputation, who commanded fortune in this war, even beyond there, loft his life in the attack. all former examples of her caprice, These two severe checks at the that the instances are numerous of entrance into action, did not, howinferior and beaten armies, without ever, discourage either the parany apparent change in their cir- ties that suffered them, or the rest cumstances, driving the conquerors of the army. They advanced as before them. So remarkable was expeditiously, and with more cauthe revolution of fortune at this tion. Cannon and mortar were time, that it is highly credible if brought before' Fritzlar, which the French had had their quarters after a defence that was rather in an open country, their army had made for the credit of the combeen totally destroyed : but happily mander, than from

any for them, they had very fufficient hope of saving the place,


15 means of securing their retreat. For surrendered on honourable terms. as the allies advanced, they were A large magazine was found here. obliged to leave Caffel and Gotuin- The marquis of Granby was employgen at their backs ; into the former ed with success in reducing the forts of which the enemy had thrown a and castles in this neighbourhood. garrison equal to a moderate army; The allied army resolutely advanand in the latter they had seven or ced, and as they advanced, the eight thousand men. Beyond these French continually retired, abanagain were Fritzlar, Ziegenhayn, doning post after poft, and fell back and Marpurg, places of a tolerable almost to the Maine. They fired degree of strength and well garri. their magazines as they retreated; foned, besides some other inferior but the allies pursued with so much pofts.

rapidity, that they saved five capiThe hereditary prince, whose tal stores; one of which contained party was the most advanced, ftruck no less than eighty thousand facks the first blow, by an attempt to sur. of meal, fifty thousand sacks of prize Fritzlar. He had received oats, and a million of rations of advice that it was not prepared to hay, a very small part of which had receive him. He accordingly took been destroyed. These were aconly a few battalions and no can- quifitions of the utmost advantage, non, in hopes of being able to as they wonderfully facilitated the carry that place at once. But un- progress of the army; which as it fortunately he was deceived in his advanced, still found its subsistence; intelligence. The garrison was provision was also thereby made for prepared and resolute, and though the cavalry, which otherwise it the hereditary prince attacked it could never have been supplied with with his usual spirit, he was obliged in such a season, and at such a vast for that time to defift, and to draw distance from our original quaroff with no inconsiderable lofs.

About this time, Marpurg was Notwithftanding this success in attempted in the same manner, and front, it was not here the grand with no better fuccefs. General object of our operations lay. Caffel Breidenback, an Hanoyerian offi was to be reduced. The French cer, of great bravery, experience had in that town a garrison of




seventeen battalions, besides fome to this point; for on the success of other corps, under the command of this stroke depended the whole forshe count de Broglio; and there tune of the campaign. It was vewas no doubt, that he would de- ry apparent that if Caffel and its fend the place to the utmost. The garrison should fall into the hands fortifications of Castel are mostly of the allies, Gottingen and the inin the old manner; they consist of ferior places muft inevitably fall very high but strong walls. Some along with it; and this misfortune works indeed had been newly add- would be more than equivalent to ed; but the great hope of the ene- the loss of a great battle. my was in the strength of the gar Whilft the war was thus carried rison and the rigour of the season. on in Hesse, M. Sporken who comThe siege of this place was not to manded the detachment to the left, be delayed; however it was neces. on the side of Saxony, advanced fary previously to clear all the adja- with an intrepidity equal to the çent country of the enemy, and to reft; he was soon joined by a corps cut off the communication of the of Prussians, and the united army garrison with their grand army. loit no time to clear the Werra and

Therefore when marshal Broglio the Unstrut of the bodies of French had been driven quite out of Hefe, and Saxons which occupied the and had retreated towards Frank. most important posts upon these rifort, prince Ferdinand ceased to As these bodies were advan. advance; and having ordered two tageously posted, and could be fupbodies to the blockade of Marpurg ported on one side by the garrison and Ziegenhayn, which still obiti of Gottingen, and on the other, nately held out, he formed that as they promised themselves, by part of the army which was with the army of the empire, they main, him, into a chain of cantonments, tained their ground, and this foon making a front towards the enemy brought on a sharp adion. The which extended from the river Lahí allies attacked a large bo. to the river Ohm, and from the Ohm dy advantageouly pos

14th Feb. to the Fulda; thus he proposed to ted at Langensalıze upon the Un, watch the motions of marshal strut; the event was entirely faBroglio's army, to cover the fiege vourable. Three whole battali. of Cassel, and the blockades of the ons of Saxons were made prisotwo fortresses juft mentioned. The ners by the Pruflians; M. de Spor. Siege of Cafe) was carried on by ken took two battalions. The enethe count of Lippe Schaumburg, a my's lofs was computed at five thou. fovereign prince of the empire, re- fand men; several pieces of can. puted one of the ableit engineers in non were also taken, and a large Europe. His management of the magazine was abandoned. This artillery at Thornbauten was a prin- blow was well followed; one body cipal cause in the acquisition of that of the combined army pushed to great victory; and it was not doubt. Eisenach and Gotha, whilst another ed that bis abilities would be exer by forced marches got forward to t'd as effeclively at Casiei. Tren Fulda; the French gave way on their ches were opened on the first of right, and the army of the empire march. All eyes were now directed on the left; the latter fell back to


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