T will perhaps be thought necessary to

say a few words in excuse for the delay, in our annual publication, which appears somewhat later than the usual time. The reader will be pleased to observe, that the papers relative to the rupture with Spain, which furnish a considerable and important part of our work, were not published until March 1762, though the events which they elucidate, properly belonged to the year 1761, which we were to treat. So that there was a necessary delay, in order not only to supply the unavoidable defect, which want of early information had left in our history, but also to make some material


changes in the plan of the whole, in consequence of the new lights that were afforded

in those papers.

We heartily wish that, to our apology for this delay, we could add that the work has derived from it a superior degree of accuracy and correctness. But the public is sufficiently apprised of our disadvantages and defects; and we have sufficiently experienced an indulgence due, not to our abilities, but to the pains we have taken. They may be assured that this indulgence will not tempt us to an ungrateful negligence, or the least relaxation of our best endeavours.




For the YEAR 1761.




P R E S E N T W A R.



Preliminary remarks. Treaty proposed and entered into by the belligerent

powers. Mr. Stanley fent to Paris, and Mr. Busy to London. French machinations in Spain. Difficulties in the negotiation. Design of the campaign in Hefe, and of the expedition to Belleifle.

FTER a general war of five rather wished for peace, than very years, carried on with the attentively considered the proba

greatest effusion of blood, bility of effecting it, seemed to think and the most extraordinary expence it might then have been expected. ever known to attend a war of that But whilst the public was flattered continuance, it was hoped that, if with these hopes, the situation of the animosity of the belligerent affairs would not suffer us to believe powers was not abated, at least that they had any solid foundation. a great part of the fuel of discord We accordingly ventured to point had been consumed ; and that the out the difficulties which then obtime was arrived for giving peace structed any scheme for peace** to Europe. Some propofitions for And as these difficulties were such, that purpose had been made in the as did not attend that particular close of the year 1759. Those, who conjuncture only, but must fubaft

Vol. IV.

* See Ann. Register, 1760, ch. s.


as long as the fortunę of war con It would prove of the utmost motinued in the same train, we were ment to the tranquility of mankind, from the beginning apprehensive that this point were sufficiently rethat the new negotiation which we garded, and that they would wil. have since seen opened, and for ingly adopt that system of equality, some time carried on with such to which Tooner or later, with more pleasing appearances, might in the or fewer ftruggles, they are fo often iffue be attended with no better compelled to submit. When, sel. success.

dom, a treaty is concluded on other There are indeed but two situa- terms, as the king of Prussia has tions in which peace can be very found by severe experience, and as rationally expected. The first fitua we observed on a former occasion, is tion is that of equality ; and this is, only a short cessation, and not a either where nothing is gained on perfect peace. But it must be acany fide ; so that whenever mutual knowledged that this situation, the weariness, and unprofitable hofti- most coincident with their true inlities have calmed the ardor of the tereft, is at the same time the most warring powers, no intricate points contradictory to the passions and intervene' to frustrate the first pa. prejudices of nations. It appears cific disposition; or it may be where hard to lose upon every side every the loftes are so equal, that ex- object of the war. A peace on this changes may easily be made, or the foundation will be censured, but it parties may rest 'mutuảlly satisfied is the best, on the fame principle with their advantage over each that the shortest follies are the bett; other.

and that no injured pride is left to The second situation is that of brood over a future war.

Contrary neceffity; where one of the parties is to the opinion of the warm patriots so entirely broken and reduced, as on all sides, we therefore imagined to fubmit to receive conditions on that the year seventeen hundred the footing of conquest, and to pur- and fifty-eight, in the close of the chafe repose by humiliating and en- third campaign, was the happy feebling conceflions. A peace up- moment for negotiation. At this on this latter basis is always the time, however, no propositions had grand popular object. In every war been made. The propofitions of we flatter ourselves with the hope seventeen hundred and fifty-nine of it, against an experience almost were but slightly regarded, and obuniform. In fact, it is to the last viously could end in nothing. But degree difficult to reduce any of in the beginning of the year, of the great powers of Europe to this which we are now going to treat, difgraceful neceffity. For to reduce the scene of negotiation was openany one of them to this state of sub- ed with far greater folemnity and : mislion, you must, in a manner, re- parade'; and as it was carried on duce all of them to it. The war, if with great diligence, it necessarily it continues, draws ftate after ftate makes a principal part of the history into its-vortex, until all Europe is of this year. It is indeed soméinvolved. A sort of ballance is then what fortunate both for the writers produced, and the peace of conquest and the readers of these events that becomes impracticable.

this treaty has intervened. The


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