upon it. Upon that part of the top, these fwallows, or holes, called Alfacing Lancaster and the Irish fea, lan Poit; and after passing under there are still to be feen the dimen- the earth about a mile, they burst Gons of an house, and the remains out again, and flow into the river of what the country people call a Ribile, whole head or spring is but beacon, viz. a place erected with a little further up the valley. The Itones, three or four yards high, depth of this swallow or hole, could ascended with itone stairs; which never be ascertained; it is about ferved in old time, as old people 20 poles in circumference, not pertell us, to alarm the country, up- fectly circular, but rather oval. In on the approach of an enemy, a

wet foggy weather it fends out a person being always kept there up- smoke, or mist, which may be seen on watch, in the time of war, who at a considerable distance. Not far was to give notice in the night, by from this hole, nearly north, is fire, to other watchmen placed up- another hole, which may be casily on other mountains, within view descended. In some place, the roof of which there are many, particu- is four or five yards high, and its larly Whernside, Woefall, Camfell, width is the same; in tone places Pennygent, and Pennlehill. There not above a yard ; and was it not are likewise discoverable a great for the run of water, it is not to be many other mountains in

Weft- known how far you might walk, by moreland and Cumberland, besides the help of a candle, or other light. the town of Lancaster, from which There is likewise another hole or it is diftant about 20 miles. The chasm, a little west from the other west and north fides are most steep two, which cannot be descended and rocky; there is one part to

without difficulty

you are no soonthe fouth, where you may ascend er entered than you have a subteron horseback; but whether the raneous passage, fometimes wide work of nature, or of art, I can and spacious, sometimes so narrow not say. A part of the said moun you are obliged to make use of both tain jutts out to the north-east near hands, as well as fect, to crawl a a mile, but somewhat below the confiderable way; and as I was infummit; this part is called Park- formed, fome persons have gone fell ; another part jutts out in the several hundred yards, and might fame manner, near a mile towards have gone much further, durft they the eaft, and is called Simon-sell; have ventured. There are a great there is likewise another part to many more holes, or caverns, well wards the fouth, called Little Ingle worth the notice of a traveller: borough; the summits of all which fome dry, fome having a continual are much lower than the top of the run of water ; such as Blacksidemountain itfelf. Near the base, Cove, Sir William's Cove, Atkinson's there are holes or chasms, called Chamber, &c. all whose curiosities fwallows, supposed to be the re are more than I can describe. There mains of Noah's deluge ; they are is likewise, partly fouth east, a small among the lime-ftone rocks, and rivulet, which falls into a place con-. are open to an incredible depth. fiderably deep, called Long.kin ; The springs towards the east all there is likewise another swallo, come together, and fall into one of or hole, called Johnson's Jacket

H 3


course of several miles, this threana M B Rauthmell, in his Anti

hole, a place resembling a funnel fones are to be found near it, thos in shape, but vastly deep; a stone it is computed to contain 400 of bei.g thrown into it, makes a rum that country cart load of stones, or bliug noise, and may be heard a upwards.

There is likewife anconsiderable time; there is also other at the base north-east, in reanother, called Gaper-gill, into semblance much the same, but which a good many springs tall in scarce fo large, and I was informed. one stream, and after a subterrane- of several others up and down the cus paffage of upwards of a mile, country,

PASTOR, break out again, and wind through Clapham, then, after a winding

quitates Bremetonacæ, or the joins the river Lon, or Lune; and, Roman Antiquities of Overborough palling by the town of Lancaster, it (p. 61.) has, from Dr. Gale, given falls into the Irish sea : there are the following very satisfactory and ikewise, both on the west and north entertaining account of the derivafides, a gr at many springs, which tion of this mountain's name, and a'i fall into such cavities, and burst- the use of the beacon, the ruins of ing out again, towards the base of which are now visible upon its flat the said mountain, fall likewise in- summit. to the Irish fea, by the town of . “ Bremetonacæ is a compound of Lancaster; and what seemed very three British words; Bre, Maenig, remarkable to me, there was not Tan; Mons, Saxeus, Ignis : which one rivulet running from the bale is, to express it in English, the of the mountain that had not a con- rocky-hill fire station ; i. e. the stafiderable fubterraneous paffage. All tion at Overborough had a fire upthe springs arose towards the sum on a hill. And the word Inglemit, amongst the greet-fiones, and borough fignifies the same thing in funk or fell into some hole, as soon the Saxon tongue, which the word as they descended to the lime-stone Bremetonacæ fignifies in the British. rocks; where passing under ground Hence we learn that the garrison of for some way, they burst out again Overborough erected a beacon on towards the base. There is like- the rocky hill of Ingleborough; and wise, to the west and north, a great on that side of the summit which many swallows or holes, fome vast- looks towards Overborough. : In ly deep and frightful, others more confirmation of this, the word BoHallow, all astonishing, with a long rough fignifies a fortified mount ; range of the most beautiful rocks i. & Ingleborough, from its very that ever adorned a prospect, rising name, denotes a fortification; and in a manner perpendicularly up to so it was when it had Roman folan immense height.

diers, as centinels detached from In the valley above Horton, near the garrison of Overborough.” Inthe base of this mountain, I observo gleborough is about five miles from ed a large heap or pile of greet- Overborough; but its prodigious ftones all thrown promiscuously to- height would have made it fit for a gether, without any appearance of mons exploratorius, had the distance building or workmanthip, which been almost double. yet cannot be reasonably thought Those gentlemen, who have to be the work of nature;. few leisure and sense enough to desire


an acquaintance with the natural which cannot be experienced but by history of their own country, would an actual survey. do well to set out from Lancaster, It would be unpardonable not to and from thence proceed to Cart- mention the black lead mine at the mel, Windermeer, Ulverstone, Fur- head of the valley of Borrodale, as ness-abbey, Pile of Foudrey, Mil-being one of the greatest curiosities lum-Castle, Ravenglass, Whiteha- in England, or perhaps in Europe. ven, Cockermouth, Boulness, and Neither ought the salt spring to be Carlisle ; they would have frequent past by, being very near the edge reason to lament the incredible ig- of the road, at the head of the noránce or carelessness of those who lake. I have mentioned this part have undertaken to give an account of the country chiefly on account of of the curiosities of Great Britain. the prospects, with which every

One of the curiosities they would traveller, who has any taste for the meet with in this tour, is a cavern · wild and romantic, cannot but be upon a common belonging to a little highly delighted; the vallies of village called Leck, in the N. E. Enerdale, Buttermeer, Loweswater part of Lancashire. The cavern it- and Lorton, furnish us with some self is called by the neighbourhood others of the same nature ; but not Ease-gill-kirk. The entrance in- perhaps quite so beautiful or extento it has the appearance of a point. five. But to the antiquarian I should ed gothic arch, about 20 yards point out several other as worthy high, and proportionably wide. of notice, such as Eleborough, near Within, it looks like a lofty spa- Maryport, where may be seen secious dome, variegated with fret- veral pieces of Roman antiquities : work, of almost every colour. and Wigton, near which place apThere are several passages out of it, pear the vestigia of that famous which lead under the hill; but one Roman station, which has for many must have lights and clues to ex- years gone by the name of Old amine them with safety and pleasure, Carlisle, where have been found a

great number of very valuable anTo the above places, A. B, in a letter tiquities, as votive altars, inscrip

from Cockermouth, dated Oct. 19, tions, &c. adds Keswick in Cumberland, and When our traveller has visited its environs, of which he thus Carlisle, no doubt but he will have Speaks.

a desire to see what remains of the

Piets wall, in this county. Many Ature has with such a liberal pieces of antiquity are to be seen at

hand lavished her graces on Netherby, Scaleby.castle, Brampton, this sweet retirement, that here Lanercost, and Irthington. feems to be an assemblage of every Corby is remarkable for the pleathing that is beautiful, from every fantnefs of its situation ; and, oprural scene in the universe. Some posite to it on the other side of the of its finest groves have indeed been Eden, Wetherall, where are some cut down within these few years ; rooms dug out of the solid rock, in but in vain should I attempt to de- a place very difficult of ascent, supfcribe the beauties which remain, posed to have been the habitation


[ocr errors]


of some hermit; or, perhaps, places description of Kamtchatka by Proof security for the monks * to re fesör Krafhennicoff. printed at tire to in time of danger. Near Petersburg, in two volumes, 460 Penrith, a little below the con in 1759; and translated by Dr. fluence of the Eimot and Eden, is Dumaresque, chaplain to the English also a large grotto dug out of the factory at Petersburg. rock, said to have been once a place of some strength, known by the Read before the Royal Society, Jan. name of IGs Parlith. And at Little

24, 1760. Salkeld, not very far from thence, may be seen that great curiosity HE continent of America, called Long Meg and her daughters, which now is known from not perhaps well accounted for by 52 to 60° of north latitude, extends any of our antiquarians.

from the south-west to the northWhen speaking of prospects, I east, every where almost at an equal ought to have mentioned that vaitly distance from the Kamtchadalian extensive and much admired one fhores, viz. about 37° longitude ; for from Warnal, which takes in all the

the Kamtchadalian shore, also, from low country, and bounded on the

the Kurilian Lopatka the shovel] north by Solway Frith, and a fine

to cape Tchukotski, in a strait line chain of Scottish mountains. Not

(except where there are bays and far from hence, near Denton's,

capes) lies in the very fame direcesquire, is a petrifying spring. There

tion. So that one has ground to inis also another in the estate of fir

fer, that those two lands were once William Dalston, at Uldale, out of joined, especially in those parts, which have been taken several large were lies cape Tchukotski : for, beand extremely curious petrifactions tween that and the coast that proof moss, leaves, roots, &c. but it jects

, which is found at the east, didoes not appear that this mutation

rectly over against it, the distance would be produced in any substance does not exceed two degrees and a put therein, but in a rotation of a half. prodigious number of


Steller, in his Memoirs, brings Tome parts of the country are some


arguments to prove this : mineral waters, much resorted to at

!. The state of the shores, which, the season, and several rich mines of both at Kamptchatka and in Amerilead, fome


ca, are cragged.
Upon the whole, from what I have

2. The many capes, which ad. said, it may appear that Cumberland

vance into the fea, from 30 to 60 is as well worth visiting, on several verstes. accounts, as molt other counties in


islands in the sea, England.

which separate Kamtchatka from America.

4. The situation of those islands, An account of that part of America, and the inconsiderable breadth of

which is the nearest to the land of that fea.
Kamtchatka. Extracted from the The sea, which divides Kamtchat



3. The

* From the neighbouring monastery,

the lower parts of the cheeks, near interpreters could understand the the mouth; and in the holes they American language, possibly that set some stones and bones. Some comes from the great difference in wear, at their nostrils, late pencils, the dialect, or from a difference of about four inches long; some wear pronunciation; which is observed, a bone of that bigness, under the not only among the wild inhabitlower lip; and others a like bone on ants of Kamtchatka, but also among the forehead.

the European nations, in different The nation, that lives in the provinces. In Kamtchatka, there islands round about cape Tchukot- is hardly any small * ostrog, whose fki, and frequents the Tchutchi, is, speech differs not (somewhat] from certainly, of the fame origin with that of another that lies nearest. As those people : for with them also it for those small offrogs, which are at is thought an ornament, thus to in- fome hundreds of verstes from one lay bones.

another, they cannot even underMajor Paulutkoi, deceased, after stand each other, without trouble. a battle which he once fought a The following remarkable regainst the Tchutchi, found, among semblances between the American the dead bodies of the Tchutchi, and Kamtchadalian nations, have two men of that nation, each of been observed : whom had two teeth of a sea-horse 1. That the Americans resemble under the nose, set in holes made on the Kamtchadales in the face. purpose: for which reason, the in 2. That they, eat the sweet herb, habitants of that country call them after the same manner as the KamtZubatui (toothed]. As the pri- chadales ; a thing which was never foners reported, these men did observed any where else. not come to the assistance of the 3. That they make use of a wood Tchutchi, but to see how they used en machine to light fire with. to fight with the Russians.

4. That, from many tokens, it is From this, it may be inferred, conjectured, that they use axes made that the Tchutchi converse with of stones, or of bones; and it is them, either in the same language, not without foundation, Mr. Steller or, at least, in languages of so great thinks, that the Americans had once affinity, that they can understand a communication with the people of one another withoat an interpreter, Kamtchatka. consequently, their language has no 5. That their cloaths and their small resemblance with that of hats do not differ from the Kamtthe Koriaki : for the Tchukotchian chadalian. comes from the Koriatikian lan 6. That they dye the skins with guage, and differs from it only in alder, after the Camtchatkamanner. dialect: nevertheless, the Koriat Which marks thew it to be very skian interpreters can speak with possible, that they came from the them without any fort of difficulty. fame race. This very thing, he With regard to what Mr. Steller rightly judges, may help alto to writes, that not one of the Russian folve that question, “ Whence came

* Ostrojka, a small otrog, is a place fenced and fortified with a pallisade, made of trees, fixed perpendicularly in the ground, and cut sharp at the top; sometimes there are bcams Jaid over each other. Ofrui, in Rufs, fignifies Sharp.

" the


« 前へ次へ »