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could make at sea. This new body fewer than fifty in a company, otof adventurers were called Free- tained the name of The Fifties from booters, from their making free their enemies, whose manners and prey or booty of whatever came in customs we shall now enter upon.
The Buccaneers lived in little The colony now began to thrive huts built on some spots of cleared at a great rate, by the cheap and ground just large enough to drý easy manner in which the Free- their skins on, and contain their booters acquired the greatest riches, buccanning houses.
These spots and the profusion with which they they called Boucans, and the huts distributed them among their old they dwelt in Ajoupas, a word companions the Buccaneers and which they borrowed from the Planters for the mereft trifles. This Spaniards, and the Spaniards from brought numbers of Settlers from the natives. Though these AjouOld France in quality of indented pas lay open on all sides, they servants, tho’ they toiled rather like were very agreeable to the Hardy Naves during the three years for inhabitants, in a climate where wind which they generally bound them- and air are so very desirable things. selves.
As the Buccaneers had neither wife Thus the colony consisted of four nor child, they associated by pairs, classes ; Buccaneers, Freebooters, and mutually rendered each other Planters, and Indented Servants all the services a master could reasonwho generally remained with the ably expect from a fervant, living Buccaneers, Planters. And together in so perfect a community, these four orders composed what that the survivor always succeeded they now began to call the body of his deceased partner. This kind of Adventurers. These people lived union or fellowship they called together in a perfect harmony under S'emateloter (insailoring), and each a kind of democracy; every free other Matelot (failor,) whence is man had a despotic authority over derived the custom of giving, at his own family, and every captain least in some parts of the French was a sovereign in his own thip, Antilles, the name Matelctage though liable to be discarded at the [failorage), to any kind of society discretion of the crew.
formed by private persons for their The Planters fettled chiefly in mutual advantage. They behaved the little island of Tortuga on the to each other with the greatest jufnorthern coast of Hispaniola; but it tice and openness of heart; it would was not long before some of them have been a crime to keep any thing going to the great island to hunt under lock and key, but on the with the Buccaneers, the rest were other hand the least pilfering was surprised by the Spaniards, and all, unpardonable, and punished with even those who had surrendered at expulfion from the community. discretion in hopes of mercy, were And indeed there could be no great put to the sword, or hanged. temptation to steal, when it was
The next care of the Spaniards reckoned a point of honour never to was to rid the great island of the refuse a neighbour what he wanted; Buccaneers, and for this reason and where there was so little prothey assembled a body of 500 lance- perty, it was imposible there should men, who, by their seldom going be many disputes. If any happen.
ed, the common friends of the par- ftill current in the French Antilles, ties at variance interposed, and loon A man is not to be known till be takes a put an end to the difference. wife.
As to laws, the Buccaneers ac Their dress consisted of a filthy knowledged none but an odd jum- greasy shirt, dyed with the blood ble of conventions made between of the animals they killed, a pair of themselves, which, however, they trousers ftill more nafty, a thong of regarded as the
the fovereign rule. leather by way of belt, to which they They filenced all objections by hung a cafe containing fome Dutch cooly answering, that it was not the knives, and a kind of very short custom of the coast, and grounded sabre called Manchette, a hat withtheir right of acting in this man out any brim, except a little flap on ner, on their baptism under the the front to take hold of it by; and tropic, which freed them, in their shoes of hogskin all of a piece. opinion, from all obligations ante- Their guns were four feet and a cedent to that marine ceremony: half in the barrel and of a bore to
The governor of Tortuga, when carry balls of an ounce. Every man that island was again settled, though had his contract servants; more or appointed by the French court, had fewer according to his abilities, bevery little authority over them; fides a pack of twenty or thirty dogs they contented themselves with ren- among which there was always a dering him from time to time fome couple of beagles. Their chief flight homage. They had in a man- employment at first was ox-hunting, ner entirely Ihaken off the yoke of re. and, if at any time they chased a ligion, and thought they did a great wild hog; it was rather for pastime, deal, in not wholly forgetting the or to make provision for a feast, God of their Fathers. We are sur- than for any other advantage. Bat, prised to meet with nations; among in process of time, fome of them bewhom it is a difficult matter to dil took themselves entirely to hunting cover any traces of a religious wor- of hogs; whose flesh they buccanned Tip: And yet it is certain, that had in the following manner: the Buccaneers of St. Domingo been First, they cut the flesh into long perpetuated on the same footing pieces, an inch and a half thick, and they subfifted at the time we are sprinkled them with salt,which they speaking of, the third or fourth ge- rubbed off after twenty-four hours. neration of them would have as little Then they dried these pieces in religion as the Caffres and Hotten- ftoves over a fire made of the skin and tots of Africa, or the Topinambous bones of the beast, till they grew as and Cannibals of America.
hard as a board, and assumed a They even laid aside their fur- deep brown colour. Pork prepared names, and assumed nick-names, or in this manner will keep in casks a martial names, most of which have twelvemonth and longer, and when continued in their families to this steeped but a little while in lukeday. Many however, on their mar warm water, become plump and rying, which seldom happened till rosy, and yield moreover a most they turned planters, took care to grateful smell, either broiled or have their real furnames inserted in: boiled, or otherwise dressed, enough the marriage contract; and this to tempt the most languid appetite, practice gave occasion, to a proverb, and please the most delicate pala:e.
Those who hunt the wild boar, have their tables ready, for every one of late been called fimply Hunters. had his separate table, which was
In hunting, they set out at day, the first thing, any way fit for the break, preceded by the beagles, and purpose, that came in their way, a followed by their servants with the itone, the trunk of a tree, and the Test of the dogs; and as they made like. No table-cloth, no napkin, no it a point never to balk their bread or wine graced their board ; beagles, they were often led by not even potatoes or bananas, unless them over the moft frightful pre- they found them ready to their cipices, and through places which hands. When this did not happen, any other mortal would have deemed the fat and lean of the game, taken absolutely impassable. As soon as alternately, served to supply the the beagles had rouzed the game, place. A little pimento, and the the rest of the dogs ftruck up and squeeze of an orange, their only furrounded the beast, stopping it, and sauce ; contentment, peace of mind, keeping a constant barking till the a good appetite, and abundance Buccaneer could get near enough to of mirth, made every thing agreethoot it; in doing this he commonly able. Thus they lived and spent aimed at the pit of the breaft; when their time, till they had compleated the beait fell, he ham-ftrung it, to the number of hides for which prevent its rising again. But it has they had agreed with the merchants ; sometimes happened that the crea- which done, they carried them to gure, not wounded enough to tunible Tortuga, or some port of the great to the ground, has run furiously as ifland. his pursuer, and ripped him open. As the Buccaneers used much exBut in general the Buccaneer seldom ercise, and fed only on fresh meat, missed his aim, and when he did, they generally enjoyed a good state was nimble enough to get up the of health. They were indeed fubtree behind which he had the pre- ject to fevers, but either fuch as caution to place himfelf. What is Lafted only a day, and left no fenfimore, some of them have been seen ble impression the day following, or to overtake the beast in chace, and little flow fevers, which did not hinham-string it 'without any further der them from action, and were of ceremony.
course so little regarded, that it was As foon as the prey was half asual with the patient, when afked fkinned, the master cut out a large how he did, to answer, Very bone, and fucked the marrow for “ well, nothing ails me but the breakfalt. The rett he left to his “ fever.” It was impoflible, howtervants, one of whom always re. ever, they should not suffer confider: mained behind to finish the skinning, ably by such fatigues under a climate, and bring the skin with a choice to the heat of which few of them piece of meat for the huntsmen's had been early enough inured. dinner. They then continued the Hence the most considerate among chace till they had killed as many them, after they had got money beasts, as there were heads in the enough for that purpose, turned Plancompany. The maiter was the last, ters. The reft foon spent the fruits to return to the boucan, loaded like of their labour in taverns and tipthe rett, with a kin and a piece of pling houses; and many had to haHere the Buccaneers found bituated themfelves to this kind of
fife, as to become incapable of any which they had been the theatres, other. Nay, there have been in were intitled, of the massacre ; such Itances of young men, who having as the hill of the masacre, the plain early embarked through neceflity of the massacre, the valley of the in this painful and dangerous pro- masacre ; which names they retain feffion, perlifted in it afterwards, to this day. merely through a principle of liber At length the Spaniards grew tinism, rather than return to France, tired of this way of proceeding, and and take poffeffion of the most plen- had recourse to their old method of tiful fortunes.
surprize, which against enemies. of Such were the Buccaneers of more courage than vigilance was St. Domingo, and such their fitua. like to succeed better. This put tion, when the Spaniards undertook the Buccaneers under a necesiity of to extirpate them. And at first they never hunting, but in large parties, met with great success ;' for as the and fixing their boucans in the Buccaneers hunted feparately, every little islands on the coast, where one attended by his fervants, they they retired every evening. This were easily furprised. Hence the expedient succeeded, and the bouSpaniards killed numbers, and took cans by being more "fixed, foon acmany more, whom they condemned quired the air and consistency of to a most cruel slavery. But when- little towns. , ever the Buccaneers had time to put When the Buccaneers had once themselves in a state of defence, fixed themselves, as related, each they fought like lions, to avoid fal- boucan ordered scouts every morna ling into the hands of a nation, ing to the highest part of the island from whom they were sure to re. in order to reconnoitre the coast, ceive no quarter; and by this means and see if any Spanish parties were they often escaped ; nay there are abroad. If no enemy appeared, they many instances of single men fighting appointed a place and hour of rentheir way through numbers. These dezvous in the evening, and were dangers however, and the fuccess of never absent if not killed or prithe Spaniards in discovering their soners. When therefore any one boucans where they used to fur of the company was missing, it was prise and cut the throats of them and not lawful for the rest to hunt again their servants in their fleep, engaged till they had got intelligence of him them to cohabit in greater num- if taken, or avenged his death if bers, and even to act offensively, in killed. hopes that by fo doing, they might Things continued in this situaat last induce the Spaniards to let tion for a long time, till the Spathem live in peace. But the fury niards made a general hunt over with which they behaved whenever the whole island, and by destroying they met any Spaniards, ferved on their game, put the Buccaneers unly to make their enemies more in- der a necessity of betaking themtent on their destruction; and assist- felves to another course of life. ance coming to both parties, the Some of them turned planters, and whole island was turned into a thereby increased some of the French Slaughter-house, and so much blood fettlements on the coast, and formed spilt on both sides, that many others. The rest, not relishing fo places on account of the carnage of confined and regular a life, entered
among the Freebooters, who thereby The nominal sovereign pofseffes became a very powerful body. a third only, and that the leaft va
luable part of his empire. Bengal,
the smallest but most fertile pro. The following particulars relating to vince, is governed by a vice-roy.
the Indians of the Peninsula within The other division, called Deckan, the Ganges, and likewise to the extending from Balasore, or Jagocountry itself, must throw a great naut, to Cape Comarin, is also de, light on all the military tranface legated by the Mogul to another tions in that remote part of the vice-roy, of exceeding great power, world. They are extracted from having within his jurisdiion seven Mr. Cambridge's biftory of the large territories, to which he has late war there, and notwithstand the undisputed right of nominating ing their importance, bave never seven nabobs, or governors of probefore, that we can find, been taken vinces. In all parts of India there notice of by any other writer. The are still large districts, which have manner, in which the Indians feed preserved, with the Gentoo relitheir borjes, seems to deferve par- gion, the old form of government ticular attention.
under Indian kings, called Raja
Sych are Maisfore, whose capital is T is generally supposed, that the Seringapatam, and Tanjore, whose
peninsula within the Ganges is capital is Tanjore. There are also under the immediate government of among the woods and mountainous the Mogul, and that his mandates parts of the country several petty from Delli are obeyed in the moft princes, or heads of clans, distinremote parts of the coast; but a guished by the name of Polygars. great part of that vast peninsula These are all tributary to the nanever acknowledged any fubjection bobs, and those to the vice-roys, so the throne of Delli, till the reign whose capital is Aurengabad. The of Aureng. Zebe: and the revenues
Carnatic is that part of the Dec. from those Indian kings, and Moorish kan, which comprehends the pringovernors, who were conquered or cipal settlements of the Europeans, employed by him, have, fince his Madrass, and Pondicherry, and also death, been intercepted by the vice Arcot. To establish the government soys, which his weaker' successors of Arcot, and to oppose the hoftile have appointed for the government intentions of M. Dupliex, the Engof the peninsula ; so that at this lish East India company engaged in time neither can the tribute from this war in support of Mahomet the several potentates reach the Allee Cawn. court of Delli, nor the vigour of
The chain of mountains which the government extend from the runs through the peninsula from capital to those remote countries. north to south, is the cause of an And ever since the province of In- extraordinary phenomenon in na. dostan was ruined by Nadir Shah, the tural history. The countries which weakness of the Mogul, and the po- are separated by these mountains, licy and confirmed independency of though under the fame latitude. the vice-roys, have confined the in- have their seasons and climate enfluence of the government to its in- tirely different; for while it is winland department.
ter on one side of the hills, it is